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Golden Bamboo Seeds - fish pole bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea) 1.95 - 10

Altın Bambu Tohumları -...

Fiyat €1,95 (SKU: B 7)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Altın Bambu Tohumları - balık direği bambu (Phyllostachys aurea)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color:#ff0000;"><strong>5 tohum paketi için fiyat.</strong></span></h2> <p>Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'ndeki en yaygın bambulardan biri ve iyi bir nedenden dolayı: genellikle çok uzun olmasa da, en güçlü ve en faydalı olanlardan biridir. Katı bir şekilde dik büyüyen bu bambu, çitlerin ve araba yollarının ve yürüyüş yollarının yanında ekim için en iyilerinden biridir.</p> <p>  Genellikle bastonun dibinde, bazen "Kaplumbağa Kabuğu" internodları olarak adlandırılan, oldukça süslü ve bu bitkinin el işi için yararlı olmasını sağlayan bir dizi çarpık internod vardır. Türün çeşit rengi yeşildir. Diğer Phyllostachys gibi, güçlü doğrudan güneş ışığına maruz kaldıklarında, köpekler yaşla birlikte sararır. Phyllostachys aurea, sıcak iklimlerde, yerleştirilmesinde dikkat edilmesi gereken agresif bir yayıcı olabilir.</p>
B 7
Golden Bamboo Seeds - fish pole bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea) 1.95 - 10


Bu bitkinin dev meyveleri var
Worlds Largest Giant Corn Seeds Cuzco

Cuzco - Cusco Dünyanın En...

Fiyat €2,25 (SKU: P 40)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Cuzco - Cusco Dünyanın En Büyük Dev Mısır Tohumları</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>5 veya 10 tohum paketi için fiyat.</strong></span></h2> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Peru ve Ekvador'a özgü Perulu Dev Mısır - Choclo olarak da bilinir, çok geniş bir mısır çeşididir.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Saplar 5 - 5,50 metre yüksekliğe ulaşır, bu çeşitin bir çöplüğünde bir koşuşturma, 4 metrelik bir kuyrukta standart çeşitlerin üzerine yükselir.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Standart mısır çeşitlerinde ortalama ağırlık 100 çekirdek başına 25 - 35 gramdan başlar Perulu Dev Mısır'da 100 çekirdek başına ağırlık 100 çekirdek başına 90 - 95 gram arasında çalışır - bu, boyut ve verimin yaklaşık 3 katıdır.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Geç olgunlaşan bir mısırdır ve olgunlaşması için 120-150 güne ihtiyaç duyduğu tahmin edilmektedir. Üretilmesi kolay bir ürün değildir, büyümek için kararlılık ve ihtiyat gerektirir.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">İnsan dağlık Andes dağlık yerli olduğunu düşünürler rüzgarlı koşullara adapte olacağını, ancak durum böyle değil. Peru Urrabamba Vadisi'nde ve korunaklı ve nispeten ılıman bir havaya sahip olan çevrede geliştiler.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Perulu Dev Mısır aka Choclo</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Kuvvetli rüzgarlara dayanmazlar ve 4 - 5,50 metre yükseklikte, bir buçuk buçuk yükseklikte sürekli istiflemeye ihtiyaç duyarlar.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Bitkiler, dev çekirdekleri ile çok sayıda nispeten kısa koçanı üretir.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Tadı standart tatlı mısır ile karşılaştırılabilir. Aşırı tatlı değil - hafif ila yumuşak bir kremsi doku ile en iyi açıklama olurdu. Perulular genellikle onları kaynatır. Ekvador ve Bolivya'da, önce onları kuruturlar, sonra patlarlar ya da bir şekilde patlamış mısır gibi yağda "patlatırlar". Biz gringolar diğer mısırlarla aynı şekilde tadını çıkarabiliriz.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Mısır Sıraların aksine bloklar halinde ekilmeli ve diğer Mısır çeşitlerinin yakınına ekilmemelidir Çapraz tozlaşma kötü tatma nişastalı mısır üretme eğilimindedir. Sugar Pearl, bazı tedarikçilere göre diğer çeşitlerin yaptığı gibi izole edilmesine gerek yoktur - bu sadece Sugar Pearl için iyidir, ancak diğer çeşit değildir.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Perulu Dev Mısır doğrudan toprağa ekilebilir veya iç mekanlarda da başlatılabilir ve daha sonra nakledilebilir. İç mekanlardan başlıyorsanız, nakil süresinden önce kabı kolayca büyütebileceğinden, standarttan daha büyük bir kabınız olduğundan emin olun. Hangisini seçerseniz seçin, uygun tozlaşma ve iyi doldurulmuş kulaklar için en az dört sıra genişliğinde bloklar halinde yerleştirin</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Ekim derinliği Yaklaşık: 5 cm</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Çimlenme: 6 ila 8 gün</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Olgunluk: 120-150 günde.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Renk: Beyaz - Soluk Sarı</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Tohum Aralığı: 30-35 cm arayla.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Sıra aralığı: 100 cm</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">USDA Sağlamlık Bölgeleri: 3- 9</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Bitki Boyutu: 400-550 cm</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Mısır koçanı Boyutu: 17-20 cm Uzun</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Tamamen güneş</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Sq başına ortalama verim üzerinde. Video - Sap başına 3 veya daha fazla kulak bekliyoruz.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Mısır sığ köklere sahiptir ve eser elementlerin yanı sıra çok azot kullanır. Mahsulünüzün mümkün olan en iyi başlangıca ulaşmasına yardımcı olmak için, önce toprağı azot bakımından zengin bir gübre ile hazırlayın. Çürümüş gübre veya kompost da faydalıdır.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; font-size: 14pt;">Mısır sapları bahçe bitkilerinizin geri kalanına güneş ışığını inkar edeceği için bahçenin kuzey tarafındaki bitki, ayrıca tam güneş ışığına tahammül edemeyen bitkilere gölge sağlayacak bir yerde büyümek isteyebilirsiniz.</span></p> <h3><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong><a href="https://www.seeds-gallery.shop/tr/home/peruvian-giant-red-sacsa-kuski-corn-seeds.html" target="_blank" title="Perulu Dev Kırmızı Sacsa Kuski Mısır Tohumları, BURADAN satın alabilirsiniz" style="color: #ff0000;" rel="noreferrer noopener">Perulu Dev Kırmızı Sacsa Kuski Mısır Tohumları, BURADAN satın alabilirsiniz</a></strong></span></h3> </body> </html>
P 40 5S NS
Worlds Largest Giant Corn Seeds Cuzco

Carolina Reaper Seeds Red or Yellow Worlds Hottest 2.45 - 1

Carolina Reaper acı biber...

Fiyat €5,50 (SKU: C 97)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Carolina Reaper acı biber 100 tohumlar</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>100 (0,47g) tohumluk Paket Fiyatı.</strong></span></h2> <p><strong>Kendinizi fotoğraflarımızdan görebileceğiniz gibi, tohumların kendi bitkilerimizden (organik olarak yetiştirilen) olduğunu ve bizden satın aldığınız tohumlardan ne alacağınızı biliyorsunuz ...</strong></p> <p>Carolina Reaper (okunuş: Kerolayna Riğpır), orijinal ismi HP22BNH7 olan ve Guinness rekorlar kitabına göre dünyanın en acı biberi seçilen Capsicum chinense türü biber. Carolina Azraili anlamına gelir. Güney Carolina bölgesinde seralarda yetişen kırmızı renkli dolma bibere benzer.</p> <p>Ed Currie sınıfından olan bu biber 7 Ağustos 2013 yılında Guinness rekorlar kitabına girmiştir. Scoville Heat Units’in Winthrop Üniversitesinin yaptığı testlere göre bu biberin acılık seviyesi yaklaşık olarak 1,569,300 civarında olduğu tahmin ediliyor. Bazı verilere göre ise acılık seviyesinin 2.300.000’lere kadar ulaştığın da görülmüştür. Bu biberden tadacak kişilerin, eğer acıya dayanıklılığı yok ise çok ciddi mide hasarlarına yol açacağı uzmanlar tarafından sık sık gündeme getirilmiştir.</p> </body> </html>
C 97 R 100S
Carolina Reaper Seeds Red or Yellow Worlds Hottest 2.45 - 1
  • Satılık!

Persian lime Seeds – limoo, Tahiti lime  - 3

İran kireç tohumları...

Fiyat €1,95 (SKU: V 119)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>İran kireç tohumları (Citrus × latifolia)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>2 tohum paketi için fiyat.</strong></span></h2> <p>Pers kireci (Citrus × latifolia) veya limoo aynı zamanda Tahiti kireç veya Bearss kireci olarak da bilinir (bu çekirdeksiz çeşidi 1895 yılında Porterville, California'daki fidanlığında geliştiren John T. Bearss'den almıştır), standartla ilgili bir narenciye Misket Limonu.</p> <p>Eşsiz kokulu, baharatlı bir aroması vardır. Meyvenin çapı yaklaşık 6 cm olup, uçları hafif nipellidir ve tam olgunluğa ulaştığında sararmasına rağmen genellikle yeşil renkte satılır. Ayrıca İran yemeklerinde bu şekilde sıklıkla kullanıldığı için yaygın olarak kurutulmuş olarak bulunur. Daha büyük, daha kalın kabukludur ve açık kireçten (Citrus aurantifolia) daha az yoğun narenciye aromatikleri içerir.</p> <p>Ticari tarımda İran kirecinin Key kireç ile karşılaştırıldığında avantajları daha büyük olması, tohum yokluğu, sertliği, çalılarda diken olmaması ve meyve raf ömrünün daha uzun olmasıdır. Anahtar limonlardan daha az asidiktirler ve ana kirecin benzersiz lezzetini ödünç veren acılığa sahip değildirler.</p> <p>Farsça kireçler, 110'lar, 150'ler, 175'ler, 200'ler, 230'lar ve 250'ler olarak bilinen altı boyutta satılır. Öncelikle ABD'de Florida'da yetiştirildikten sonra, Amerikan Pomoloji Derneği'ne göre, Key kireç bahçelerinin 1926'da bir kasırga tarafından yok edilmesinden sonra, İran ıhlamur bahçelerinin kendisi 1992'de Andrew Kasırgası tarafından harap edildi.</p> <p>Her yıl çok sayıda İran limonu yetiştirilir, işlenir ve başlıca Meksika'dan Amerika, Avrupa ve Asya pazarlarına ihraç edilir. Meksika'dan ABD'nin İran kireci ithalatı çoğunlukla McAllen, Teksas üzerinden yapılmaktadır.</p> <p>İran kireçleri Uzak Doğu'dan gelir ve ilk olarak İran'da (şimdi İran) ve güney Irak'ta büyük ölçekte yetiştirildi.</p> <p>ersia (now Iran) and southern Iraq.</p> </body> </html>
V 119
Persian lime Seeds – limoo, Tahiti lime  - 3
"DUKE" Highbush Blueberry Seeds (Vaccinium Corymbosum)

DUKE Yabanmersini Tohumları

Fiyat €1,95 (SKU: V 194 D)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>DUKE Yabanmersini Tohumları (Vaccinium Corymbosum)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>50 (0,015g) tohum paketi için fiyat.</strong></span></h2> <p>Duke yaban mersini önde gelen erken olgunlaşma (çilekler Haziran başında olgunlaşmaya başlar) yabanmersini çeşididir. Yüksek verimleriyle bilinir (bir Duke bitkisi 9 kg'ın (20 lbs) üzerinde tek tip boyutlu, kaliteli meyveler üretebilir.Duke'nin hafif lezzeti soğuk depolamayla iyileşiyor gibi görünüyor.</p> <p>Duke yaban mersini bitkisinin canlılığını korumak uzun bir süre zor olabilir. Yetiştiriciler kaliteli büyüyen bir yer seçmeli ve sürekli olarak iyi kültürel uygulamalar kullanmalıdır.</p> <p>Duke yabanmersini, mekanik hasat, taze ve proses satışları için önde gelen adaylardan biridir.</p> <h2><em><span style="color: #000000;"><strong>Germination instructions</strong></span></em></h2> <p>Northern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium Corymbosum) – Soak the seeds in a small container of hand hot water and leave to cool for 24 hours. Then sow the seeds on the surface of free-draining, damp, lime-free seed compost and only just cover with compost. 90 days cold stratification at approx 3C° is now required, which can be achieved by either, covering and placing outside in a cold shaded area, or by sealing the pot in a plastic bag and place in a refrigerator. Then move indoors or to a propagator at a minimum temperature of 21C°, until after germination. When large enough to handle, transplant individual seedlings into 9cm pots of ericaceous compost and grow on. Protect from frost. Plant outdoors from June onwards, after hardening off.</p> </body> </html>
V 194 D
"DUKE" Highbush Blueberry Seeds (Vaccinium Corymbosum)
German Extra Hardy Garlic cloves 2.95 - 3

German Extra Hardy Garlic...

Fiyat €2,95 (SKU: P 416 GEH)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>German Extra Hardy Garlic cloves</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for 10 Garlic cloves</strong></span></h2> <p>German Extra Hardy, is also known as German White, Northern White and German Stiffneck is a large, beautiful and well-formed porcelain garlic. These are all the same garlic but grown in different places under different names. Its flavor is very strong and robust and sticks around for a long time.</p> <p>The average weight of garlic cloves 5-6 g.</p> <p>From a grower's perspective, it is a tall dark green plant and is a very good survivor, usually grows healthy and appears to be somewhat resistant to many of the diseases that can affect garlic. It originally came from Germany but grows well in all but the most southerly states, where it is marginal.</p> <p>Being a Porcelain, German Extra Hardy stores a long time at cool room temp for around 9-10 months or longer.</p> </body> </html>
P 416 GEH
German Extra Hardy Garlic cloves 2.95 - 3
Cassava, Yuca, Macaxeira, Mandioca, Aipim Seeds 3 - 6

Cassava, Yuca, Macaxeira,...

Fiyat €3,00 (SKU: P 445)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Cassava, Yuca, Macaxeira, Mandioca, Aipim Seeds (Manihot esculenta)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 3 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><i><b>Manihot esculenta</b></i>,<span> </span>commonly called<span> </span><b>cassava</b><span> </span>(<span class="nowrap"><span class="IPA nopopups noexcerpt">/<span><span title="'k' in 'kind'">k</span><span title="/ə/: 'a' in 'about'">ə</span><span title="/ˈ/: primary stress follows">ˈ</span><span title="'s' in 'sigh'">s</span><span title="/ɑː/: 'a' in 'father'">ɑː</span><span title="'v' in 'vie'">v</span><span title="/ə/: 'a' in 'about'">ə</span></span>/</span></span>),<span> </span><b>manioc</b>,<span> </span><b>yuca</b>,<span> </span><b>macaxeira</b>,<span> </span><b>mandioca</b><span> </span>and<span> </span><b>aipim</b>, is a woody<span> </span>shrub<span> </span>native to South America of the<span> </span>spurge<span> </span>family,<span> </span>Euphorbiaceae. Although a perennial plant, cassava is extensively cultivated as an annual<span> </span>crop<span> </span>in<span> </span>tropical<span> </span>and<span> </span>subtropical<span> </span>regions for its edible<span> </span>starchy<span> </span>tuberous root, a major source of<span> </span>carbohydrates. Though it is often called<span> </span><i><b>yuca</b></i><span> </span>in Latin American Spanish and in the United States, it is not related to<span> </span>yucca, a shrub in the family<span> </span>Asparagaceae. Cassava is predominantly consumed in boiled form, but substantial quantities are used to extract cassava starch, called<span> </span>tapioca, which is used for food, animal feed, and industrial purposes. The Brazilian farinha, and the related<span> </span><i>garri</i><span> </span>of West Africa, is an edible coarse flour obtained by grating cassava roots, pressing moisture off the obtained grated pulp, and finally drying it (and roasting in the case of farinha).</p> <p>Cassava is the third-largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics, after<span> </span>rice<span> </span>and<span> </span>maize.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference">[3]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference">[4]</sup><span> </span>Cassava is a major<span> </span>staple food<span> </span>in the developing world, providing a basic diet for over half a billion people.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference">[5]</sup><span> </span>It is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils. Nigeria is the world's largest producer of cassava, while Thailand is the largest exporter of cassava starch.</p> <p>Cassava is classified as either sweet or bitter. Like other roots and tubers, both bitter and sweet varieties of cassava contain<span> </span>antinutritional<span> </span>factors and toxins, with the bitter varieties containing much larger amounts.<sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-0" class="reference">[6]</sup><span> </span>It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual<span> </span>cyanide<span> </span>to cause acute<span> </span>cyanide intoxication,<sup id="cite_ref-promedmail-4799579_7-0" class="reference">[7]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference">[8]</sup><span> </span>goiters, and even<span> </span>ataxia, partial paralysis, or death. The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource (a "food security<span> </span>crop") in times of famine or food insecurity in some places.<sup id="cite_ref-promedmail-4799579_7-1" class="reference">[7]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-1" class="reference">[6]</sup><span> </span>Farmers often prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests, animals, and thieves.<sup id="cite_ref-leisa_9-0" class="reference"></sup></p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Description">Description</span></h2> <p>The cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1 mm thick, rough and brown on the outside. Commercial<span> </span>cultivars<span> </span>can be 5 to 10 cm (2.0 to 3.9 in) in diameter at the top, and around 15 to 30 cm (5.9 to 11.8 in) long. A woody vascular bundle runs along the root's<span> </span>axis. The flesh can be chalk-white or yellowish. Cassava roots are very rich in<span> </span>starch<span> </span>and contain small amounts of calcium (16 mg/100 g), phosphorus (27 mg/100 g), and vitamin C (20.6 mg/100 g).<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference">[10]</sup><span> </span>However, they are poor in<span> </span>protein<span> </span>and other<span> </span>nutrients. In contrast, cassava leaves are a good source of protein (rich in lysine), but deficient in the<span> </span>amino acid<span> </span>methionine<span> </span>and possibly<span> </span>tryptophan.<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference">[11]</sup></p> <div class="thumb tmulti tleft"> <div class="thumbinner"> <div class="trow"> <div class="theader">Details of cassava plants</div> </div> <div class="trow"> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/Manihot_esculenta_dsc07325.jpg/135px-Manihot_esculenta_dsc07325.jpg" width="135" height="101" /></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Unprocessed roots</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/Cassava1_%283945716612%29.jpg/152px-Cassava1_%283945716612%29.jpg" width="152" height="101" /></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Leaf</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Cassava2_%283945624614%29.jpg/152px-Cassava2_%283945624614%29.jpg" width="152" height="101" /></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Leaf detail</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Cassava_buds_%284733912948%29.jpg/67px-Cassava_buds_%284733912948%29.jpg" width="67" height="101" /></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Picked buds</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/Manihot_esculenta_MHNT.BOT.2004.0.508.jpg/146px-Manihot_esculenta_MHNT.BOT.2004.0.508.jpg" width="146" height="101" /></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Seeds</div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span></h2> <div class="thumb tleft"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Albert_Eckhout_-_Mandioca.jpg/220px-Albert_Eckhout_-_Mandioca.jpg" width="220" height="221" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> 17th c. painting by<span> </span>Albert Eckhout<span> </span>in<span> </span>Dutch Brazil</div> </div> </div> <p>Wild populations of<span> </span><i>M. esculenta</i><span> </span>subspecies<span> </span><i>flabellifolia</i>, shown to be the progenitor of domesticated cassava, are centered in west-central Brazil, where it was likely first domesticated no more than 10,000 years<span> </span>BP.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference">[12]</sup><span> </span>Forms of the modern domesticated species can also be found growing in the wild in the south of Brazil. By 4,600 BC, manioc (cassava) pollen appears in the<span> </span>Gulf of Mexico<span> </span>lowlands, at the<span> </span>San Andrés<span> </span>archaeological site.<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference">[13]</sup><span> </span>The oldest direct evidence of cassava cultivation comes from a 1,400-year-old<span> </span>Maya<span> </span>site,<span> </span>Joya de Cerén, in<span> </span>El Salvador.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference">[14]</sup><span> </span>With its high food potential, it had become a<span> </span>staple food<span> </span>of the native populations of northern South America, southern Mesoamerica, and the Caribbean by the time of European contact in 1492. Cassava was a staple food of<span> </span>pre-Columbian<span> </span>peoples in the Americas and is often portrayed in<span> </span>indigenous art. The<span> </span>Moche<span> </span>people often depicted yuca in their ceramics.<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference">[15]</sup></p> <p>Spaniards in their early occupation of Caribbean islands did not want to eat cassava or maize, which they considered insubstantial, dangerous, and not nutritious. They much preferred foods from Spain, specifically wheat bread, olive oil, red wine, and meat, and considered maize and cassava damaging to Europeans.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference">[16]</sup><span> </span>The cultivation and consumption of cassava was nonetheless continued in both Portuguese and Spanish America. Mass production of cassava bread became the first Cuban industry established by the Spanish,<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference">[17]</sup>Ships departing to Europe from Cuban ports such as<span> </span>Havana,<span> </span>Santiago,<span> </span>Bayamo, and<span> </span>Baracoa<span> </span>carried goods to Spain, but sailors needed to be provisioned for the voyage. The Spanish also needed to replenish their boats with dried meat, water, fruit, and large amounts of cassava bread.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference">[18]</sup><span> </span>Sailors complained that it caused them digestive problems.<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference">[19]</sup><span> </span>Tropical Cuban weather was not suitable for wheat planting and cassava would not go stale as quickly as regular bread.</p> <p>Cassava was introduced to Africa by Portuguese traders from Brazil in the 16th century. Around the same period, it was also introduced to Asia through<span> </span>Columbian Exchange<span> </span>by Portuguese and Spanish traders, planted in their colonies in Goa, Malacca, Eastern Indonesia, Timor and the Philippines.<span> </span>Maize<span> </span>and cassava are now important staple foods, replacing native African crops in places such as Tanzania.<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference">[20]</sup><span> </span>Cassava has also become an important staple in Asia, extensively cultivated in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam.<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference">[21]</sup><span> </span>Cassava is sometimes described as the "bread of the tropics"<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference">[22]</sup><span> </span>but should not be confused with the tropical and equatorial<span> </span>bread tree<span> </span><i>(Encephalartos)</i>, the<span> </span>breadfruit<span> </span><i>(Artocarpus altilis)</i><span> </span>or the<span> </span>African breadfruit<span> </span><i>(Treculia africana)</i>.</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Production">Production</span></h2> <p>In 2016, global production of cassava root was 277 million<span> </span>tonnes, with<span> </span>Nigeria<span> </span>as the world's largest producer having 21% of the world total (table). Other major growers were<span> </span>Thailand,<span> </span>Brazil, and<span> </span>Indonesia.<sup id="cite_ref-faostat16_23-0" class="reference">[23]</sup></p> <table class="wikitable"> <tbody> <tr> <th colspan="2">Cassava production – 2016</th> </tr> <tr> <th>Country</th> <th><small>Production (millions of<span> </span>tonnes)</small></th> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/79/Flag_of_Nigeria.svg/23px-Flag_of_Nigeria.svg.png" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Nigeria</center></td> <td><center>57.1</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Flag_of_Thailand.svg/23px-Flag_of_Thailand.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Thailand</center></td> <td><center>31.1</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg/22px-Flag_of_Brazil.svg.png" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Brazil</center></td> <td><center>21.1</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Flag_of_Indonesia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Indonesia.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Indonesia</center></td> <td><center>20.7</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo.svg/20px-Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo.svg.png" width="20" height="15" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Democratic Republic of the Congo</center></td> <td><center>14.7</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><b>World</b></center></td> <td><center><b>277.1</b></center></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"><center><small>Source:<span> </span>FAOSTAT<span> </span>of the<span> </span>United Nations<sup id="cite_ref-faostat16_23-1" class="reference">[23]</sup></small></center></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Cassava is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, can be successfully grown on marginal soils, and gives reasonable yields where many other crops do not grow well. Cassava is well adapted within latitudes 30° north and south of the equator, at elevations between sea level and 2,000 m (6,600 ft) above sea level, in equatorial temperatures, with rainfalls from 50 mm (2.0 in) to 5 m (16 ft) annually, and to poor soils with a pH ranging from acidic to alkaline. These conditions are common in certain parts of Africa and South America.</p> <p>Cassava is a highly-productive crop when considering food calories produced per unit land area, per unit of time. Significantly higher than other staple crops, cassava can produce food calories at rates exceeding 250,000 kcal/hectare/day, as compared with 176,000 for rice, 110,000 for wheat and 200,000 for maize (corn).</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Economic_importance">Economic importance</span></h2> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also:<span> </span>Tapioca § Production</div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3e/Manihot_esculenta_-_cross_section_2.jpg/220px-Manihot_esculenta_-_cross_section_2.jpg" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> A cassava tuber in cross-section</div> </div> </div> <p>Cassava,<span> </span>yams<span> </span>(<i>Dioscorea</i><span> </span>spp.), and<span> </span>sweet potatoes<span> </span>(<i>Ipomoea batatas</i>) are important sources of food in the tropics. The cassava plant gives the third-highest yield of<span> </span>carbohydrates<span> </span>per cultivated area among crop plants, after<span> </span>sugarcane<span> </span>and<span> </span>sugar beets.<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference">[24]</sup><span> </span>Cassava plays a particularly important role in agriculture in developing countries, especially in<span> </span>sub-Saharan Africa, because it does well on poor soils and with low rainfall, and because it is a perennial that can be harvested as required. Its wide harvesting window allows it to act as a famine reserve and is invaluable in managing labor schedules. It offers flexibility to resource-poor farmers because it serves as either a subsistence or a cash crop.<sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference">[25]</sup></p> <p>Worldwide, 800 million people depend on cassava as their primary food staple.<sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference">[26]</sup><span> </span>No continent depends as much on root and tuber crops in feeding its population as does Africa. In the humid and sub-humid areas of tropical Africa, it is either a primary staple food or a secondary costaple. In<span> </span>Ghana, for example, cassava and yams occupy an important position in the agricultural economy and contribute about 46 percent of the agricultural gross domestic product. Cassava accounts for a daily caloric intake of 30 percent in<span> </span>Ghanaand is grown by nearly every farming family. The importance of cassava to many Africans is epitomised in the<span> </span>Ewe<span> </span>(a language spoken in Ghana,<span> </span>Togo<span> </span>and<span> </span>Benin) name for the plant,<span> </span><i>agbeli</i>, meaning "there is life".</p> <p>In<span> </span>Tamil Nadu, India, there are many cassava processing factories alongside<span> </span>National Highway 68<span> </span>between<span> </span>Thalaivasal<span> </span>and<span> </span>Attur. Cassava is widely cultivated and eaten as a staple food in<span> </span>Andhra Pradesh<span> </span>and in<span> </span>Kerala. In<span> </span>Assam<span> </span>it is an important source of carbohydrates especially for natives of hilly areas.</p> <p>In the subtropical region of southern China, cassava is the fifth-largest crop in term of production, after<span> </span>rice,<span> </span>sweet potato,<span> </span>sugar cane, and<span> </span>maize. China is also the largest export market for cassava produced in Vietnam and Thailand. Over 60 percent of cassava production in China is concentrated in a single province,<span> </span>Guangxi, averaging over seven million tonnes annually.</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Uses">Uses</span></h2> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also:<span> </span>Tapioca § Uses</div> <table class="box-More_citations_needed_section plainlinks metadata ambox ambox-content ambox-Refimprove"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="mbox-image"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/50px-Question_book-new.svg.png" width="50" height="39" /></div> </td> <td class="mbox-text"> <div class="mbox-text-span">This section<span> </span><b>needs additional citations for<span> </span>verification</b>.<span class="hide-when-compact"><span> </span>Please help<span> </span>improve this article<span> </span>by<span> </span>adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.<br /><small><span class="plainlinks"><i>Find sources:</i> "Cassava" – news <b>·</b><span> </span>newspapers <b>·</b><span> </span>books <b>·</b><span> </span>scholar <b>·</b><span> </span>JSTOR</span></small></span><span> </span><small class="date-container"><i>(<span class="date">August 2017</span>)</i></small><small class="hide-when-compact"><i><span> </span>(Learn how and when to remove this template message)</i></small></div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Cambodia16_lo_%284039995158%29.jpg/220px-Cambodia16_lo_%284039995158%29.jpg" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Processing cassava starch into cassava noodles,<span> </span>Kampong Cham</div> </div> </div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Alcoholic_beverages">Alcoholic beverages</span></h3> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article:<span> </span>Alcoholic beverage § Beverages by type</div> <p>Alcoholic beverages<span> </span>made from cassava include<span> </span>cauim<span> </span>and<span> </span>tiquira<span> </span>(Brazil),<span> </span>kasiri<span> </span>(Guyana, Suriname), impala (Mozambique), masato (Peruvian<span> </span>Amazonia chicha),<span> </span>parakari<span> </span>or kari (Guyana),<span> </span>nihamanchi<span> </span>(South America) also known as nijimanche (Ecuador and Peru), ö döi (chicha de yuca, Ngäbe-Bugle, Panama), sakurá (Brazil, Suriname), and tarul ko jaarh (Darjeeling, Sikkim, India).</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Culinary">Culinary</span></h3> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article:<span> </span>Cassava-based dishes</div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Cassava_heavy_cake.jpg/220px-Cassava_heavy_cake.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Cassava heavy cake</div> </div> </div> <p>Cassava-based dishes<span> </span>are widely consumed wherever the plant is cultivated; some have regional, national, or ethnic importance.<sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference">[27]</sup><span> </span>Cassava must be cooked properly to detoxify it before it is eaten.</p> <p>Cassava can be cooked in many ways. The root of the sweet variety has a delicate flavor and can replace potatoes. It is used in<span> </span>cholent<span> </span>in some households.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (December 2018)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span> </span>It can be made into a flour that is used in breads, cakes and cookies. In Brazil, detoxified manioc is ground and cooked to a dry, often hard or crunchy meal known as<span> </span><i>farofa</i><span> </span>used as a condiment, toasted in butter, or eaten alone as a side dish.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Nutritional_profile">Nutritional profile</span></h3> <table class="infobox nowrap"><caption>Cassava, raw</caption> <tbody> <tr> <th colspan="2">Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)</th> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Energy</th> <td>160 kcal (670 kJ)</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Carbohydrates</b></div> </th> <td> <div>38.1 g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Sugars</th> <td>1.7 g</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Dietary fiber</th> <td>1.8 g</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Fat</b></div> </th> <td> <div>0.3 g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Protein</b></div> </th> <td> <div>1.4 g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Vitamins</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b><span><abbr title="Percentage of Daily Value"><b>%DV</b></abbr><sup>†</sup></span></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Thiamine<span> </span><span>(B1)</span></th> <td> <div>8%</div> 0.087 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Riboflavin<span> </span><span>(B2)</span></th> <td> <div>4%</div> 0.048 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Niacin<span> </span><span>(B3)</span></th> <td> <div>6%</div> 0.854 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Vitamin B<span>6</span></th> <td> <div>7%</div> 0.088 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Folate<span> </span><span>(B9)</span></th> <td> <div>7%</div> 27 μg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Vitamin C</th> <td> <div>25%</div> 20.6 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Minerals</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b><span><abbr title="Percentage of Daily Value"><b>%DV</b></abbr><sup>†</sup></span></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Calcium</th> <td> <div>2%</div> 16 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Iron</th> <td> <div>2%</div> 0.27 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Magnesium</th> <td> <div>6%</div> 21 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Phosphorus</th> <td> <div>4%</div> 27 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Potassium</th> <td> <div>6%</div> 271 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Sodium</th> <td> <div>1%</div> 14 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Zinc</th> <td> <div>4%</div> 0.34 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Other constituents</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Water</th> <td>60 g</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"><hr /> <div class="wrap">Full Link to USDA Database entry</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"> <div class="plainlist"> <ul> <li>Units</li> <li>μg =<span> </span>micrograms • mg =<span> </span>milligrams</li> <li>IU =<span> </span>International units</li> </ul> </div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" class="wrap"><sup>†</sup>Percentages are roughly approximated using<span> </span>US recommendations<span> </span>for adults.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Raw cassava is 60% water, 38%<span> </span>carbohydrates, 1%<span> </span>protein, and has negligible<span> </span>fat<span> </span>(table).<sup id="cite_ref-fao_28-0" class="reference">[28]</sup><span> </span>In a 100 gram amount, raw cassava provides 160<span> </span>calories<span> </span>and contains 25% of the<span> </span>Daily Value<span> </span>(DV) for<span> </span>vitamin C, but otherwise has no<span> </span>micronutrients<span> </span>in significant content (no values above 10% DV; table). Cooked cassava starch has a<span> </span>digestibility<span> </span>of over 75%.<sup id="cite_ref-fao_28-1" class="reference">[28]</sup></p> <p>Cassava, like other foods, also has<span> </span>antinutritional<span> </span>and toxic factors. Of particular concern are the<span> </span>cyanogenic glucosides<span> </span>of cassava (linamarin<span> </span>and<span> </span>lotaustralin). On hydrolysis, these release<span> </span>hydrocyanic acid (HCN).<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2017)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span> </span>The presence of cyanide in cassava is of concern for human and for animal consumption. The concentration of these antinutritional and unsafe glycosides varies considerably between varieties and also with climatic and cultural conditions. Selection of cassava species to be grown, therefore, is quite important. Once harvested, bitter cassava must be treated and prepared properly prior to human or animal consumption, while sweet cassava can be used after simply boiling.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Comparison_with_other_major_staple_foods">Comparison with other major staple foods</span></h3> <p>A<span> </span>comparative table<span> </span>shows that<span> </span>cassava is a good energy source. In its prepared forms in which its toxic or unpleasant components have been reduced to acceptable levels, it contains an extremely high proportion of starch. Compared to most staples however, cassava accordingly is a poorer dietary source of protein and most other essential nutrients. Though an important staple, its main value is as a component of a balanced diet.</p> <p>Comparisons between the nutrient content of cassava and other major<span> </span>staple foods<span> </span>when raw,<span> </span>as shown in the table, must be interpreted with caution because most staples are not edible in such forms and many are indigestible, even dangerously poisonous or otherwise harmful.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2017)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span> </span>For consumption, each must be prepared and cooked as appropriate. Suitably cooked or otherwise prepared, the nutritional and antinutritional contents of each of these staples is widely different from that of raw form and depends on the methods of preparation such as soaking, fermentation, sprouting, boiling, or baking.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Biofuel">Biofuel</span></h3> <p>In many countries, significant research has begun to evaluate the use of cassava as an<span> </span>ethanol<span> </span>biofuel<span> </span>feedstock. Under the Development Plan for Renewable Energy in the<span> </span>Eleventh Five-Year Plan<span> </span>in the<span> </span>People's Republic of China, the target is to increase the production of ethanol fuel from nongrain feedstock to two million tonnes, and that of biodiesel to 200 thousand tonnes by 2010. This is equivalent to the replacement of 10 million tonnes of petroleum. As a result, cassava (tapioca) chips have gradually become a major source of ethanol production.<sup id="cite_ref-29" class="reference">[29]</sup><span> </span>On 22 December 2007, the largest cassava<span> </span>ethanol fuel<span> </span>production facility was completed in<span> </span>Beihai, with annual output of 200 thousand tons, which would need an average of 1.5 million tons of cassava. In November 2008, China-based Hainan Yedao Group invested US$51.5 million in a new<span> </span>biofuel<span> </span>facility that is expected to produce 33 million US gallons (120,000 m<sup>3</sup>) a year of bioethanol from cassava plants.<sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference"></sup></p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Animal_feed">Animal feed</span></h3> <div class="thumb tmulti tright"> <div class="thumbinner"> <div class="trow"> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e3/Cassava_being_grated.jpg/101px-Cassava_being_grated.jpg" width="101" height="131" /></div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bd/Close-up_of_grated_cassava.jpg/175px-Close-up_of_grated_cassava.jpg" width="175" height="131" /></div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/84/Cassava_drying_on_a_road.jpg/175px-Cassava_drying_on_a_road.jpg" width="175" height="131" /></div> </div> </div> <div class="trow"> <div class="thumbcaption">Tubers being grated; a close-up of the product; drying on road to be used for pig and chicken feed</div> </div> </div> </div> <p>Cassava tubers and hay are used worldwide as animal feed. Cassava hay is harvested at a young growth stage (three to four months) when it reaches about 30 to 45 cm (12 to 18 in) above ground; it is then sun-dried for one to two days until its final dry matter content approaches 85 percent. Cassava hay contains high protein (20–27 percent<span> </span>crude protein) and condensed<span> </span>tannins<span> </span>(1.5–4 percent CP). It is valued as a good roughage source for<span> </span>ruminants<span> </span>such as cattle.<sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference">[31]</sup></p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Laundry_starch">Laundry starch</span></h3> <p>Manioc is also used in a number of commercially available laundry products, especially as starch for shirts and other garments. Using manioc starch diluted in water and spraying it over fabrics before ironing helps stiffen collars.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Medicinal_use">Medicinal use</span></h3> <p>According to the<span> </span>American Cancer Society, cassava is<span> </span>ineffective<span> </span>as an anti-cancer agent: "there is no convincing scientific evidence that cassava or tapioca is effective in preventing or treating cancer".<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference">[32]</sup></p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Food_use">Food use</span></h2> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1e/A_woman_washes_cassava_in_rural_DRC_%287609952020%29.jpg/220px-A_woman_washes_cassava_in_rural_DRC_%287609952020%29.jpg" width="220" height="330" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> A woman washes cassava in a river</div> </div> </div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Potential_toxicity">Potential toxicity</span></h3> <p>Cassava roots, peels and leaves should not be consumed raw because they contain two<span> </span>cyanogenic glucosides,<span> </span>linamarin<span> </span>and<span> </span>lotaustralin. These are decomposed by<span> </span>linamarase, a naturally occurring<span> </span>enzyme<span> </span>in cassava, liberating<span> </span>hydrogen cyanide<span> </span>(HCN).<sup id="cite_ref-cereda_33-0" class="reference">[33]</sup><span> </span>Cassava varieties are often categorized as either sweet or bitter, signifying the absence or presence of toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides, respectively. The so-called sweet (actually not bitter) cultivars can produce as little as 20 milligrams of<span> </span>cyanide<span> </span>(CN) per kilogram of fresh roots, whereas bitter ones may produce more than 50 times as much (1 g/kg). Cassavas grown during<span> </span>drought<span> </span>are especially high in these toxins.<sup id="cite_ref-34" class="reference">[34]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-35" class="reference">[35]</sup><span> </span>A dose of 25 mg of pure cassava cyanogenic glucoside, which contains 2.5 mg of cyanide, is sufficient to kill a rat.<sup id="cite_ref-36" class="reference">[36]</sup><span> </span>Excess cyanide residue from improper preparation is known to cause acute cyanide intoxication, and goiters, and has been linked to ataxia (a neurological disorder affecting the ability to walk, also known as<span> </span><i>konzo</i>).<sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-2" class="reference">[6]</sup><span> </span>It has also been linked to tropical calcific<span> </span>pancreatitis<span> </span>in humans, leading to chronic pancreatitis.<sup id="cite_ref-37" class="reference">[37]</sup></p> <p>Symptoms of acute cyanide intoxication appear four or more hours after ingesting raw or poorly processed cassava: vertigo, vomiting, and collapse. In some cases, death may result within one or two hours. It can be treated easily with an injection of<span> </span>thiosulfate<span> </span>(which makes sulfur available for the patient's body to detoxify by converting the poisonous cyanide into thiocyanate).<sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-3" class="reference">[6]</sup></p> <p>"Chronic, low-level cyanide exposure is associated with the development of<span> </span>goiter<span> </span>and with tropical ataxic neuropathy, a nerve-damaging disorder that renders a person unsteady and uncoordinated. Severe cyanide poisoning, particularly during famines, is associated with outbreaks of a debilitating, irreversible paralytic disorder called<span> </span>konzo<span> </span>and, in some cases, death. The incidence of konzo and<span> </span>tropical ataxic neuropathy<span> </span>can be as high as three percent in some areas."<sup id="cite_ref-38" class="reference">[38]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-39" class="reference">[39]</sup></p> <p>During the<span> </span>shortages in Venezuela<span> </span>in the late-2010s, dozens of deaths were reported due to Venezuelans resorting to eating bitter cassava in order to curb starvation.<sup id="cite_ref-41" class="reference"></sup></p> <p>Societies that traditionally eat cassava generally understand that some processing (soaking, cooking, fermentation, etc.) is necessary to avoid getting sick. Brief soaking (four hours) of cassava is not sufficient, but soaking for 18–24 hours can remove up to half the level of cyanide. Drying may not be sufficient, either.<sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-4" class="reference">[6]</sup></p> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bd/PeeledCassava.jpg/220px-PeeledCassava.jpg" width="220" height="185" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Cassava root, peeled and soaking</div> </div> </div> <p>For some smaller-rooted, sweet varieties, cooking is sufficient to eliminate all toxicity. The cyanide is carried away in the processing water and the amounts produced in domestic consumption are too small to have environmental impact.<sup id="cite_ref-cereda_33-1" class="reference">[33]</sup><span> </span>The larger-rooted, bitter varieties used for production of flour or starch must be processed to remove the cyanogenic glucosides. The large roots are peeled and then ground into flour, which is then soaked in water, squeezed dry several times, and toasted. The starch grains that flow with the water during the soaking process are also used in cooking.<sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference">[42]</sup><span> </span>The flour is used throughout<span> </span>South America<span> </span>and the<span> </span>Caribbean. Industrial production of cassava flour, even at the cottage level, may generate enough cyanide and cyanogenic glycosides in the effluents to have a severe environmental impact.<sup id="cite_ref-cereda_33-2" class="reference">[33]</sup></p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Food_preparation">Food preparation</span></h3> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d2/Cassava_bread.jpg/220px-Cassava_bread.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Cassava bread</div> </div> </div> <p>A safe processing method known as the "wetting method" is to mix the cassava flour with water into a thick paste and then let it stand in the shade for five hours in a thin layer spread over a basket.<sup id="cite_ref-fca_43-0" class="reference">[43]</sup><span> </span>In that time, about 83% of the cyanogenic<span> </span>glycosides<span> </span>are broken down by the<span> </span>linamarase; the resulting hydrogen cyanide escapes to the atmosphere, making the flour safe for consumption the same evening.<sup id="cite_ref-fca_43-1" class="reference">[43]</sup></p> <p>The traditional method used in West Africa is to peel the roots and put them into water for three days to ferment. The roots then are dried or cooked. In Nigeria and several other west African countries, including Ghana, Cameroon, Benin, Togo, Ivory Coast, and Burkina Faso, they are usually grated and lightly fried in palm oil to preserve them. The result is a foodstuff called<span> </span><i>gari</i>. Fermentation is also used in other places such as Indonesia (see<span> </span>Tapai). The fermentation process also reduces the level of<span> </span>antinutrients, making the cassava a more nutritious food.<sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference">[44]</sup><span> </span>The reliance on cassava as a food source and the resulting exposure to the<span> </span>goitrogenic<span> </span>effects of<span> </span>thiocyanate<span> </span>has been responsible for the endemic<span> </span>goiters<span> </span>seen in the<span> </span>Akoko<span> </span>area of southwestern<span> </span>Nigeria.<sup id="cite_ref-pmid10497657_45-0" class="reference">[45]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-46" class="reference">[46]</sup></p> <p>A project called "BioCassava Plus" uses<span> </span>bioengineering<span> </span>to grow cassava with lower<span> </span>cyanogenic glycosides<span> </span>combined with<span> </span>fortification<span> </span>of<span> </span>vitamin A,<span> </span>iron<span> </span>and<span> </span>protein<span> </span>to improve the nutrition of people in<span> </span>sub-Saharan Africa.<sup id="cite_ref-47" class="reference">[47]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference">[48]</sup></p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Farming">Farming</span></h2> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Harvesting">Harvesting</span></h3> <p>Cassava is harvested by hand by raising the lower part of the stem and pulling the roots out of the ground, then removing them from the base of the plant. The upper parts of the stems with the leaves are plucked off before harvest. Cassava is propagated by cutting the stem into sections of approximately 15 cm, these being planted prior to the wet season.<sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference">[49]</sup></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d7/Cassava_stakes1_%284627297822%29.jpg/80px-Cassava_stakes1_%284627297822%29.jpg" width="80" height="120" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava stakes</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Cassava_grafting7_%284425027331%29.jpg/80px-Cassava_grafting7_%284425027331%29.jpg" width="80" height="120" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava<span> </span>grafting</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Postharvest_handling_and_storage">Postharvest handling and storage</span></h3> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/NP_Cassava_Processing_7_%285867707684%29.jpg/120px-NP_Cassava_Processing_7_%285867707684%29.jpg" width="120" height="80" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch processing</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1d/NP_Cassava_Starch_Processing_%285867152719%29.jpg/120px-NP_Cassava_Starch_Processing_%285867152719%29.jpg" width="120" height="80" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch flour processing</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/61/Vietnam_cassava_processing3_lo_%284070319057%29.jpg/80px-Vietnam_cassava_processing3_lo_%284070319057%29.jpg" width="80" height="120" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch wet-processing</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/Cassava_starch_processing_in_Colombia%27s_southwestern_Cauca_department.jpg/120px-Cassava_starch_processing_in_Colombia%27s_southwestern_Cauca_department.jpg" width="120" height="79" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/07/Secando_casabe.JPG/120px-Secando_casabe.JPG" width="120" height="90" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Spreading<span> </span><i>Casabe burrero</i><span> </span>(cassava bread) to dry, Venezuela</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dc/Vietnam_cassava_processing24lo_%284070342389%29.jpg/120px-Vietnam_cassava_processing24lo_%284070342389%29.jpg" width="120" height="80" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch being prepared for packaging</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/Vietnam_cassava_processing20_lo_%284071074448%29.jpg/80px-Vietnam_cassava_processing20_lo_%284071074448%29.jpg" width="80" height="120" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch packaged and ready for shipping</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e5/Frozen_cassava_leaves.jpg/120px-Frozen_cassava_leaves.jpg" width="120" height="90" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Frozen cassava leaves in a Los Angeles market</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> <p>Cassava undergoes post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) once the tubers are separated from the main plant. The tubers, when damaged, normally respond with a healing mechanism. However, the same mechanism, which involves<span> </span>coumaric acids, starts about 15 minutes after damage, and fails to switch off in harvested tubers. It continues until the entire tuber is oxidized and blackened within two to three days after harvest, rendering it unpalatable and useless. PPD is related to the accumulation of<span> </span>reactive oxygen species<span> </span>(ROS) initiated by cyanide release during mechanical harvesting. Cassava shelf life may be increased up to three weeks by overexpressing a cyanide insensitive alternative oxidase, which suppressed ROS by 10-fold.<sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference">[50]</sup><span> </span>PPD is one of the main obstacles preventing farmers from exporting cassavas abroad and generating income. Fresh cassava can be preserved like potato, using<span> </span>thiabendazole<span> </span>or bleach as a fungicide, then wrapping in plastic, coating in wax or freezing.<sup id="cite_ref-51" class="reference">[51]</sup></p> <p>While alternative methods for PPD control have been proposed, such as preventing ROS effects by use of plastic bags during storage and transport or coating the roots with wax, and freezing roots, such strategies have proved to be economically or technically impractical, leading to<span> </span>breeding<span> </span>of cassava varieties more tolerant to PPD and with improved durability after harvest.<sup id="cite_ref-gmr_52-0" class="reference">[52]</sup><span> </span>Plant breeding has resulted in different strategies for cassava tolerance to PPD.<sup id="cite_ref-gmr_52-1" class="reference">[52]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-cs_53-0" class="reference">[53]</sup><span> </span>One was induced by<span> </span>mutagenic<span> </span>levels of<span> </span>gamma rays, which putatively silenced one of the genes involved in PPD genesis, while another was a group of high-carotene<span> </span>clones in which the<span> </span>antioxidant<span> </span>properties of<span> </span>carotenoids<span> </span>are postulated to protect the roots from PPD.<sup id="cite_ref-cs_53-1" class="reference">[53]</sup></p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Pests">Pests</span></h3> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article:<span> </span>List of cassava diseases</div> <p>A major cause of losses during cassava storage is infestation by insects.<sup id="cite_ref-jis_54-0" class="reference">[54]</sup><span> </span>A wide range of species that feed directly on dried cassava chips have been reported as a major factor in spoiling stored cassava, with losses between 19% and 30% of the harvested produce.<sup id="cite_ref-jis_54-1" class="reference">[54]</sup><span> </span>In<span> </span>Africa, a previous issue was the cassava mealybug (<i>Phenacoccus manihoti</i>) and cassava green mite (<i>Mononychellus tanajoa</i>). These pests can cause up to 80 percent crop loss, which is extremely detrimental to the production of<span> </span>subsistence<span> </span>farmers. These pests were rampant in the 1970s and 1980s but were brought under control following the establishment of the "Biological Control Centre for Africa" of the<span> </span>International Institute of Tropical Agriculture<span> </span>(IITA) under the leadership of<span> </span>Hans Rudolf Herren.<sup id="cite_ref-55" class="reference">[55]</sup><span> </span>The Centre investigated<span> </span>biological control<span> </span>for cassava pests; two<span> </span>South American<span> </span>natural enemies<span> </span><i>Apoanagyrus lopezi</i><span> </span>(a<span> </span>parasitoid<span> </span>wasp) and<span> </span><i>Typhlodromalus<span> </span>aripo</i><span> </span>(a predatory mite) were found to effectively control the cassava mealybug and the cassava green mite, respectively.</p> <p>The<span> </span>African cassava mosaic virus<span> </span>causes the leaves of the cassava plant to wither, limiting the growth of the root.<sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference">[56]</sup><span> </span>An outbreak of the virus in Africa in the 1920s led to a major famine.<sup id="cite_ref-NYT_May_2010_57-0" class="reference">[57]</sup><span> </span>The virus is spread by the<span> </span>whitefly<span> </span>and by the transplanting of diseased plants into new fields. Sometime in the late-1980s, a mutation occurred in Uganda that made the virus even more harmful, causing the complete loss of leaves. This mutated virus spread at a rate of 50 mi (80 km) per year, and as of 2005 was found throughout<span> </span>Uganda,<span> </span>Rwanda,<span> </span>Burundi, the<span> </span>Democratic Republic of the Congo<span> </span>and the<span> </span>Republic of the Congo.<sup id="cite_ref-58" class="reference">[58]</sup></p> <p>Cassava brown streak virus disease<span> </span>has been identified as a major threat to cultivation worldwide.<sup id="cite_ref-NYT_May_2010_57-1" class="reference">[57]</sup></p> <p>A wide range of plant parasitic nematodes have been reported associated with cassava worldwide. These include<span> </span><i>Pratylenchus brachyurus</i>,<span> </span><i>Rotylenchulus reniformis</i>,<span> </span><i>Helicotylenchus</i><span> </span>spp.,<span> </span><i>Scutellonema</i><span> </span>spp. and<span> </span><i>Meloidogyne</i><span> </span>spp., of which<span> </span><i>Meloidogyne incognita</i><span> </span>and<span> </span><i>Meloidogyne javanica</i><span> </span>are the most widely reported and economically important.<sup id="cite_ref-59" class="reference">[59]</sup><span> </span><i>Meloidogyne</i><span> </span>spp. feeding produces physically damaging galls with eggs inside them. Galls later merge as the females grow and enlarge, and they interfere with water and nutrient supply.<sup id="cite_ref-Gapasin_60-0" class="reference">[60]</sup><span> </span>Cassava roots become tough with age and restrict the movement of the juveniles and the egg release. It is therefore possible that extensive galling can be observed even at low densities following infection.<sup id="cite_ref-Coyne_61-0" class="reference">[61]</sup><span> </span>Other pest and diseases can gain entry through the physical damage caused by gall formation, leading to rots. They have not been shown to cause direct damage to the enlarged storage roots, but plants can have reduced height if there was loss of enlarged root weight.<sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference">[62]</sup></p> <p>Research on nematode pests of cassava is still in the early stages; results on the response of cassava is, therefore, not consistent, ranging from negligible to seriously damaging.<sup id="cite_ref-63" class="reference">[63]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-64" class="reference">[64]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-Gapasin_60-1" class="reference">[60]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-65" class="reference">[65]</sup><span> </span>Since nematodes have such a seemingly erratic distribution in cassava agricultural fields, it is not easy to clearly define the level of direct damage attributed to nematodes and thereafter quantify the success of a chosen management method.<sup id="cite_ref-Coyne_61-1" class="reference">[61]</sup></p> <p>The use of nematicides has been found to result in lower numbers of galls per feeder root compared to a control, coupled with a lower number of rots in the storage roots.<sup id="cite_ref-66" class="reference">[66]</sup><span> </span>The organophosphorus nematicide<span> </span>femaniphos, when used, did not affect crop growth and yield parameter variables measured at harvest. Nematicide use in cassava is neither practical nor sustainable; the use of tolerant and resistant cultivars is the most practical and sustainable management method.</p> <h2><strong><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassava" target="_blank" title="Source WIKIPEDIA Cassava" rel="noreferrer noopener">Source WIKIPEDIA Cassava</a></strong></h2> </body> </html>
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,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Dev Çilek tohumları</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>10 tohum paketi için fiyat.</strong></span></h2> <p>Dev çilekler, Fragaria ananassa L. Makimus, büyümek oldukça kolaydır! Çok yıllık, kışa dayanıklıdır ve toprak verimli ve iyi drene olduğu sürece tam güneşte iyi gelişir. Sağlıklı bitkiler yıllarca bol meyve üretecek! Çilekler elma gibi büyük (150 g)! Bu standart "Dev" çilek türü size en büyük mahsul verecek!</p> <p>Çileklerin çimlenmesi için ışığa ihtiyacı vardır ve tohumları substrat tarafından kaplanmamalıdır. Ancak uygulama, ortaya çıkarılan çilek tohumlarının çimlenme sırasında çok hızlı kuruduğunu göstermiştir. Bu nedenle, tohumların elenmiş bir ekim substratı ile çok hafif bir şekilde örtülmesi tavsiye edilir. Ekim tohumuna bir tohum veya şeffaf naylon yerleştirebilir ve böylece tohumun filizlenmesi için gerekli nemi koruyabilirsiniz.</p> <p>Tohumun en az 60 günlük tabakalaşma ihtiyacı vardır.</p> </body> </html>
V 1 GS
Giant strawberry seeds

Giant Sunflower Seeds - Giant Russian Mammoth 1.85 - 1

Dev Ayçekirdeği - Dev Rus...

Fiyat €1,85 (SKU: P 388)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Dev Ayçekirdeği - Dev Rus Mamut</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;" class=""><strong>1g (10), 9g (100) tohumlar için Paket Fiyatı.</strong></span></h2> <p>Bu popüler ve büyümesi kolay Dev Rus Mamut Ayçiçeği (Helianthus annuus) Organik Heirloom Variety.</p> <p>Bu bitkiler lezzetli, yenilebilir tohumlar üreten güzel çiçekler yapar. Saplar Dev çiçeklerle 8-12 feet (2.1-3.7 metre) büyüyebilir. Kalitesiz toprakları tolere eder.</p> <p>Tam güneş alan bir alanda don tehlikesinden sonra tohum ekin.</p>
P 388 (1 g)
Giant Sunflower Seeds - Giant Russian Mammoth 1.85 - 1


İspanya'dan çeşitli

Mar Azul tomato seeds 1.75 - 1

Mar Azul domates tohumları

Fiyat €1,95 (SKU: P 158 MA)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Mar Azul domates tohumları</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>10 veya 20 tohumluk Paket Fiyatı.</strong></span></h2> <strong>Her yıl olduğu gibi bu yıl da yeni Mar Azul domates bitkileri ekiyoruz. Resimler bu 2021 yılına ait ve her yıl değiştirmeyeceğiz.</strong><br><br><strong>Mar Azul domates çeşidinin son derece güçlü olması ve çabuk büyümesi oldukça ilginçtir. Şimdiye kadar Mar Azul çeşidinden daha hızlı büyüyen bir domates çeşidi görmedik. Kök çok hızlı gelişir ve bitkilerin zaten kaplarda yan filizler alması ilginçtir.</strong><br><br>Mar Azul domatesi, tamamen doğal tekniklerle elde edilen yeni bir domates çeşididir. Domatesin mavimsi rengi, önemli sağlık yararları sağlayan doğal bitki pigmentleri olan yüksek konsantrasyondaki antosiyaninlerden kaynaklanmaktadır.<br><br>Ağızdaki domatesin uyandırdığı lezzetli tada, aroma ve hislere de dikkat çekmeliyiz.<br><br>Mükemmel olgunlaştığında yoğun, parlak kırmızı iç kısım ile mavimsi-mor renkli.<br><br>Bu, hafif gevrek ve pürüzsüz bir dokuya ve düşük asitliğe sahip, nervürlü omuzlu bir domatesdir.<br><br>Sağlık<br><br>Mar Azul domatesi, işlevsel ve sağlık verici özelliklerini belirlemek için titiz beslenme çalışmalarına konu olmuştur. Granada Üniversitesi Gıda Bilimi ve Teknolojisi Bölümü domatesin C vitamini ve B6 içeriğini onaylayan fizikokimyasal analizin sonuçlarını sundu.<br><br>Her türlü kullanım için mükemmel!
P 158 MA 10 S
Mar Azul tomato seeds 1.75 - 1

Bourbon Vanilla Seeds (Vanilla planifolia)

Bourbon Vanilya Tohumları...

Fiyat €3,50 (SKU: MHS 104)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Bourbon Vanilya Tohumları (Vanilya planifolia)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>50 veya 100 tohumluk Paket Fiyatı.</strong></span></h2> <p><strong>Vanilya</strong> (<em>Vanilla planifolia</em>), Orchidaceae (salepgiller) familyasından birçok tropikal ülkelerde yetiştirilen, tırmanıcı gövdeli bir bitki türü.</p> <p>Vatanı Meksika, Madagaskar, Cava ve Antillerdir. Bitkinin yaprakları sapsız, yassı ve etlidir. Meyveleri 15–20 cm uzunlukta, yassı, iki uca doğru incelmiş, parlak siyahımsı renkli bir kapsüldür. Kokusu özel ve tadı acıdır.</p> <p>Vanilya asıl olarak bir bağ bitkisidir. Vanilya ekolojik olarak Güney Amerika'nın kuzeydoğusunda Meksika’nın Atlantik okyanusuna bakan tarafında yetiştirilmiştir. Vanilya önceleri tapınaklarda koku vermek veya kötü ruhları uzak tutmak için kullanılırdı. Sonradan Meksikalılar Vanilyayı içeceklerine tat vermek amacı ile kullanmaya başladılar.</p> <p>Doğal ortamında vanilya bitkisi Karayiplerden Ekvatorun Pasifik kıyılarına kadar kendisine yerleşim alanı bulmuştur. Günümüzde ise Ekvatorun her iki tarafında yaklaşık 20 derecelik bir alanda yetiştirilebilmektedir. Dünya üzerinde yaklaşık 150 vanilya türü vardır ancak Bourbon, Tahiti ve Hint Vanilyası ticari olarak yetiştirilmektedir.</p> <p>Avrupa'ya vanilyanın tanıtılması ise Amerika kıtasının keşfinden sonra 1520 yılında kakao bitkisi ile beraber İspanyollar tarafından getirilmesi ile başlamıştır. Ancak Vanilya bundan sonra tüm çabalara rağmen çok uzun bir süre Meksika dışında yetiştirilememiştir. 1837 yılında ise vanilyanın polenizasyonunu o yöreye özgün bir arı cinsi tarafından gerçekleştirildiği anlaşıldıktan 4 yıl sonra Bourbon adalarında yaşayan Edmond Albuis tarafından elle polenize etme yöntemi bulunmuştur. Vanilya ekiminden sonra ilk ürünü yaklaşık 3 yıl sonra verir.</p> <p>Çok fazla işçilik gerektiren bir süreçtir. Çubuk yeşil meyve halindeyken yaklaşık 9 ay boyunca tadını alması için bekler. Meyve koparıldıktan sonra hala yeşildir ve henüz tam anlamı ile tadı ve aroması oluşmamıştır. Bu tat ancak kurutma işleme sürecinden sonra oluşur. Meyve koparıldıktan sonra güneşte kurutulur. Ancak günümüzde pek çok ülkede meyveler sıcak suda bekletildikten sonra güneşe konulur. Bu kuruma sürecinde meyve yaklaşık %20 oranında küçülür. İşleme bittikten sonra ürünler ayrıştırılır 1-2 ay boyunca dinlenmeye bırakılır.</p> <p>Vanilyanın yetiştirilmesi, polenizasyonu (polenleme işlemi) ve ekimi hiçbir makine, kimyasal gübre veya tarım ilacı kullanmadan tamamen elle yapılır. Vanilya yetiştiricileri- ki genelde kadın ve çocuklardır- eğer yeteri kadar hızlı çalışırlarsa günde yaklaşık 1000 ile 2000 arası vanilyayı polenleyebilirler. En fazla işçilik gerektiren zirai üründür. Aynı zamanda Dünya'da Safran'dan sonra en pahalı ikinci baharattır.</p> <h2>Kullanımı</h2> <p>Yeşilken toplanıp, sonra suda haşlandıktan sonra kurutulan meyveleri kullanılır. Özel kokulu vanilin maddesi ancak fermentatif bir kurutma sonucunda meydana gelmektedir. Vanilin meyveden glikosit ile bağlı durumdadır. Ancak böyle bir kurutma esnasındaki mayalanma ile serbest hale geçmektedir. Genellikle evlerde kullanılan vanilya doğal değildir. Pasta, çikolata, dondurma, şekerleme, kahve, kakao ve kola, likör gibi pek çok ürüne tat katmak için kullanılır. Vanilya, mide ve sinir sistemini üzerinde uyarıcı etkilere sahiptir. Koku verici olarak gıda ve parfüm sanayiinde kullanılmaktadır.</p> <p>Vanilya 3 şekilde kullanılabilir. Çubuk vanilyayı bütün olarak, öğütülmüş olarak veya Vanilya Özü olarak kullanabilirisiniz. Vanilyanın belki de en fazla sevildiği alan Dondurma ve sütlü tatlılardır. Ancak genel olarak tüm tatlılarda, hamur işlerinde, kahve, çikolata ve pek çok diğer gıda ürünün tadını ve aromasını zenginleştirir. Ayrıca kozmetik sektörü de vanilyanın yoğun kullanıldığı alanlardan biridir.</p> <h3>Bütün olarak (Vanilya çubuğu)</h3> <p>Vanilyayı bütün olarak yapacağınız yemeklere ve tatlılara katabilirsiniz. Burada değişik kullanım yöntemleri vardır. Örneğin sütlü tatlılarda sütü kaynatırken belirli bir süre Vanilya çubuğu ile kaynatabilirsiniz. Eğer daha kuvvetli bir aroma vermek istiyorsanız Vanilya çubuğunu ortadan uzunlamasına ikiye ayırarak kullanabilirsiniz. Ayrıca yemek ve tatlılarınızda süsleme amaçlı olarak da kullanabilirsiniz. Bunun dışında şeker, bal veya reçel gibi ürünlerinizin içinde bekleterek 1-2 hafta gibi sürelerde aromasını tamamen ürüne verdirebilirsiniz.</p> <h3>Çekilmiş olarak (sade veya şekerle karıştırılarak)</h3> <p>Vanilyayı hazır öğütülmüş olarak alarak veya kendinizde öğüterek kullanabilirsiniz. Bu şekilde öğütülmüş vanilyayı genelde şekerleriniz ile karıştırabilir veya kullanmak istediğiniz tatlılarınızda yine bu şekilde kullanabilirsiniz.</p> <h3>Vanilya Özü olarak (Alkol veya gliserol ile karıştırılarak)</h3> <p>Vanilya çubuklarının belirli bir süre için alkol veya gliserollü bir karışımda bekletilmesi ile elde edilir. Bu şekilde kullanım pratik olduğu için endüstriyel veya ticari kullanımlarda tercih edilmektedir. Vanilya ve solüsyonun oranına göre derecelendirilmektedir. Örneğin 2X olan bir öz 1X olan öze göre 2 kat daha fazla Vanilya özü içerir, yani daha yoğundur ve daha az kullanarak aynı sonucu elde edebilirsiniz demektir.</p> </body> </html>
MHS 104
Bourbon Vanilla Seeds (Vanilla planifolia)


Costoluto Pachino - Sic. Heirloom Tomato Seeds

Costoluto Pachino - Sic....

Fiyat €1,55 (SKU: P 341)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>COSTOLUTO PACHINO - Sicilian Heirloom Tomato Seeds</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 5 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>Costoluto Pachino is bigger than a cherry tomato with a superb gourmet flavor to die for, and is served up in selected eating houses and cafes. It is named after the main town in Sicily where it was first bred.</p> <p>Our original seeds were a gift from a good friend who lives in Sicily and our seed plants were grown in a greenhouse to avoid the possibility of crosses.</p> <p>Pachino tomatoes have been grown since the 1920s in the coastal area of Pachino and neighboring territories. Initialy, the tomato crops had to fight for space with the grape vines. Since the 1950s, the tomato crops have spread and expanded.</p> <p>The main characteristic of Pachino tomatoes is that the plant produces fruit 15 to 20 days prior to the other varieties. This has to do with the climate and especially the temperature and isolation of the plants in this area. Today, the tomatoes are cultivated in covered tunnels (that are uncovered during the summer) to avoid drastic changes in temperature that have cause entire crops to be wiped out. The coverage also helps to temper the night and day temperatures.</p> <p>This variety of tomato is known for its distinctive characteristics that are caused by the costal microclimate and salinity of the water used to irrigate the plants. There are three types of Pachino cultivars: round and smooth, costoluto, and ciliegino or cherry. The cherry tomato grows in bunches and is bright red. The other two are usually bright green, although the smooth can also be red. Pachino tomatoes have a sweet taste, good consistency and durability. Their skin is smooth and shiny.</p> <p>The tomato plants grow vertically with one or two productive branches. They are irrigated with ground water from specific wells according to the production guidelines. The water has a salt content of 1,500 to 10,000 ms. The tomatoes are picked by hand when the fruit becomes ripe, about 3 to 4 days after the beginning of the plant’s productive cycle.</p> <p>Pachino tomatoes should be eaten raw in salads, or used in pastas, pizzas or vegetable soups. In Sicily, tomatoes are dried in the sun or conserved in oil. The dried tomatoes make great bruschette and tartines. They can be used in pastas, with boiled meats or to flavor sauces.</p> </body> </html>
P 341
Costoluto Pachino - Sic. Heirloom Tomato Seeds

Carolina Reaper Seeds Red or Yellow Worlds Hottest 2.45 - 1

Carolina Reaper acı biber...

Fiyat €2,05 (SKU: C 97)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Carolina Reaper acı biber tohumlar</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>5, 10, 20 veya 50 tohumluk Paket Fiyatı.</strong></span></h2> <p><strong>Kendinizi fotoğraflarımızdan görebileceğiniz gibi, tohumların kendi bitkilerimizden (organik olarak yetiştirilen) olduğunu ve bizden satın aldığınız tohumlardan ne alacağınızı biliyorsunuz ...</strong></p> <p>Carolina Reaper (okunuş: Kerolayna Riğpır), orijinal ismi HP22BNH7 olan ve Guinness rekorlar kitabına göre dünyanın en acı biberi seçilen Capsicum chinense türü biber. Carolina Azraili anlamına gelir. Güney Carolina bölgesinde seralarda yetişen kırmızı renkli dolma bibere benzer.</p> <p>Ed Currie sınıfından olan bu biber 7 Ağustos 2013 yılında Guinness rekorlar kitabına girmiştir. Scoville Heat Units’in Winthrop Üniversitesinin yaptığı testlere göre bu biberin acılık seviyesi yaklaşık olarak 1,569,300 civarında olduğu tahmin ediliyor. Bazı verilere göre ise acılık seviyesinin 2.300.000’lere kadar ulaştığın da görülmüştür. Bu biberden tadacak kişilerin, eğer acıya dayanıklılığı yok ise çok ciddi mide hasarlarına yol açacağı uzmanlar tarafından sık sık gündeme getirilmiştir.</p> </body> </html>
C 97 R (5 S)
Carolina Reaper Seeds Red or Yellow Worlds Hottest 2.45 - 1
Climbing Strawberry seeds "Mount Everest" (Fragaria x ananassa)

Climbing Strawberry seeds...

Fiyat €2,50 (SKU: V 1 CS)
,
5/ 5
<div id="idTab1" class="rte"> <h2><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><em><strong>Climbing Strawberry seeds "Mount Everest"</strong></em></span></h2> <h3><strong><span style="color:#ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of<strong> 10 </strong>seeds.</strong></span><em><br /></em></strong></h3> <p>A unique climbing strawberry! This fast, strong growing variety will produce runners up to 1,5m in length that make a real talking point when trained up a trellis or obelisk climbing frame, or cascading from window boxes and hanging baskets. Better still, Strawberry 'Mount Everest' is an ever-bearering variety that produces a delicious crop of medium sized, sweet, juicy fruits from June right through to September! Height: 1,5m. Spread: 30cm.</p> <p>Estimated time to cropping once planted: 4-8 months.<br />Estimated time to best yields: 4-8 months.</p> </div>
V 1 CS
Climbing Strawberry seeds "Mount Everest" (Fragaria x ananassa)
Exotic Rare Black Strawberry Seeds

Black Strawberry Seeds -...

Fiyat €2,25 (SKU: V 1)
,
5/ 5
<h2>Black Strawberry Seeds - Exotic Rare</h2> <h2><span style="color:#ff0000;">Price for Package of 10 seeds.</span></h2> <p><strong style="color:#ff0000;font-size:18px;"></strong>A lovely Black Strawberry that is fully hardy. Perfect for small spaces or containers, it will produce an abundance of small sweet fruit, with a hint of pineapple.</p> <p>Heavy cropping and easy to grow.</p> <p>Perennial herb densely clustered with straighter branches.15-25cm in height. Cymose anthotaxy with juicy flesh. Require loosing and weeding at intervals on the loose fertile soil with ample organic fertilizers. Favor to warm and need moisture to live through the winter.</p> <div> <div> <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="1"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" width="100%" valign="top"> <h3 align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Instructions</strong></span></h3> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Propagation:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">Seeds</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Pretreat:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">0</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Stratification:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">0</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">all year round</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Depth:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">Needs Light to germinate! Just sprinkle on the surface of the substrate + gently press</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Mix:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">Coir or sowing mix + sand or perlite</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Germination temperature:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">20-25°C</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Location:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">bright + keep constantly moist not wet</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Germination Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">1 - 8 weeks</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Watering:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">Water regularly during the growing season</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><br /><span style="color:#008000;"><em>Copyright © 2012 Seeds Gallery - Saatgut Galerie - Galerija semena. </em><em>All Rights Reserved.</em></span></p> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p> </p> </div> </div>
V 1
Exotic Rare Black Strawberry Seeds