sista beställningen

  •  
    Gerhard, Austria
  •  
    Samuel , Belgium
  •  
    Niklas, Switzerland
  •  
    Matthias, Germany
  •  
    Harm-Torsten, Germany
  •  
    Coskun, Germany
  •  
    Rudolf, Germany
  •  
    Valerie, Germany
  •  
    Martina, Germany
  •  
    ricard, Spain
  •  
    Susana, Spain
  •  
    Alejandro, Spain
  •  
    Louis, France
  •  
    Raphaël, France
  •  
    Alima, France
  •  
    James , United Kingdom
  •  
    Patrick, Netherlands
  •  
    Rudy, Netherlands
  •  
    Eirin, Norway
  •  
    Joakim, Norway
  •  
    Sebastian, Poland
  •  
    Ezequiel , Portugal
  •  
    Edgar, Portugal
  •  
    Bertrand, Portugal
  •  
    Joana, Portugal
  •  
    Ricardo, Portugal
  •  
    Peter , Sweden
  •  
    Jernej, Slovenia
  •  
    JOSIP, Slovenia
  •  
    Charles, United States

Nyheter

Vildpäronfrön,...

Vildpäronfrön,...

Pris 2,15 € (SKU: V 114)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Vildpäronfrön, mandelbladspäron (Pyrus amygdaliformis)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #fe0000;"><strong>Pris för Paket med 5 frön.</strong></span></h2> Vildpäron, mandelbladspäron (Pyrus amygdaliformis) Är en lövfällande buske eller lägre träd av rosfamiljen (Rosaceae). Den växer upp till 6 m i höjd, baldakinen är oregelbunden, rund, tät. Rotsystemet är starkt, djupt och välgrenat. Grenarna är täckta med taggar, barken är rödaktig, längsgående och tvärsprucken, ca 1 cm tjock. Unga skott är bruna, till en början tätt håriga, senare kala.<br><br>Knopparna är små, endast cirka 2 mm långa, täckta med mörkgrå till mörkbruna fjäll som är fint håriga och spetsiga. Bladen är omväxlande, långsträckta elliptiska, 3-8 cm långa, 1-3 cm breda, spetsiga, helkantade eller fint tandade, mörkgröna i ansiktet, ryggen är gråaktig, fint hårig, ligger på tunna bladskaft ca 1- 3 cm lång.<br><br>Blommorna är tvåkönade, enkönade, ca 2 cm stora, samlade 5-12 i klungade blomställningar, kronan är byggd av 5 vita kronblad. Den blommar i april och maj.<br><br>Frukterna är runda, hårda, till en början gröna, senare gulbruna, 2-3 cm stora, belägna på korta stjälkar. De mognar i oktober, deras frön är svarta, platta, ca 5-6 mm långa.<br><br>Den är utbredd i södra och sydöstra Europa och Mindre Asien. Vi har det längs Adriatiska havet, i Istrien, kusten och Dalmatien. Den växer på varma, soliga och halvskuggiga platser, i snår, i lövskogsröjningar, på ängar, i maquis.<br><br>Torktålig, svagare till låga temperaturer, binder jorden väl och skyddar den från erosion. Den är långsamväxande, den har bra skott från stubbar. Det används ibland som ett substrat för ympning av fruktträd.<br><br>Frukterna är ätbara, de har en sötsyrlig smak. De kan torkas och användas som te eller bearbetas efter önskemål.<script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
V 114 (5 S)
Vildpäronfrön, mandelbladspäron (Pyrus amygdaliformis)
  • Ny
Plast Transparent Provrör...

Plast Transparent Provrör...

Pris 0,55 € (SKU: PE 7 (10ml))
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Plast Transparent Provrör Med lock 10 ml</strong></h2> <h3><span style="color: #f80000;"><strong>Priset gäller för 1 teströr.</strong></span></h3> <p>Perfekt för att lagra frön eller några andra saker.</p> <p>Locket är helt stängt och därför kan du också hålla vätskor.</p> <p>Engångs plastcentrifugrör med lock</p> <p>Tillverkad av pp material, värmebeständighet upp till 150 grader, ingen bubbla utan föroreningar.</p> <p>Pekad botten, flexibelt lock, lätt att öppna.</p> <div class=""><strong>Specification:</strong><br>Specifications: Centrifuge tube<br>Material: Plastic<br>Color:Transparent color</div> <script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
PE 7 (10ml)
Plast Transparent Provrör Med lock 10 ml
  • Ny

Esta planta es resistente al invierno y las heladas. Ver más en la descripción.
Kinesträd frön...

Kinesträd frön...

Pris 1,65 € (SKU: T 93)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Kinesträd frön (Koelreuteria paniculata)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Pris för paket med 10 frön.</strong></span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><b>Kinesträd</b><span>&nbsp;</span>(<i>Koelreuteria paniculata</i>)<sup id="cite_ref-C133_2-0" class="reference"></sup><span>&nbsp;</span>är en<span>&nbsp;</span>kinesträdsväxtart<span>&nbsp;</span>som beskrevs av Laxm.. Kinesträd ingår i<span>&nbsp;</span>släktet<span>&nbsp;</span>kinesträdsläktet<span>&nbsp;</span>och<span>&nbsp;</span>familjen<span>&nbsp;</span>kinesträdsväxter.<sup id="cite_ref-COL_3-0" class="reference"></sup><sup id="cite_ref-source_4-0" class="reference"></sup><sup id="cite_ref-dyn_5-0" class="reference"></sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Arten förekommer tillfälligt i<span>&nbsp;</span>Sverige, men<span>&nbsp;</span>reproducerar<span>&nbsp;</span>sig inte.<sup id="cite_ref-dyn_5-1" class="reference"></sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Inga underarter finns listade i<span>&nbsp;</span>Catalogue of Life.<sup id="cite_ref-COL_3-1" class="reference"></sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Artens utbredningsområde ligger i centrala, östra och sydöstra<span>&nbsp;</span>Kina<span>&nbsp;</span>ungefär från<span>&nbsp;</span>Peking<span>&nbsp;</span>söderut. Ursprungliga populationer finns kanske i norra<span>&nbsp;</span>Vietnam.</p> Koelreuteria paniculata är en blommande art i familjen Sapindaceae, infödd i östra Asien, i Kina och Korea. Det introducerades i Europa 1747, och till Amerika 1763, och har blivit ett populärt landskapsträd världen över. Vanliga namn inkluderar goldenrain -träd, Indiens stolthet, Kina -träd och lackträdet.<br><br>Det är ett litet till medelstort lövträd som växer till 7 m (23 fot) högt, med en bred, kupolformad krona. Bladen är stiftiga, 15–40 cm (6–16 tum) långa, sällan till 50 cm (20 tum), med 7–15 blad 3–8 cm långa, med en djupt tandad kant; de större broschyrerna vid bladets mittpunkt är ibland själva pinnade men bladen är inte konsekvent helt bipinnade som i den relaterade Koelreuteria bipinnata.<br><br>Blommorna är gula, med fyra kronblad, växer i stora ändfästen 20–40 cm (8–16 tum) långa. Frukten är en tredelad uppblåst blåsliknande pod, 3–6 cm lång och 2–4 cm bred, som är grön och sedan mognar från orange till rosa på hösten. Den innehåller flera mörkbruna till svarta frön 5–8 mm i diameter.<br><br>Det odlas populärt som ett prydnadsträd i tempererade regioner över hela världen på grund av den estetiska attraktionen hos dess blommor, löv och fröskalar. Flera sorter har valts ut för trädgårdsplantering, inklusive 'Fastigiata' med en smal krona och 'Septemberguld', som blommar på sensommaren.<br><br>I Storbritannien har sorten 'Coral Sun' fått Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.<script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
T 93 (10 S)
Kinesträd frön (Koelreuteria paniculata)
  • Ny

Esta planta es planta medicinal
Röd solhatt Frön (Echinacea...

Röd solhatt Frön (Echinacea...

Pris 1,15 € (SKU: MHS 75)
,
5/ 5
<h2 class=""><strong>Röd solhatt Frön (Echinacea purpurea)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Pris för ett paket med 20 frön.</strong></span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><b>Röd solhatt</b><span>&nbsp;</span>(<i>Echinacea purpurea</i>)<sup id="cite_ref-COL_1-0" class="reference"></sup><sup id="cite_ref-SKUD_2-0" class="reference"></sup>, är en<span>&nbsp;</span>art<span>&nbsp;</span>i familjen<span>&nbsp;</span>korgblommiga växter. Den växer naturligt i sydöstra<span>&nbsp;</span>Kanada<span>&nbsp;</span>och östra<span>&nbsp;</span>USA. Arten är vanlig som prydnadsväxt i svenska trädgårdar.</p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Beskrivning">Beskrivning</span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Röd rudbeckia är en flerårig<span>&nbsp;</span>ört<span>&nbsp;</span>med fibrösa rötter. Plantan blir 50–120 cm hög och är oftast helt hårig, men ibland kal. Stjälkarna är oftast brunaktigt gröna. De basala bladen har 3–5 nerver, de är äggrunda till smalt lansettlika och blir 5–30 cm långa, samt 5–12 cm breda. Bladbasen är vanligen rundad eller hjärtlik och bladkanen sågad till tandad, mer sällan helbräddad. Kantblommorna är rosa till purpur, utstående eller något böjda, 3–8 cm långa. Diskblommorna är grönaktiga till rosa eller purpur i den annars orangeröda disken.</p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span id="Medicinsk_anv.C3.A4ndning"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Medicinsk_användning">Medicinsk användning</span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Extrakt<span>&nbsp;</span>från blomman används som verksam ingrediens i många naturläkemedel mot förkylning och har även sin motsvarighet i läkekonsten hos den ursprungliga amerikanska befolkningen. Den medicinska effekten är dock omstridd. En del studier visar på effekt<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><span class="cite-reference-link-bracket">[</span>3<span class="cite-reference-link-bracket">]</span></sup>, medan andra visar att extraktet troligen saknar medicinsk effekt.</p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Synonymer">Synonymer</span></h2> <p>Röd solhatt kallas även röd rudbeckia på svenska.</p> <p>Vetenskapliga synonymer är:</p> <dl> <dd><i>Brauneria purpurea</i><span>&nbsp;</span>(Linné)<span>&nbsp;</span>Britton</dd> <dd><i>Echinacea intermedia</i><span>&nbsp;</span>Lindl.<span>&nbsp;</span>ex<span>&nbsp;</span>Paxton</dd> <dd><i>Echinacea purpurea</i><span>&nbsp;</span>(Linné)<span>&nbsp;</span>Moench</dd> <dd><i>Echinacea purpurea</i><span>&nbsp;</span>var.<span>&nbsp;</span><i>serotina</i><span>&nbsp;</span>(Sweet)<span>&nbsp;</span>L.H.Bailey</dd> <dd><i>Echinacea serotina</i><span>&nbsp;</span>(Sweet)<span>&nbsp;</span>D.Don<span>&nbsp;</span>ex<span>&nbsp;</span>G.Don</dd> <dd><i>Echinacea serotina</i><span>&nbsp;</span>de Candolle</dd> <dd><i>Echinacea speciosa</i><span>&nbsp;</span>Paxton</dd> <dd><i>Rudbeckia hispida</i><span>&nbsp;</span>Hoffmanns.</dd> <dd><i>Rudbeckia intermedia</i><span>&nbsp;</span>Lindley<span>&nbsp;</span>ex<span>&nbsp;</span>Paxton</dd> <dd><i>Rudbeckia purpurea</i><span>&nbsp;</span>Linné</dd> <dd><i>Rudbeckia purpurea</i><span>&nbsp;</span>var.<span>&nbsp;</span><i>serotina</i><span>&nbsp;</span>(Sweet)<span>&nbsp;</span>Nuttall</dd> <dd><i>Rudbeckia serotina</i><span>&nbsp;</span>Sweet</dd> <dd><i>Rudbeckia speciosa</i><span>&nbsp;</span>Link<span>&nbsp;</span>nom. inval.</dd> </dl> <br> <script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
MHS 75 (0.1 g)
Röd solhatt Frön (Echinacea purpurea)
  • Ny

Denna växt har jätte frukter
Jätte vattenmelonfrön

Jätte vattenmelonfrön

Pris 6,00 € (SKU: VE 117 G)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Jätte vattenmelonfrön</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Pris för paket med 40+ (2g) frön.</strong></span></h2> En mycket produktiv sort som producerar stora meloner upp till 150 kg. Frukten har mycket sött kött som är lysande rött. Bra sjukdomsresistens.<br><br>Våra utvalda och testade frön producerar avlånga vattenmeloner med ljusgröna ränder, med en utsökt och mycket söt smak och en käftande storlek, även från Guinness rekordbok. Vikten, om den odlas noggrant, kan överstiga 130 kilo.<br><br>Giant vattenmeloner behöver varm, fuktig, väldränerad jord. Det bör komma ihåg att placera plantorna minst två meter från varandra på grund av den storlek som den gigantiska vattenmelonen kan nå.<br><br>Välj en alltid solig plats i trädgården för bästa resultat.<script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
VE 117 G (2g)
Jätte vattenmelonfrön
  • Ny
Armeniska ormgurkfrön

Armeniska ormgurkfrön

Pris 2,55 € (SKU: P 116)
,
5/ 5
<h2 class=""><strong>Armeniska ormgurkfrön</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Pris för ett paket med 10 frön.</strong></span></h2> Den här fräscha gurkan introducerades från Armenien till Italien på 1400 -talet och förblir söt även när frukten är stor.<br><br>Tunnhudigt och tätt kött dessa gurkor har få frön och en behagligt mild smak. Egentligen är melon med smak som en gurka burflös och lättsmält. Liksom den engelska gurkan behöver den inte skalas eller fröas.<br>Den växer lika bra på marken eller på en spaljé. Frukten växer ungefär 72-90 cm (30-36 ")<br><br>Jajik är en traditionell armenisk maträtt som vanligtvis använder armeniska gurkor och överförs från generation till generation. Denna sidorätt är gjord med gurkor, yoghurt och vitlök eller mynta och konsumeras ofta på sommaren för att bekämpa de varma temperaturerna ute. Det serveras vanligtvis med pitachips eller tunnbröd och passar också bra med kyckling och ris.<br><br>Odla anteckningar:<br><br>Anpassningsbar till de flesta goda trädgårdsjordar som är väldränerade i soligt läge; ge tillräckligt med mat och vatten.<br><br>Tropiskt: vår och höst<br>Tempererat: vår och sommar.<br>Kallt klimat: Sent på våren och sommaren<br><br>Växtyta: 30 cm<br>Radutrymme: 100 cm<br>Löptid: 6-8 veckor <script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
P 116 (10 S)
Armeniska ormgurkfrön
  • Ny
Carolina Reaper Pulver i...

Carolina Reaper Pulver i...

Pris 1,35 € (SKU: Z 5 CRPTT)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Carolina Reaper Pulver i ett provrör, världsrekord! HP22B</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #e03e2d;"><strong>1,8 gram pulver i ett provrör.</strong></span></h2> <p><strong>Mycket praktisk att använda, du kan alltid ta med dig och smaksätta rätten som du vill :-)<br>Som varje år och i år 2021 kommer vi igen att ha 1200 av våra växter som vi erbjuder både frön och malda Carolina Reaper från.</strong></p> <p>Extremt HOT Carolina Reaper är bra för kött, gnuggar, fisk, soppor och mycket mer! De små storlekarna paketen är ett utmärkt sätt att prova hur kryddig de är.</p> <p>Carolina Reaper, ursprungligen benämnd HP22BNH7, är en kultivar av chilipeppar av arterna Capsicum chinense. Upptäckt i Rock Hill, South Carolina växthus av Ed Currie, som driver PuckerButt Pepper Company i Fort Mill, South Carolina, har det rankats som världens hetaste chilipeppar av Guinness World Records sedan 7 augusti 2013. Den ursprungliga korsningen var mellan en spökpeppar (en tidigare världsrekordhållare) och en röd habanero. Den officiella Guinness Världsrekordvärmenivån är 1 569 300 Scoville Heat Units (SHU), enligt tester utförda av Winthrop University i South Carolina.</p> <p>Vid den andra årliga New York City Hot Sauce Expo den 30 mars 2014 fick Ed Currie sitt världsrekord av Guinness World Records och en ätkonkurrens hölls där den snabbaste tiden att konsumera tre Carolina Reapers bestämdes för en ny Guinness World Rekord på 12,23 sekunder av Russel Todd. Detta rekord slogs i september 2014 av Jason McNabb, som avslutade tre paprika på 10,95 sekunder.</p> <script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
Z 5 CRPTT
Carolina Reaper Pulver i ett provrör
  • Ny
Granadina frön (Jarilla...

Granadina frön (Jarilla...

Pris 8,95 € (SKU: V 105)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Granadina frön (Jarilla heterophylla)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0a0a;"><strong>Pris för ett paket med 3 frön.</strong></span></h2> En glömd släkting till den vanliga papaya, denna krypande eller decumbent örtartade perenn finns i ek- och lövskogar och sekundära livsmiljöer från Mexiko till Centralamerika vid höjder mellan 1500 och 2700 m.<br><br>Den växer bara upp till 1 m hög från en köttig, sfärisk, knölrot, cirka 15-20 cm i diameter. De känsliga stjälkarna förgrenar sig från basen och håller böljande eller tandade blad och vitblommor med enstaka inslag av lila som följs av nyfikna, hornade, klotformiga frukter, cirka 2,5 cm i diameter och gröna till purpurröda med vita ränder.<br><br>Frukterna av Jarilla heterophylla finns ibland på landsbygdsmarknader i Mexiko och uppskattas mycket för sin doftande, behagliga och aromatiska smak med citrus- och senapsnoter.<br><br>De görs vanligtvis till konserver och såser som åtföljer olika kött.<br><br>Taggar: brassicales, karik, lövfällande flerårig, ätbar frukt, granadina, heterophylla, jarilla, jarill, nana<script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
V 105 (3 S)
Granadina frön (Jarilla heterophylla)
  • Ny
Fysiska nötfrön (Jatropha...

Fysiska nötfrön (Jatropha...

Pris 3,75 € (SKU: T 92)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Fysiska nötfrön (Jatropha curcas)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0a0a;"><strong>Pris för paket med 3 frön.</strong></span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i><b>Jatropha curcas</b></i><span>&nbsp;</span>is a species of<span>&nbsp;</span>flowering plant<span>&nbsp;</span>in the<span>&nbsp;</span>spurge<span>&nbsp;</span>family,<span>&nbsp;</span>Euphorbiaceae, that is native to the<span>&nbsp;</span>American tropics, most likely<span>&nbsp;</span>Mexico<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>Central America.<sup id="cite_ref-Janick_2-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[2]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It is originally native to the tropical areas of the Americas from Mexico to Argentina, and has been spread throughout the world in tropical and<span>&nbsp;</span>subtropical<span>&nbsp;</span>regions<span>&nbsp;</span>around the world, becoming<span>&nbsp;</span>naturalized or invasive<span>&nbsp;</span>in many areas.<sup id="cite_ref-cabi_3-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[3]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The<span>&nbsp;</span>specific epithet,<span>&nbsp;</span><i>"curcas"</i>, was first used by<span>&nbsp;</span>Portuguese<span>&nbsp;</span>doctor<span>&nbsp;</span>Garcia de Orta<span>&nbsp;</span>more than 400 years ago.<sup id="cite_ref-Agroforest_4-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[4]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Common names in English include<span>&nbsp;</span><b>physic nut</b>,<span>&nbsp;</span><b>Barbados nut</b>,<span>&nbsp;</span><b>poison nut</b>,<span>&nbsp;</span><b>bubble bush</b><span>&nbsp;</span>or<span>&nbsp;</span><b>purging nut</b>.<sup id="cite_ref-cabi_3-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[3]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>In parts of Africa and areas in Asia such as India it is often known as "castor oil plant" or "hedge castor oil plant",<sup id="cite_ref-cabi_3-2" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[3]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>but it is not the same as the usual<span>&nbsp;</span>castor oil plant,<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Ricinus communis</i><span>&nbsp;</span>(they are in the same family but different subfamilies).</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>J. curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is a semi-evergreen<span>&nbsp;</span>shrub<span>&nbsp;</span>or small<span>&nbsp;</span>tree, reaching a height of 6&nbsp;m (20&nbsp;ft) or more.<sup id="cite_ref-Janick_2-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[2]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It is resistant to a high degree of<span>&nbsp;</span>aridity, allowing it to grow in<span>&nbsp;</span>deserts.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[5]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[6]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It contains<span>&nbsp;</span>phorbol esters, which are considered toxic.<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[7]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>However, edible (non-toxic) provenances native to Mexico also exist, known by the local population as piñón manso, xuta, chuta, aishte, among others.<sup id="cite_ref-Martínez-Herrera,_J._2010_8-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[8]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-valdez2013_9-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[9]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span><i>J. curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>also contains compounds such as<span>&nbsp;</span>trypsin inhibitors,<span>&nbsp;</span>phytate,<span>&nbsp;</span>saponins<span>&nbsp;</span>and a type of<span>&nbsp;</span>lectin<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[10]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[11]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>known as curcin.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[12]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">The<span>&nbsp;</span>seeds<span>&nbsp;</span>contain 27–40%<span>&nbsp;</span>oil<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[13]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>(average: 34.4%<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[14]</sup>) that can be processed to produce a high-quality<span>&nbsp;</span>biodiesel<span>&nbsp;</span>fuel, usable in a standard<span>&nbsp;</span>diesel engine. Edible (non-toxic) varieties can be used for<span>&nbsp;</span>animal feed<span>&nbsp;</span>and food.</p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Botanical_features">Botanical features</span></h2> <ul> <li>Leaves: The leaves have significant variability in their morphology. In general, the leaves are green to pale green, alternate to subopposite, and three- to five-lobed with a<span>&nbsp;</span>spiral phyllotaxis.<sup id="cite_ref-Nahar_16-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[16]</sup></li> <li>Flowers: male and female flowers are produced on the same<span>&nbsp;</span>inflorescence, averaging 20 male flowers to each female flower,<sup id="cite_ref-Pesquisa_17-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[17]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>or 10 male flowers to each female flower.<sup id="cite_ref-Jatropha_journal_18-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[18]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The inflorescence can be formed in the<span>&nbsp;</span>leaf axil. Plants occasionally present hermaphroditic flowers.<sup id="cite_ref-Nahar_16-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[16]</sup></li> <li>Fruits&nbsp;: fruits are produced in winter, or there may be several crops during the year if soil moisture is good and temperatures are sufficiently high. Most fruit production is concentrated from midsummer to late fall with variations in production peaks where some plants have two or three harvests and some produce continuously through the season.<sup id="cite_ref-Nahar_16-2" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[16]</sup></li> <li>Seeds: the seeds are mature when the capsule changes from green to yellow. The seeds contain around 20% saturated fatty acids and 80% unsaturated fatty acids, and they yield 25–40% oil by weight. In addition, the seeds contain other chemical compounds, such as<span>&nbsp;</span>saccharose,<span>&nbsp;</span>raffinose,<span>&nbsp;</span>stachyose,<span>&nbsp;</span>glucose,<span>&nbsp;</span>fructose,<span>&nbsp;</span>galactose, and<span>&nbsp;</span>protein. The oil is largely made up of oleic and<span>&nbsp;</span>linoleic<span>&nbsp;</span>acids. Furthermore, the plant also contains curcasin, arachidic,<span>&nbsp;</span>myristic,<span>&nbsp;</span>palmitic, and<span>&nbsp;</span>stearic<span>&nbsp;</span>acids and<span>&nbsp;</span>curcin.<sup id="cite_ref-Nahar_16-3" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[16]</sup></li> <li>Genome: the whole genome was sequenced by<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Kazusa DNA Research Institute</i>, Chiba Japan in October 2010.</li> </ul> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Cultivation">Cultivation</span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Cultivation is uncomplicated.<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>grows in<span>&nbsp;</span>tropical<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>subtropical<span>&nbsp;</span>regions.<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[20]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The plant can grow in<span>&nbsp;</span>wastelands<span>&nbsp;</span>and grows on almost any terrain, even on<span>&nbsp;</span>gravelly,<span>&nbsp;</span>sandy<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>saline<span>&nbsp;</span>soils. It can thrive in poor and stony soils, although new research suggests that the plant's ability to adapt to these poor soils is not as extensive as had been previously stated. Complete<span>&nbsp;</span>germination<span>&nbsp;</span>is achieved within 9 days. Adding<span>&nbsp;</span>manure<span>&nbsp;</span>during the germination has negative effects during that phase, but is favorable if applied after germination is achieved. It can be propagated by cuttings, which yields faster results than multiplication by seeds.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">The flowers only develop terminally (at the end of a stem), so a good ramification (plants presenting many branches) produces the greatest amount of fruits. The plants are<span>&nbsp;</span>self-compatible.<sup id="cite_ref-Pesquisa_17-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[17]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Another productivity factor is the ratio between female and male flowers within an inflorescence, more female flowers mean more fruits.<sup id="cite_ref-Jatropha_journal_18-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[18]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>thrives on a mere 250&nbsp;mm (10&nbsp;in) of rain a year, and only during its first two years does it need to be watered in the closing days of the dry season.<span>&nbsp;</span>Ploughing<span>&nbsp;</span>and planting are not needed regularly, as this shrub has a life expectancy of approximately forty years. The use of<span>&nbsp;</span>pesticides<span>&nbsp;</span>is not necessary, due to the pesticidal and<span>&nbsp;</span>fungicidal<span>&nbsp;</span>properties of the plant. It is used in rural Bengal for<span>&nbsp;</span>dhobi itch<span>&nbsp;</span>(a common fungal infection of the skin).</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">While<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>starts yielding from 9–12 months time, the best yields are obtained only after 2–3 years time. The seed production is around 3.5 tons per hectare (seed production ranges from about 0.4 t/ha in the first year to over 5 t/ha after 3 years). If planted in<span>&nbsp;</span>hedges, the reported productivity of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is from 0.8 to 1.0&nbsp;kg of seed per meter of live fence.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (April 2015)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup></p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Propagation">Propagation</span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>Jatropha curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>can easily be propagated by both<span>&nbsp;</span>seed<span>&nbsp;</span>or cuttings.<sup id="cite_ref-Duke_21-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;"></sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Some people recommend propagation by seed for establishment of long-lived plantations.<sup id="cite_ref-Duong_22-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[22]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>When jatropha plants develop from cuttings, they produce many branches but yield fewer seeds and do not have enough time to develop their taproot, which makes them sensitive to wind erosion.<sup id="cite_ref-feed_23-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[23]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The seeds exhibit orthodox storage behaviour and under normal treatment and storage will maintain viability at high percentages for eight months to a year.<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[24]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[25]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[26]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-Duong_22-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[22]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[27]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Propagation through seed (sexual propagation) leads to a lot of genetic variability in terms of growth, biomass, seed yield and oil content. Clonal techniques can help in overcoming these problems. Vegetative propagation has been achieved by<span>&nbsp;</span>stem cuttings,<span>&nbsp;</span>grafting,<span>&nbsp;</span>budding<span>&nbsp;</span>as well as by<span>&nbsp;</span>air layering<span>&nbsp;</span>techniques. Cuttings should be taken preferably from juvenile plants and treated with 200 micro gram per litre of<span>&nbsp;</span>IBA<span>&nbsp;</span>(rooting hormone) to ensure the highest level of rooting in stem cuttings.<sup id="cite_ref-28" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[28]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Cuttings strike root easily stuck in the ground without use of hormones.</p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Processing">Processing</span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Seed extraction and processing generally needs specialized facilities.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Oil content varies from 28% to 30% and 80% extraction, one<span>&nbsp;</span>hectare<span>&nbsp;</span>of plantation will give 400 to 600 litres of oil if the soil is average.<sup id="cite_ref-29" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[29]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">The oily seeds are processed into<span>&nbsp;</span>oil, which may be used directly ("Straight Vegetable Oil") to fuel combustion engines or may be subjected to<span>&nbsp;</span>transesterification<span>&nbsp;</span>to produce<span>&nbsp;</span>biodiesel.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (December 2016)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Jatropha oil is not suitable for human consumption, as it induces strong<span>&nbsp;</span>vomiting<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>diarrhea.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (December 2016)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup></p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Biofuel">Biofuel</span></h2> <div class="thumb tright" style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <div class="thumbinner" style="font-size: 13.16px;"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/13/Jatropha_in_Paraguay_Chaco.jpg/220px-Jatropha_in_Paraguay_Chaco.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="322" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/13/Jatropha_in_Paraguay_Chaco.jpg/330px-Jatropha_in_Paraguay_Chaco.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/13/Jatropha_in_Paraguay_Chaco.jpg/440px-Jatropha_in_Paraguay_Chaco.jpg 2x" data-file-width="684" data-file-height="1000"> <div class="thumbcaption" style="font-size: 12.3704px;"> <div class="magnify"></div> Jatropha plantation in the dry center/west of the<span>&nbsp;</span>Paraguay<span>&nbsp;</span>Chaco</div> </div> </div> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">When jatropha seeds are crushed, the resulting jatropha oil can be processed to produce a high-quality<span>&nbsp;</span>biofuel<span>&nbsp;</span>or<span>&nbsp;</span>biodiesel<span>&nbsp;</span>that can be used in a standard diesel car or further processed into jet fuel, while the residue (press cake) can also be used as biomass feedstock to power electricity plants, used as fertilizer (it contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium). The cake can also be used as feed in<span>&nbsp;</span>digesters<span>&nbsp;</span>and gasifiers to produce biogas.<sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[30]</sup></p> <div class="thumb tright" style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <div class="thumbinner" style="font-size: 13.16px;"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/73/Sedari_Menanam_Hingga_Memetik.jpg/220px-Sedari_Menanam_Hingga_Memetik.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="309" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/73/Sedari_Menanam_Hingga_Memetik.jpg/330px-Sedari_Menanam_Hingga_Memetik.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/73/Sedari_Menanam_Hingga_Memetik.jpg/440px-Sedari_Menanam_Hingga_Memetik.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="1683"> <div class="thumbcaption" style="font-size: 12.3704px;"> <div class="magnify"></div> <i>"From planting to picking. Treat your jatropha plant as well as possible to make the yield as large as possible!"</i><span>&nbsp;</span>(A reference to the compulsory planting of jatropha in Indonesia for the production of oil as machinery lubricant and fuel for the Japanese WWII war effort.)</div> </div> </div> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">There are several forms of biofuel, often manufactured using<span>&nbsp;</span>sedimentation,<span>&nbsp;</span>centrifugation, and<span>&nbsp;</span>filtration. The fats and oils are turned into esters while separating the<span>&nbsp;</span>glycerin. At the end of the process, the glycerin settles and the biofuel floats. The process through which the glycerin is separated from the biodiesel is known as<span>&nbsp;</span>transesterification. Glycerin is another by-product from Jatropha oil processing that can add value to the crop. Transesterification is a simple chemical reaction that neutralizes the free fatty acids present in any fatty substances in Jatropha. A chemical exchange takes place between the<span>&nbsp;</span>alkoxy<span>&nbsp;</span>groups of an ester compound by an alcohol. Usually,<span>&nbsp;</span>methanol<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>ethanol<span>&nbsp;</span>are used for the purpose. The reaction occurs by the presence of a<span>&nbsp;</span>catalyst, usually sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or caustic soda and potassium hydroxide (KOH), which forms fatty esters (e.g., methyl or ethyl esters), commonly known as<span>&nbsp;</span>biodiesel. It takes approximately 10% of methyl alcohol by weight of the fatty substance to start the transesterification process.<sup id="cite_ref-Nahar_16-4" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[16]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Estimates of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>seed yield vary widely, due to a lack of research data, the<span>&nbsp;</span>genetic<span>&nbsp;</span>diversity of the crop, the range of<span>&nbsp;</span>environments<span>&nbsp;</span>in which it is grown, and<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span class="nowrap">'</span>s perennial life cycle. Seed yields under cultivation can range from 1,500 to 2,000 kilograms per<span>&nbsp;</span>hectare, corresponding to extractable oil yields of 540 to 680 litres per hectare (58 to 73 gallons per acre).<sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[31]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>In 2009<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Time</i><span>&nbsp;</span>magazine cited the potential for as much as 1,600 gallons of diesel fuel per acre per year.<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[32]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The plant may yield more than four times as much fuel per<span>&nbsp;</span>hectare<span>&nbsp;</span>as<span>&nbsp;</span>soybean, and more than ten times that of<span>&nbsp;</span>maize<span>&nbsp;</span>(corn), but at the same time it requires five times as much water per unit of energy produced as does corn (see below). A hectare of jatropha has been claimed to produce 1,892 litres of fuel.<sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[33]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>However, as it has not yet been domesticated or improved by plant breeders, yields are variable.<sup id="cite_ref-Fairless_34-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[34]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>can also be<span>&nbsp;</span>intercropped<span>&nbsp;</span>with other cash crops such as coffee, sugar, fruits and vegetables.<sup id="cite_ref-reuk_35-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[35]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">In 2007<span>&nbsp;</span>Goldman Sachs<span>&nbsp;</span>cited<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>as one of the best candidates for future biodiesel production.<sup id="cite_ref-online.wsj.com_36-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[36]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>However, despite its abundance and use as an oil and<span>&nbsp;</span>reclamation<span>&nbsp;</span>plant, none of the<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>species has been properly<span>&nbsp;</span>domesticated<span>&nbsp;</span>and, as a result, its productivity is variable, and the long-term impact of its large-scale use on soil quality and the environment is unknown.<sup id="cite_ref-Fairless2_37-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[37]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">In 2008 researchers at Daimler Chrysler Research explored the use of jatropha oil for automotive use, concluding that although jatropha oil as fuel "has not yet reached optimal quality, ... it already fulfills the EU norm for biodiesel quality".<span>&nbsp;</span>Archer Daniels Midland Company,<span>&nbsp;</span>Bayer CropScience<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>Daimler AG<span>&nbsp;</span>have a joint project to develop jatropha as a biofuel.<sup id="cite_ref-38" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[38]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Three Mercedes cars powered by Jatropha diesel have already put some 30,000 kilometres behind them. The project is supported by<span>&nbsp;</span>DaimlerChrysler<span>&nbsp;</span>and by the German Association for Investment and Development (Deutschen Investitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft, DEG).</p> <h3 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.2em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Jet_fuel">Jet fuel</span></h3> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Aviation fuels may be more widely replaced by biofuels such as jatropha oil than fuels for other forms of transportation. There are fewer planes than cars or trucks and far fewer jet fueling stations to convert than gas stations.<sup id="cite_ref-nytimes12-30_39-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[39]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>To fulfil the yearly demand for aviation fuel, based on demand in 2008 (fuel use has since grown), an area of farmland twice the size of France would need to be planted with jatropha, based on average yields of mature plantations on reasonably good, irrigated land.<sup id="cite_ref-40" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[40]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">On December 30, 2008,<span>&nbsp;</span>Air New Zealand<span>&nbsp;</span>flew the first successful test flight from<span>&nbsp;</span>Auckland<span>&nbsp;</span>with a<span>&nbsp;</span>Boeing 747<span>&nbsp;</span>running one of its four<span>&nbsp;</span>Rolls-Royce<span>&nbsp;</span>engines on a 50:50 blend of jatropha oil and<span>&nbsp;</span>jet A-1 fuel.<sup id="cite_ref-nytimes12-30_39-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[39]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-41" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[41]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>In the same press release, Air New Zealand announced plans to use the new fuel for 10% of its needs by 2013. At the time of this test, jatropha oil was much cheaper than crude oil, costing an estimated $43 a barrel or about one-third of the June 4, 2008 closing price of $122.30 for a<span>&nbsp;</span>barrel<span>&nbsp;</span>of<span>&nbsp;</span>crude oil.<sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[42]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">On January 7, 2009 Continental Airlines successfully completed a test flight from Houston, Texas using a 50/50 mixture of algae/jatropha-oil-derived biofuel and Jet A in one of the two CFM56 engines of a Boeing 737-800 Next Generation jet. The two-hour test flight could mark another promising step for the airline industry to find cheaper and more<span>&nbsp;</span>environmentally friendly<span>&nbsp;</span>alternatives to<span>&nbsp;</span>fossil fuel.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">On April 1, 2011<span>&nbsp;</span>Interjet<span>&nbsp;</span>completed the first Mexican aviation biofuels test flight on an<span>&nbsp;</span>Airbus A320. The fuel was a 70:30 traditional jet fuel biojet blend produced from Jatropha oil provided by three Mexican producers, Global Energías Renovables (a wholly owned subsidiary of U.S.-based<span>&nbsp;</span>Global Clean Energy Holdings), Bencafser S.A. and Energy JH S.A. Honeywell's UOP processed the oil into Bio-SPK (Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene).<sup id="cite_ref-BiodeiselsMexico_43-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[43]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Global Energías Renovables operates the largest Jatropha farm in the Americas.<sup id="cite_ref-BiodeiselsMexico_43-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[43]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">On October 28, 2011<span>&nbsp;</span>Air China<span>&nbsp;</span>completed the first successful demonstration flight by a Chinese airline that used jatropha-based biofuel. The mixture was a 50:50 mix of conventional jet fuel blended with jatropha oil from China National Petroleum Corp. The 747-400 powered one of its four engines on the fuel mixture during the 1-hour flight around Beijing airport.<sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[44]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">On August 27, 2018<span>&nbsp;</span>SpiceJet<span>&nbsp;</span>completed the first successful test flight by an Indian airline which used jatropha based biofuel. The ratio of conventional jet fuel to jatropha oil was 25:75.<sup id="cite_ref-45" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[45]</sup></p> <h3 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.2em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Carbon_dioxide_sequestration">Carbon dioxide sequestration</span></h3> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">According to a 2013 study published by the<span>&nbsp;</span>European Geosciences Union,<sup id="cite_ref-46" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[46]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>the jatropha tree may have applications in the absorption of carbon dioxide, whose sequestration is important in<span>&nbsp;</span>combating climate change.<sup id="cite_ref-47" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[47]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>This small tree is very resistant to aridity so it can be planted in hot and dry land in soil unsuitable for food production. The plant does need water to grow though, so coastal areas where desalinated seawater can be made available are ideal.</p> <h3 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.2em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Use_in_developing_world">Use in developing world</span></h3> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Currently the oil from<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>seeds<span>&nbsp;</span>is used for making<span>&nbsp;</span>biodiesel<span>&nbsp;</span>fuel in<span>&nbsp;</span>Philippines,<span>&nbsp;</span>Pakistan<span>&nbsp;</span>and in<span>&nbsp;</span>Brazil, where it grows naturally and in plantations in the southeast, north, and northeast of Brazil. In the<span>&nbsp;</span>Gran Chaco<span>&nbsp;</span>of<span>&nbsp;</span>Paraguay, where a native variety (<i>Jatropha matacensis</i>) also grows, studies have shown the suitability of Jatropha cultivation<sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[48]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[49]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>and agro producers are starting to consider planting in the region.<sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[50]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>In Africa, cultivation of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is being promoted and it is grown successfully in countries such as<span>&nbsp;</span>Mali.<sup id="cite_ref-51" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[51]</sup></p> <h4 style="color: #000000; font-size: 14px;"><span class="mw-headline" id="India">India</span></h4> <div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable" style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Further information:<span>&nbsp;</span>Jatropha biodiesel in India</div> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Jatropha oil is being promoted as an easily grown biofuel crop in hundreds of projects throughout India.<sup id="cite_ref-WAC_52-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[52]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Large plantings and nurseries have been undertaken in India by many research institutions, and by women's<span>&nbsp;</span>self-help<span>&nbsp;</span>groups who use a system of<span>&nbsp;</span>microcredit<span>&nbsp;</span>to ease poverty among semiliterate Indian women. The<span>&nbsp;</span>railway line<span>&nbsp;</span>between<span>&nbsp;</span>Mumbai<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>Delhi<span>&nbsp;</span>is planted with<span>&nbsp;</span><i>jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>and the train itself runs on 15–20%<span>&nbsp;</span>biodiesel.<sup id="cite_ref-Fairless_34-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[34]</sup></p> <h4 style="color: #000000; font-size: 14px;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Myanmar">Myanmar</span><span class="mw-editsection" style="font-size: small;"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color: #54595d;">[</span>edit<span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color: #54595d;">]</span></span></h4> <table class="box-Unreferenced_section plainlinks metadata ambox ambox-content ambox-Unreferenced" role="presentation" style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="mbox-image"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/50px-Question_book-new.svg.png" decoding="async" width="50" height="39" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/75px-Question_book-new.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/100px-Question_book-new.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="512" data-file-height="399"></div> </td> <td class="mbox-text"> <div class="mbox-text-span">This section<span>&nbsp;</span><b>does not<span>&nbsp;</span>cite<span>&nbsp;</span>any<span>&nbsp;</span>sources</b>.<span class="hide-when-compact"><span>&nbsp;</span>Please help<span>&nbsp;</span>improve this section<span>&nbsp;</span>by<span>&nbsp;</span>adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and<span>&nbsp;</span>removed.</span><span>&nbsp;</span><span class="date-container"><i>(<span class="date">December 2016</span>)</i></span><span class="hide-when-compact"><i><span>&nbsp;</span>(Learn how and when to remove this template message)</i></span></div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Myanmar<span>&nbsp;</span>is also actively pursuing the use of jatropha oil. On 15 December 2005, then-head of state, Senior General<span>&nbsp;</span>Than Shwe, said “the States and Divisions concerned are to put 50,000 acres (200 km²) under the physic nut plants [Jatropha] each within three years totalling 700,000 acres (2,800 km²) during the period”. On the occasion of Burma’s Peasant Day 2006, Than Shwe described in his a message that “For energy sector which is an essential role in transforming industrial agriculture system, the Government is encouraging for cultivation of physic nut plants nationwide and the technical know how that can refine physic nuts to biodiesel has also identified.” He would like to urge peasants to cultivate physic nut plants on a commercial scale with major aims for emergence of industrial agriculture system, for fulfilling rural electricity supply and energy needs, for supporting rural areas development and import substitute economy. (2005 from MRTV)</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">In 2006, the chief research officer at state-run<span>&nbsp;</span>Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise<span>&nbsp;</span>said Burma hoped to completely replace the country's oil imports of 40,000 barrels a day with home-brewed, jatropha-derived biofuel. Other government officials declared Burma would soon start exporting jatropha oil. Despite the military's efforts, the jatropha campaign apparently has largely flopped in its goal of making Burma self-sufficient in fuel. (2006 from MyawaddyTV)</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Z.G.S. Bioenergy has started Jatropha Plantation Projects in Northern<span>&nbsp;</span>Shan State, the company has begun planting Jatropha plants during late June 2007 and will start producing seeds by 2010. (20 July 2007 from New Light of Myanmar)</p> <h3 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.2em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Controversies">Controversies</span></h3> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">As of 2011 scepticism about the "miracle" properties of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>has been voiced. For example: "The idea that jatropha can be grown on marginal land is a<span>&nbsp;</span>red herring", according to Harry Stourton, former business development director of UK-based Sun Biofuels, which attempted to cultivate<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>in Mozambique and Tanzania. "It does grow on marginal land, but if you use marginal land you'll get marginal yields," he said.<sup id="cite_ref-53" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[53]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-54" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[54]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Sun Biofuels, after failing to adequately compensate local farmers for the land acquired for their plantation in Tanzania, pay workers severance, or deliver promised supplies to local villagers, went bankrupt later in 2011, the villager farmland being sold to an offshore investment fund.<sup id="cite_ref-55" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[55]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">An August 2010 article warned about the actual utility and potential dangers of reliance on<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>in Kenya. Major concerns included its invasiveness, which could disrupt local biodiversity, as well as damage to water catchment areas.<sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[56]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>Jatropha curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is lauded as being sustainable, and that its production would not compete with food production, but the jatropha plant needs water like every other crop to grow. This could create competition for water between the jatropha and other edible food crops. In fact, jatropha requires five times more water per unit of energy than sugarcane and corn.<sup id="cite_ref-57" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[57]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-58" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[58]</sup></p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Food_for_human_consumption">Food for human consumption</span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"><i>Xuta</i>,<span>&nbsp;</span><i>chuta</i>,<span>&nbsp;</span><i>aishte</i><span>&nbsp;</span>or<span>&nbsp;</span><i>piñón manso</i><span>&nbsp;</span>(among others) are some of the names given in<span>&nbsp;</span>Mexico<span>&nbsp;</span>to edible non-toxic<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha curcas</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-Universidad_59-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[59]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-valdez2013_9-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[9]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It is grown in house gardens or other small areas.<sup id="cite_ref-Universidad_59-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[59]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Although it is known as a toxic plant due to the presence of diterpenes named phorbol esters,<sup id="cite_ref-60" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[60]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>the existence of edible non-toxic<span>&nbsp;</span><i>J. curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>without phorbol esters content has been demonstrated.<sup id="cite_ref-valdez2013_9-2" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[9]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-Osuna_61-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[61]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It is also similarly reported that<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>seeds are edible once the embryo has been removed.<sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[62]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The process for analysis of phorbol ester contents in<span>&nbsp;</span><i>J. curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>is done through<span>&nbsp;</span>high-performance liquid chromatography<span>&nbsp;</span>(HPLC).<sup id="cite_ref-Makkar_63-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[63]</sup></p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Xuta is traditionally prepared for local celebrations or popular parties. The kernels are roasted and eaten as a snack or roasted and ground to prepare different dishes, such as<span>&nbsp;</span>tamales, soups and sauces like “pipian”.<sup id="cite_ref-valdez2013_9-3" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[9]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-Osuna_61-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[61]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The seeds in the zone around Misantla, Veracruz are very appreciated by the population as food once they have been boiled and roasted.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Root ashes are used as a salt substitute.<span>&nbsp;</span>HCN<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>rotenone<span>&nbsp;</span>are present.<sup id="cite_ref-64" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[64]</sup></p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Other_uses">Other uses</span></h2> <ul style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <li><b>Flowers</b></li> </ul> <dl style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <dd>The species is listed as a<span>&nbsp;</span>honey<span>&nbsp;</span>plant.<span>&nbsp;</span>Hydrogen cyanide is present.<sup id="cite_ref-65" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[65]</sup></dd> </dl> <ul style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <li><b>Nuts</b></li> </ul> <dl style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <dd>Can be construed for home cooking fuel in briquette form replacing charcoalized timber as in Haiti.<sup id="cite_ref-Glenn_Brooks_Jachob_e3_66-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[66]</sup></dd> <dd>They can be burned like<span>&nbsp;</span>candlenuts<span>&nbsp;</span>when strung on grass.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2014)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>HCN<span>&nbsp;</span>is present.<sup id="cite_ref-67" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;"></sup></dd> <dd>Used as a<span>&nbsp;</span>contraceptive<span>&nbsp;</span>in South Sudan.<sup id="cite_ref-autogenerated1_68-0" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[68]</sup></dd> </dl> <ul style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <li><b>Seeds</b></li> </ul> <dl style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <dd>Interest exists in producing animal feed<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2014)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>from the bio-waste once the oil is expressed, as in the case with Haiti, where Jatropha curcas grows prolifically and animal feed is in very short supply.<sup id="cite_ref-Glenn_Brooks_Jachob_e3_66-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[66]</sup></dd> <dd>Similarly, Metsiyen in the Haitian culture dates back as a medicinal crop—thus the name "metsiyen"/"medsiyen". Some suggest it "calms the stomach".<sup id="cite_ref-Glenn_Brooks_Jachob_e3_66-2" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[66]</sup></dd> <dd>Also used as a contraceptive in South Sudan.<sup id="cite_ref-autogenerated1_68-1" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[68]</sup></dd> <dd>The oil has been used for illumination,<span>&nbsp;</span>soap,<span>&nbsp;</span>candles, the<span>&nbsp;</span>adulteration<span>&nbsp;</span>of<span>&nbsp;</span>olive oil, and making<span>&nbsp;</span>Turkey red oil.<span>&nbsp;</span>Turkey red oil, also called sulphonated (or sulfated) castor oil, is the only oil that completely disperses in water. It is made by adding<span>&nbsp;</span>sulfuric acid<span>&nbsp;</span>to pure<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Jatropha</i><span>&nbsp;</span>oil.<sup id="cite_ref-69" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[69]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It was the first synthetic<span>&nbsp;</span>detergent<span>&nbsp;</span>after ordinary<span>&nbsp;</span>soap, as this allows easy use for making bath oil products. It is used in formulating<span>&nbsp;</span>lubricants, softeners, and<span>&nbsp;</span>dyeing assistants.<sup id="cite_ref-70" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[70]</sup></dd> </dl> <ul style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <li><b>Bark</b></li> </ul> <dl style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <dd>Used as a fish poison.<span>&nbsp;</span>HCN<span>&nbsp;</span>is present.<sup id="cite_ref-71" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[71]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Igbinosa and colleagues (2009) demonstrated potential broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>J. curcas</i><span>&nbsp;</span>bark extract.<sup id="cite_ref-72" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[72]</sup></dd> </dl> <ul style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <li><b>Latex</b></li> </ul> <dl style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <dd>Strongly inhibits the watermelon mosaic virus.<sup id="cite_ref-73" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[73]</sup></dd> </dl> <ul style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <li><b>Leaves</b></li> </ul> <dl style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <dd>Leaf sap can be used to blow bubbles.<sup id="cite_ref-74" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[74]</sup></dd> </dl> <ul style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <li><b>Sap</b></li> </ul> <dl style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <dd>It stains linen. Sometimes used for marking.<sup id="cite_ref-75" class="reference" style="font-size: 11.2px;">[75]</sup></dd> </dl> <ul style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <li><b>Shrub</b></li> </ul> <dl style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <dd>Used for<span>&nbsp;</span>erosion<span>&nbsp;</span>control.</dd> </dl><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
T 92 (5 S)
Fysiska nötfrön (Jatropha curcas)
Tumbo Frön (Passiflora mixta)

Tumbo Frön (Passiflora mixta)

Pris 3,50 € (SKU: V 83)
,
5/ 5
<h2 class=""><strong>Tumbo Frön (Passiflora mixta)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0a0a;"><strong>Pris för ett paket med 3 frön.</strong></span></h2> Passiflora mixta är en robust, träig vinstock som är vanlig i Anderna i Sydamerika från Colombia till Bolivia, där den finns i skogar på högre höjder mellan 1400 och 3800 m.<br>Den är populär för sina vackra rosa till röda blommor och ätbara, rundiga, mycket söta och syrliga frukter. De äts båda färska och göras till juice.<br><br>Passiflora mixta är väl anpassad för svala förhållanden och kommer att växa i många varma tempererade klimat i USDA Zones 9 och senare.<br><br>Taggar: barn- och husdjursvänlig, klättrare, ätbar frukt, vintergröna, blommande, malpighiales, mixta, prydnadsväxter, passiflora, krukväxt, tumbo ...<br> <h2 style="color: #1a1a1a; font-size: 30px;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Germination">Germination</span></h2> <p style="color: #333333; font-size: 16px;" class=""><i>Passiflora mixta</i><span>&nbsp;</span>seeds take approximately 30–365 days to germinate and even under optimal conditions their growth may be erratic. The seeds should be planted 6 mm (0.24 in) deep in a peaty seed sowing mix at about 20–30 °C (68–86 °F). new water should be used every day and it is necessary to soak them under warm water. This process will cause some seeds to swell up; these seeds should be sown instantly. On occasion, it is also important to soak the container in which the seeds are placed.<span>&nbsp;</span></p> <script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
V 83 (3 S)
Tumbo Frön (Passiflora mixta)

Cookies are Necessary and help make a website usable by enabling basic functions like page navigation and access to secure areas of the website. The website cannot function properly without these cookies.

Nödvändig
Nödvändiga cookies låter dig använda webbplatsen genom att aktivera grundläggande funktioner, såsom sidnavigering och åtkomst till säkra områden på webbplatsen. Webbplatsen fungerar inte korrekt utan dessa cookies.
Kakans namn Leverantör Ändamål Upphörande
seeds-gallery.shop www.seeds-gallery.shop Denna cookie hjälper till att hålla användarsessioner öppna medan de besöker en webbplats och hjälper dem att göra beställningar och många fler operationer, såsom: cookie-tilläggsdatum, valt språk, använd valuta, senast besökta produktkategori, senast sett produkter, klientidentifiering, namn, förnamn, krypterat lösenord, e-post länkad till kontot, identifiering av kundvagn. 480 hours
Statistik
Cookies för statistik hjälper en webbplatsägare att förstå hur besökare interagerar med webbplatser genom att samla och rapportera in information anonymt.
Kakans namn Leverantör Ändamål Upphörande
collect Google Den används för att skicka data till Google Analytics om besökarens enhet och dess beteende. Spåra besökaren över enheter och marknadsföringskanaler. Session
r/collect Google Den används för att skicka data till Google Analytics om besökarens enhet och dess beteende. Spåra besökaren över enheter och marknadsföringskanaler. Session
_ga Google Registrerar ett unikt ID som används för att generera statistisk information om hur besökaren använder webbplatsen. 2 år
_gat Google Används av Google Analytics för att strypa begäran 1 dag
_gd# Google Detta är en Google Analytics Session-cookie som används för att generera statistisk information om hur du använder webbplatsen som tas bort när du avslutar din webbläsare. Session
_gid Google Registrerar ett unikt ID som används för att generera statistisk information om hur besökaren använder webbplatsen. 1 dag
Innehållet är inte tillgängligt