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تعليمات البذر

How to Grow a Square Watermelon 1.75 - 1

How to Grow a Square...

السعر 0.95 € (SKU: HTGSW)
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5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <div id="idTab1" class="rte"> <h2 class="firstHeading"><strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>How to Grow a Square Watermelon</em></span></strong></h2> <p>Here you can buy and download a PDF manual ( with pictures ) How to Grow a Square Watermelon.<br />Manuals are available following languages:<br />Deutsch  <br />English  <br />Español <br />France   <br />Italiano  <br />Português  <br />Srpski</p> </div> </body> </html>
HTGSW
How to Grow a Square Watermelon 1.75 - 1

How to grow melons 0 - 1

How to grow melons

السعر 0.00 € (SKU: 0000033)
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5/ 5
<div id="idTab1" class="rte"> <p><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><em><strong>How to grow melons</strong></em></span></p> <div>The succulent flavor of vine-ripened melons is worth the special effort it takes to grow them. Homegrown melons outshine those from the grocery store because melons pack up on sugar during their final days of growth—commercial melons just can’t compete because they’re picked a little green for shipping.</div> <div>Most melons need nutrient-rich soil, plenty of sunshine, and at least 3 to 4 months of warm weather. Melons can take up lots of space. A single watermelon vine, for example, can sprawl across 100 square feet and produce only two fruits; muskmelons, on the other hand, can provide at least a dozen fruits in a 16-square-foot area. If you have limited space, try bush cultivars, or grow standard types vertically on a strong fence or trellis.</div> <p> </p> <div><strong>Types: </strong>What we call cantaloupes are actually muskmelons. This class of melon has pumpkin-like ribbing and skin covered with a netting of shallow veins. Its fragrant flesh ranges from salmon to green. ‘Athena’ and ‘Pulsar’ are popular cultivars for home gardens. True cantaloupes, grown mostly in Europe, have orange flesh and rough, scaly skin with dark, distinct veins. </div> <p> </p> <div>Winter melons (also a type of muskmelon) ripen as the weather starts to turn cool and will keep for fairly long periods if stored properly. This group includes honeydews, crenshaws, casabas, and Persians. These larger, more oval fruits have waxy skins that can be smooth or wrinkled, with less-fragrant flesh. </div> <p> </p> <div>Winter melons require a growing season of well over 100 days and are more susceptible to diseases, but they’re certainly delicious. Honeydews such as ‘Earlidew’ have smooth, creamy white skins and lime green flesh that takes on a slight golden tinge when mature. Crenshaws have salmon pink flesh with a distinctive flavor. The tenderness of their dark green skins makes them difficult to ship. Casabas have wrinkled, golden skins and white flesh that stays sweet and juicy over a long period. Large, round Persian melons have thick, orange flesh.</div> <p> </p> <div>Watermelons fall under a different botanical classification, Citrullus lanatus, but they thrive under the same cultural conditions that other melons require. Compact cultivars such as ‘Sugar Baby’ and ‘Petite Treat” (which is also seedless) are perfect for smaller home gardens. ‘Petite Yellow’ is one of several small yellow-fleshed cultivars for home gardens. </div> <h2><strong>Planting:</strong></h2> <div>Melons need the sunniest spot possible with plenty of air circulation to help them dry out quickly after rain and prevent disease. Melon roots usually extend from 2 to 10 inches into the earth, but some go as deep as 4 to 5 feet. Therefore, the soil must be loose and moisture retentive but well drained. Since melons will be one of the last things you plant in your vegetable garden, you might want to give them an extra boost by working 2 to 3 inches of compost into the planting area. </div> <p> </p> <div>Vines may not set fruit if they are chilled as seedlings, so don’t plant until the soil has warmed to between 70° and 80°F. Get a head start by planting seeds indoors in 4-inch peat pots. Start them just 2 to 4 weeks before transplanting, because seedlings that develop tendrils or more than four leaves may have difficulty later in establishing roots. Sow several seeds ½ inch deep in each pot, and place the pots in a south-facing window or other sunny spot. Provide bottom heat if necessary to bring the soil temperature to 75°F. Thin 2-inch-tall seedlings to the strongest plant by cutting the others off at soil level. A few days before planting, harden off the seedlings by setting them outdoors in a sunny area during the day and bringing them in at night.</div> <p> </p> <div>You can grow large crops in rows, but most melons seem to do better in hills. For most cultivars, space hills 4 to 6 feet apart; vigorous growers like watermelons may require 6 to 12 feet between hills, while some bush types need only 2 feet.</div> <p> </p> <div>When planting directly in the garden, sow six seeds per hill no earlier then 2 weeks after the last frost date. Thin to two or three plants per hill, or in short-season areas, thin to only one plant per hill, so it won’t have to compete with the other vines for nutrients.</div> <p> </p> <div>In colder climates, lay black plastic or black paper mulch a few weeks prior to planting or transplanting to warm up the soil and keep it warm once the plants are in the ground. Anchor the mulch securely to keep it from shifting and covering young plants. You can also use hotcaps, such as plastic jugs with the bottom cut out, to keep seedlings warm.</div> <p>Growing guidelines:If you’re not using paper mulch, apply several inches of organic mulch just as the vines start to elongate. This covering will suppress weeds and help keep the fruits clean and disease free. Provide generous amounts of water, particularly right after transplanting and as the fruits develop. </p> <p> </p> <div>Male flowers appear first, at leaf joints on the main stem and on larger side shoots. Around a week later, fruit-producing female flowers form on secondary side shoots. Despite the many female blossoms, each vine will produce only three or four melons. Most young melons will grow to the size of an egg, then shrivel as they send their nutrients back into the vines. Fertilize with compost tea when the fruits set and again 2 weeks later. </div> <p> </p> <div>Though melon vines look very robust, they are actually quite delicate—always handle them carefully. If they start to sprawl outside the area where you wish them to grow, gently guide them back toward the center of the planted area.</div> <p> </p> <div>In areas colder than about Zone 7, remove flowers and smaller fruits from the vines after midsummer; these won’t have time to mature before frost, and they use up energy that should go into ripening the two or three larger fruits you’ve left on each vine.</div> <p> </p> <div><strong>Problems:</strong> Striped and spotted cucumber beetles can be serious pests. The beetles, which spread bacterial wilt as they feed, tend to be more destructive to direct-seeded plants than to transplants. They often attack around the time the plants flower. Tents of cheesecloth, mosquito netting, or floating row covers are the best protection from beetles, but you must remove these coverings when female flowers form so that bees can pollinate them. Spraying young plants with kaolin clay may deter beetles from feeding. You can also use a hand-held vacuum cleaner to remove beetles from the plants (dump the collected beetles into soapy water to kill them). As a last resort to fight a cucumber beetle infestation, spray a pyrethrin product. </div> <div>Melon aphids can also be a problem.</div> <div>Squash vine borers, which eat their way up the stem of a plant and cause the leaves to wilt, may also attack melons. See the squash growing guide for information on this pest.</div> <p> </p> <div>Resistant cultivars and crop rotation are the best defenses against melon diseases, including downy and powdery mildews. Mildews are common in wet weather. Downy mildew produces yellow spots on leaf surfaces, with purplish areas on the undersides. Powdery mildew causes powdery white areas on leaves and stems. Even a small amount of mildew can affect the sweetness of melons because the fungus will siphon off the vine’s sugar to fuel its own growth. Sprays of potassium bicarbonate (or baking soda) can help prevent powdery mildew. Cut off and destroy any affected branches.</div> <p> </p> <div>Bacterial wilt produces limp leaves and stems that secrete a white sticky substance when cut. Remove and destroy affected plants. Reduce the chances of bacterial wilt by controlling cucumber beetles and aphids.</div> <h3><strong>Harvesting:</strong></h3> <div>The stem of a vine-ripened fruit should break cleanly with no pressure at all on the stem; just picking up the fruit should be sufficient. You can often judge the ripeness of cantaloupes and muskmelons by scent alone. </div> <p> </p> <div>Some gardeners determine the ripeness of a watermelon by thumping it, with a resulting ringing sound if it’s green and a dull or dead sound if it’s ripe. However, a dull or dead sound can also mean that the fruit is overripe. Other growers harvest when the “pig’s-tail” curl where the watermelon attaches turns brown, but on some cultivars this tail dries up at 7 to 10 days 380before the fruit is ripe. Instead, look at the bottom surface or “ground spot” on a watermelon. If it has turned from a light straw color to gold, orange, or rich yellow, it’s ripe for picking. </div> <div>Storage time for various melons kept in a cool place can vary from 2 weeks for a cantaloupe to 8 weeks for a casaba.</div> <p></p> </div>
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How to grow melons 0 - 1
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How to Grow Tobacco 0 - 1

How to Grow Tobacco

السعر 0.00 € (SKU: 0000045)
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5/ 5
<div id="idTab1" class="rte"> <h2><strong><em><span style="text-decoration: underline;" class="">How to Grow Tobacco</span></em></strong></h2> <h3><strong>Understanding Soil Conditions and Climate</strong></h3> <p><strong>1</strong></p> <p>Know that tobacco leaf will grow in almost every type of soil. Tobacco is an extremely hardy plant. It grows pretty much where any other agricultural crop will grow, although, as a rule of thumb, tobacco grows better in soils which drain well. The important thing to note is that tobacco will be extremely affected by the soil in which it is grown; lighter soils will generally produce lighter colored tobacco, while darker soils will generally produce darker colored tobacco.</p> <p><strong>2</strong></p> <p>For best results, grow tobacco in a climate that's dry and warm. Tobacco requires a frost-free period of 3 to 4 months between transplant and harvest.[2] For best results, tobacco should be ripened without heavy rainfall; excess water causes tobacco plants to become thin and flaky. The ideal temperature for growing tobacco is 68° to 86° F (20° to 30° C).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h3><strong>Planting and Transplanting Tobacco</strong></h3> <p><strong>1</strong></p> <p>Sprinkle tobacco seeds onto the surface of a sterile seed starting mix and lightly water. Be sure you place your starting mix in a small flower pot, preferably with holes in the bottom. These seeds should be grown indoors for 4-6 weeks.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Seed starting mix consists of compost and other nutrients which promote healthy seed growth. They are available at most gardening and home improvement stores.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Tobacco seeds are extremely small (not much larger than a pin prick), so be sure not to sow them too thickly. Allow adequate spacing between seeds to avoid overcrowding.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Because tobacco seeds are so small, it's not advisable to begin them outdoors. Also, their nutrient requirements are different from many other plants, so adding a bit of gravel or special fertilizer designed for tobacco is a good idea.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Tobacco seeds require warm temperatures ranging from 75-80 degrees Fahrenheit to properly germinate. If you aren't growing in a greenhouse, make sure your indoor area meets these temperature requirements.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Do not cover the seeds with soil since they need light for germination; covering can slow down and even prevent germination from taking place. Seeds should begin to germinate in 7-10 days.</p> <p><strong>2</strong></p> <p>Water the soil frequently to keep it moist but not soggy. The soil should never be allowed to completely dry out.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Be extra careful when watering because the force of the water can uproot the freshly emerging tobacco seedlings and cause them to die.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;If possible, water the seedlings from the bottom. If you used a flower pot with holes in the bottom, set the pot on top of a tray of water. Leave it there for a few seconds so that the water is absorbed by the soil. This will water the seedling without wetting the leaves.</p> <p><strong>3</strong></p> <p>Transplant your seedlings into a larger pot after 3 weeks. Your seedlings should be large enough for transplantation if you watered and stored them correctly.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Transplanting seedlings to a larger container will allow them to grow a strong and healthy root system.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; To see if your seedlings are the right size, try grasping them. If you can easily pinch them between your thumb and index finger, they are ready for transplanting. If they are still too small, allow the germination process to continue until they have reached the right size.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Transplanting tobacco plants bare-root (without soil) directly from the seedling pot to the garden is an easier method, as it only involves one transplantation. However, once planted, the bare-rooted plant can go into "transplant shock" where some or most of its largest leaves turn yellow and wilt. After a week, the tobacco plant will begin to flourish once more, but avoiding transplant shock altogether will save you a week of waiting as the potted plant will begin growing immediately once transplanted.</p> <p><strong>4</strong></p> <p>Water your seedlings with plant starter fertilizer solution like miracle grow or seaweed/fish emulsion fertilizer. This should be sufficient food for the plants until they are ready to be transferred to your garden in approximately 3-4 weeks.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; If your plant begins to look yellow or look stunted, another dose of fertilizer may be needed. Do so sparingly, however, since over-fertilization while in pots may burn the plants roots or lead to overgrown, spindly plants.</p> <p><strong>5</strong></p> <p>Prepare your garden plot for transplanting the larger plants. Be sure the area you plant the tobacco is constantly exposed to sun, well-drained, and tilled.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Lack of sun will result in spindly plants, poor growth, and thin leaves. This may not be problematic if you intend on planting tobacco for cigar wrapper use, since growing tobacco under shade can create desirable leaf characteristics.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Also test the pH levels of your garden. Tobacco plants need to be planted in moderately acidic soil, otherwise they won't flourish. The soil itself should have a pH of 5.8. Poor growth and some growth disorders may occur if the soil pH is 6.5 or higher.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Avoid preparing your garden on soil that is infested with diseases and nematodes. Nematodes are parasitic worms which feed on tobacco and are extremely difficult to exterminate once infestation occurs.</p> <p><strong>6</strong></p> <p>Transfer the tobacco plants to your garden when the shoots are 6–8 inches (15.2–20.3 cm) in length. Space the plants at least 2–3 feet (0.6–0.9 m) apart in a row, and space rows 3 1/2 - 4 feet from each other.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Tobacco plants are "heavy feeders," meaning they will deplete the nutrients in the soil in about 2 years. To counteract this, employ a 2 year rotation in your growing space by planting for 2 years in a different location and waiting 1 year before transferring it back to its original location.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Rather than having an empty garden plot, you could rotate tobacco with plants that are not susceptible to common soil-borne pests, like corn or soybeans.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h3><strong>Caring for Tobacco</strong></h3> <p><strong>1</strong></p> <p>Water the tobacco thoroughly each evening for a few days as the plants settle. Once they become better established, you can water less frequently to avoid over-watering.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Keep the plants well watered without making the soil soggy. If your garden area may experience drought, consider installing an irrigation system. This will prevent the soil from becoming excessively dry, which can then hinder tobacco growth.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; If you expect a few days of light drizzles or rain, you can water even less frequently. The structure of the tobacco plant's leaves enables the plant to collect and funnel the water down to the base of the plant.</p> <p><strong>2</strong></p> <p>Apply a low-chlorine fertilizer which only contains nitrogen in nitrate form. Fertilizers used for tomatoes, peppers, and potatoes are also suitable.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Over-fertilizing is a serious concern, as it can cause damaging salt accumulation. The application amount will depend largely on the grade of the fertilizer, the natural fertility of the soil, losses of nutrients due to leaching, and other subjective factors. Consult your fertilizer's directions for the most optimal usage.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; It is recommended that you apply the fertilizer several times. Once the tobacco begins to flower, there should be no need to fertilize further.</p> <p><strong>3</strong></p> <p>Top the tobacco plant as soon as it begins to flower. Topping is the removal of the terminal (center) bud and allows the upper leaves to get larger and thicker than if they were untopped.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The terminal bud is the most prominent and is typically located at the very top of the stem.</p> <p>The top can be removed by simply breaking or cutting it off, preferably before any flowers open.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Soon after the top is removed, axillary buds or suckers will develop at each leaf. Remove these by hand as well, otherwise they will reduce the tobacco's yield and quality.</p> <p><strong>4</strong></p> <p>Hoe gently around your tobacco plants to keep them free of weeds. You can also pull up soil around the base of the plant to help strengthen it.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Tobacco roots grow quickly and the root structure is quite large, with thousands of small hair-like feeder roots that grow close to the soil surface. Be careful when tilling or hoeing, as penetrating the soil too deep can damage the roots.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; After 3-4 weeks from planting, heavy tilling should be stopped and only light scrapings to control weeds should be done.</p> <p><strong>5</strong></p> <p>Spray your plants with tobacco-specific pesticides if you notice pests or rot. Common tobacco pests include budworms, hornworms, and pathogens.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Tobacco is subject to infestation by many different bugs and diseases. The rotation process should help reduce the likelihood of infestation, but it is no guarantee.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; If you still find your tobacco to be infested, many gardening and home improvement stores sell tobacco-specific pesticides. Brand names include "Nemacor," "Prowl," and "Admire." Keep in mind that some pesticides are specifically geared towards insect control on young plants, while others just kill fungus. Find a pesticide which is most suitable to your situation.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h3><strong>Harvesting and Curing Tobacco</strong></h3> <p><strong>1</strong></p> <p>Cut your tobacco plants at the stalk while keeping the leaves attached. Alternatively, you can remove the leaves from the stalk in the field. Your plants should be ready for harvest about 3 months after planting.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Stalks should be cut about 3-4 weeks after topping. The lower leaves will be partially deteriorated at this time. If you remove the leaves in the field, there should be 4 or 5 harvests at intervals of 1-2 weeks, starting with the lower leaves. The first harvest should start soon after topping and when the leaves show a slight yellowing.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Flowers will inhibit the growth of your leaves and will compete for sunlight; removing them is important for obtaining the broadest tobacco leaves possible.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; You will need to keep the leaves intact because they will be hanged during the curing process. Curing is necessary because it prepares the leaves for consumption; the process produces various compounds in the leaf which give cured tobacco its hay, tea, rose oil, or fruity aromatic flavor. Curing also contributes to the tobacco's "smoothness" when consumed.</p> <p><strong>2</strong></p> <p>Hang your tobacco leaves in a well-ventilated, hot, and humid area. The suggested temperature for curing ranges from 65 degrees to 95 degrees Fahrenheit, while the most optimal humidity ranges from 65-70 percent.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Be sure to provide adequate space between the stalks to allow for satisfactory drying of the leaves.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Proper curing should take a few weeks in order to achieve good quality. Tobacco that cures too fast will be green and will likely not have good aroma or flavor. Leaves that cure too slow may develop mold or rot. Be sure to monitor your tobacco leaves closely for these signs and adjust your temperature/humidity accordingly.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; If curing leaves on the stalk, remove the leaves from the stalk once curing has completed.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; A building that can be opened and closed as needed to control the humidity and drying rate is ideal. Some producers of homegrown tobacco have built curing facilities and may offer them for sale.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Air curing tobacco is primarily reserved for cigar use. Tobacco can also be cured using fire, the sun, or can be flue-cured. Fire-cured tobacco typically takes between 10-13 weeks and is used to make pipe tobacco and chewing tobacco. Sun-cured and flue-cured tobacco is used in cigarettes.</p> <p><strong>3</strong></p> <p>Age your tobacco in conditions similar to the curing process. Commercial tobacco is typically aged for a year or more, but aging your own tobacco can take up to 5-6 years.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Aging will not occur if the temperature and moisture content is perfect. If the tobacco is too dry, it will not age; if it is too moist, it will rot. Unfortunately, the proper temperature and humidity vary widely and will require some experimentation on your part.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Monitor your leaves closely during the aging process to ensure that they remain moist, yet rot free. Aging is not an exact science and will require impromptu adjustments when necessary.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Aging your tobacco leaves is optional, but know that un-aged tobacco is often harsh and lacks good flavor.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h3><strong>Tips</strong></h3> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Some people harvest several times throughout a season, picking off each layer of leaves as it reaches an appropriate length. Experience will teach you whether your specific plants should be harvested by leaf or by stalk.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Types and quantity of fertilizer, frequency of watering and pest control will change greatly depending on your climate and location. Consult local sources for tips on growing tobacco seeds in your specific area.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h3><strong>Warnings</strong></h3> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Tobacco pests are often different from those that trouble other plants, so be sure that the methods you take to preserve your tobacco plants do not interfere with your other crops.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Wait 4 or 5 years before growing tobacco in the same place twice. This will allow the soil to regenerate the nutrients needed for tobacco.</p> </div>
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How to Grow Tobacco 0 - 1

Sowing Corn and Growing Tips 0 - 1

Sowing Corn and Growing Tips

السعر 0.00 € (SKU: 0000025)
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5/ 5
<div id="idTab1" class="rte"> <h2><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><em><strong>Sowing Corn and Growing Tips:</strong></em></span></h2> <p>Corn is quite easy to grow, but it does need some extra attention throughout its growing season to get the best crop possible.</p> <p>Here are a couple of tips for planting corn and how to properly care for it, so you have the most success.</p> <p><strong>Temperatures:</strong> Corn germinates poorly in cool soil, it likes warmer temperatures. Optimum growth occurs in 65° to 75° F (18° to 24° C) weather, and does well up to 90° F (32° C), but it does very poorly at temperatures of 100° F (38° C) or above.</p> <p><strong>Spacing:</strong> Corn rows should be at least 3 feet (1 m) apart, and each plant should be a minimum of 9 inches (23 cm) apart. Plant in blocks so the wind can pollinate the corn properly.</p> <p><strong>Planting:</strong> When planting, put down a balanced fertilizer like 15-15-15 or 5-5-5. If the weather is warm, sow seeds 1 inch (2.5 cm) deep. If planting in the middle of hot summer weather, sow up to 4 inches (10 cm) deep.</p> <p><strong>Side-Dressing:</strong> Corn is a heavy feeder and needs to have fertilizer put along the root zone on one side of each row (side-dressing) a few times throughout its growing cycle. Side-dress once when the corn is around 6 inches (15 cm) tall. Side-dress on the other side of the row when you see tassels forming on the plants.</p> <p><strong>Watering:</strong> Water corn as needed. Corn needs at least 1 inch (2.5 cm) of water per week. If you have no rain, give the soil a good soaking and then allow the soil to dry between waterings. Have some care though and don’t water corn from above, because that can wash the pollen off the tassels and you won’t get any corn!</p> <p><strong>Avoid Cross Pollination:</strong> Keep different corn cultivars at least 400 yards (365 m) apart, or plant so they tassel two weeks apart to avoid any possibility of cross pollination.</p> <p><strong>Harvesting:</strong> Three weeks after corn silks appear on the ears, carefully pull back part of the husk and pierce a kernel with your thumbnail. If the liquid that comes out is milky white, the sweet corn is ripe and ready to eat.</p> </div>
0000025
Sowing Corn and Growing Tips 0 - 1

Sowing Instructions Tomatoes - Chili

Sowing Instructions...

السعر 1.00 € (SKU: 0000036)
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5/ 5
<div id="idTab1" class="rte"> <h2><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><em><strong>Sowing Instructions Tomatoes - Chili</strong></em></span></h2> <h3><strong>Site &amp; Soil</strong></h3> <div>Tomatoes are warm-season plants and should be planted only after danger of frost has passed. Temperature is an important factor in the production of tomatoes, which are particularly sensitive to low night temperatures. Blossom drop can occur in early spring when daytime temperatures are warm, but night temperatures fall below 55 degrees F as well as in summer, when days are above 90 degrees F and nights above 76 degrees F. Soil Requirements Tomatoes can be grown on many different soil types, but a deep, loamy soil, well-drained and supplied with organic matter and nutrients is most suitable. As with most garden vegetables, tomatoes grow best in a slightly acid soil with a pH of 6.2 to 6.8.</div> <div><strong>Growing</strong></div> <div>Sow seeds in early spring for greenhouse cultivation or mid spring for outdoor cultivation 6-8 weeks before last expected frost. Sow seed 6mm (¼in) deep in a good compost. Germination takes 6-14 days at 24C (75F). </div> <div>For outdoor growing, sow (indoors) at the beginning of April to produce fruit around the beginning of August. Sowing early (the beginning of March for example) to produce an earlier crop is a good idea if you have the time and experience to cope with the difficulties of the cooler, less favourable conditions.</div> <p><strong><span>Start</span></strong><span>: Seeds or seedlings</span></p> <p><strong><span>Germination</span></strong><span>: 7 to 25 days, 20°C to 35°C</span></p> <p><strong><span>Seed Life (viability):</span></strong><span> 3-4 years</span></p> <p><strong><span>Soil:</span></strong><span> Well drained</span></p> <p><strong><span>Sunlight</span></strong><span>: Full sun</span></p> <p><strong><span>Sow Seeds</span></strong><span>: 45 - 60 cm apart</span></p> <p><strong><span>Thin to</span></strong><span>: 45 - 60 cm apart</span></p> <p><strong><span>Ave. Days to Harvest</span></strong><span>: 65 to 100</span></p> <p><strong><span>Good Companions</span></strong><span>: Basil, Carrots, Chives, Garlic, Leeks, Marjoram, Onion, Oregano, Tomatoes, Yarrow</span></p> <p><strong><span>Bad Companions</span></strong><span>: Fennel, Kohlrabi </span></p> <p><strong><span>Germination</span></strong></p> <p><span>Some peppers (Bird and other small wild peppers) require extreme measures like bleaching or feeding to birds to get them to germinate. Luckily most peppers will germinate fine without such measures.</span> <span>Sow the seed 1/2cm deep in a well-drained starting medium. Seeds require a warm environment to germinate; your growing medium should be between 20 - 35 degrees C with 30C being the ideal. Using a heat mat (available at home and garden stores, hardware stores and even pet shops) can help to ensure ideal conditions. Additionally, young starts will fare much better with additional light. Place in a window or sunny location that receives lots of sun exposure. Consider supplementing with artificial lighting if possible.</span></p> <p><span>My method is to setup a warming tray using a few off the shelf components.</span></p> <ul><li><span>Heating Pad</span></li> <li><span>Plastic tray</span></li> <li><span>3×3 plastic seed starting packs</span></li> <li><span>Saran wrap</span></li> </ul><p></p> <p><span>First, prepare the starter packs by cutting 8 of the 9 cell packs into individual cell carriers. Fill each 1 cell with a high quality seed starting mix and insert the single cells into the 9 cell starting packs. The individual cell in the 9 cell carrier allows individual movement of seedlings to grow lights. Place between 2 &amp; 3 seeds in each cell (or other quantity based on predicted germination ratio). Insert seeded cells into 9 cell groups and arrange in plastic tray. When the tray is full, cover and set it over the heating pad. Set the heating pad off at the highest setting and monitor the temperature with digital thermometer. Optimum soil temperature is 85 degrees F, adjust accordingly to maintain this temperature.</span></p> <p></p> <p><strong><span>Lighting</span></strong></p> <p><span>Adjacent to the germination trays overhead fluorescent grow light setup. When a seed germinates, move it out off of the heat pads and under the lights as soon as it breaks ground. It is crucial to grow a healthy plant so cull anything less than perfect. Also, be sure to label plants well as it is easy to get mixed up when you have several different types of pepper in each 9 pack. Print labels on transparent envelope labels (Avery #2660 ) and cut/stick them on plastic stakes.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Outside</span></strong></p> <p><span>Set plants out 2 to 3 weeks after the last frost when the soil has warmed and the weather has settled. Peppers can be temperamental when it comes to setting fruit if temperatures are too hot or too cool. Nighttime temperatures below 15C or above 23C can reduce fruit set.</span></p> <p><em><span>Tip: Wait until soil temperatures exceed 10 degrees C at all times before placing into the ground. Pepper plants can be fairly close to one another, so that there is slight contact between plants. For at least a few weeks, bring them indoors at night. After 2 to 3 weeks of this routine, leave them outside.</span></em></p> <p><strong><span>Transplanting</span></strong></p> <p><span>Between April and June, most peppers will need to be transplanted into larger containers. Sterilize and reuse plastic containers of varying sizes for all plants. I don’t have any specific guidelines for when to transplant. When the plant looks small for it’s pot, it’s time to move. Use regular potting soil available almost anywhere. Be sure to keep the plants well hydrated. Also it is best to transplant when it is not excessively hot, this lessens the impact of transplant shock. Fertilize after a week.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Growing</span></strong></p> <p><span>Peppers need a steady supply of water for best performance but be careful not to overwater. A well drained soil will prevent waterlogging. If fertilizing, be careful not to overdo it on nitrogen as this will give you nice lush and leafy plants but will deter fruit growth. Organic fertilizers and soil should be rich in phosphorus, potassium and calcium.</span></p> <p><span>Mulching with black plastic or similar material is a good way to maintain heat and soil moisture. Additionally, floating row covers over your beds can help to protect against cold early in the growing season. Use caution with row covers not to overheat plants and cause them to drop their blossoms.</span></p> <p><em><span>Tip: Stake tall varieties for earlier and heavier harvest</span></em><span>.</span></p> <p><strong><span>In the Garden</span></strong></p> <p><span>By May, most peppers can move out of to enjoy natural unfiltered sunlight. Plant baccatum peppers in the ground between 1-2 feet apart. It is recommend planting in containers the first year but if you must plant in the ground, give them at least 2 feet from neighbors and consider how you will add a trellis later. If the weather is slow to warm, it is helpful to cover the ground around the seedlings with plastic wrap. This helps elevate the soil temperature. It is also sometimes helpful to cover plants with mini greenhouses. To do this, cut the neck off of clear plastic 2 liter (or larger) bottles. Drill a large hole in the center of the clear plastic container and then place the container over the center stake that the chile is tied to. Make sure to drill air holes around the side of the container to provide for ventilation. If you do this, be sure to watch the temperature and remove when it gets warm.</span></p> <p><strong><span>In the Garden</span></strong></p> <p><span>Aji (baccatum) and rocotos (pubescens) both do great in containers. Baccatum can easily be grown and sometimes overwintered in 5 gallon containers. Rocotos is always recommend stay in containers the first year as they do not get that large the first year and it facilitates overwintering. First year rocotos should also go in 5 gallon containers. Use high quality potting soil that has both perlite and vermiculite (or add them). Aji and rocoto will both need some sort of support as they grow and especially when they start producing peppers.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Food</span></strong></p> <p><span>Potassium and phosphorus are important for flowering and fruiting plants but be careful about adding too much nitrogen. If you over use nitrogen, you’ll get a nice big robust plant, but no peppers. Use any fertilizer recommended for tomatoes — something with a low nitrogen ration like 1-3-3. If a soil test shows you need to add calcium and also raise the pH, add some limestone. If you need to add calcium but don’t want to affect the pH, use gypsum. Links on soil and additives. Fertilize as needed, usually every other week.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Harvesting </span></strong></p> <p><span>You can pick bell type peppers, when they are smaller, in the beginning of summer. They may be taken when they are the size of a golf ball and frequent picking will encourage near-continuous fruit production. Immature bell peppers are soft and pliable with thin pale walls.</span></p> <p><span>Otherwise, take fully mature bell peppers when they are 10 to 12cm long and have full, well-formed lobes. The older the fruit is, the thicker the skin will be.</span></p> <p><em><span>Tip: Allow peppers to ripen to their final color later in the season to get fruit of different colors. Ripe peppers may be yellow, red, orange or purple, depending on the variety. You can continue to harvest peppers until the first frost.</span></em></p> </div>
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Sowing Instructions Tomatoes - Chili

Sowing Seeds that Need Light for Germination 0 - 1

Sowing Seeds that Need...

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<p><span style="text-decoration:underline;font-size:10pt;"><em><strong>Sowing Seeds that Need Light for Germination</strong></em></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:10pt;">There's a general seed planting rule that says you should plant a seed to a depth that is 3 times its thickness. That means fat bean seeds can be planted 1-3 inches deep and tiny carrot seeds should be barely covered. Most seed packets will take the guess work out of the process and tell you how deep to plant the seeds. It's a good idea to follow these recommendations, because a seed that is planted too deeply might not have enough stored energy to push itself above the soil line.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:10pt;"><strong>Seeds that Germinate Best if Exposed to Light</strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:10pt;">Some seeds actually germinate best if they are exposed to light. If these seeds are covered in soil, chances are good they will never sprout. These seeds should only be pressed onto the surface of the soil and kept moist, to germinate. They include:</span></p> <div> <ul><li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Ageratum</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Begonia</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Browallia</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Coleus</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Columbine</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Geranium</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Impatiens</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Lettuce</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Lobelia</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Nicotiana</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Osteospermum</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Petunias</span></li> </ul></div> <p><span style="font-size:10pt;"><strong>Seeds that will Germinate with or without Light</strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:10pt;">Most plants that self-sow in your garden are able to germinate without being covered with soil. However that doesn't necessarily mean they need light. Several plant seeds are indifferent to light exposure. Flowers like alyssum and cosmos will self seed during their current growing season as well as the next one. </span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-size:10pt;">Other seeds that will germinate uncovered include:</span></strong></p> <ul><li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Alyssum</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Aster</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Balsam</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Cole Crops</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Celosia</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Cosmos</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Cucumbers and Squash</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Dianthus</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Eggplant</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Marigold</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Melons</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Pepper</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Tomato</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt;">Zinnia</span></li> </ul><p><span style="font-size:10pt;"><strong>How to Keep Exposed Seeds Moist</strong></span></p> <div><span style="font-size:10pt;">Although they don't require a covering a soil, you will probably get better germination if you follow the recommended planting depth, simply because it will be easier for you to keep them moist and safe from hungry birds.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:10pt;">Being able to sow seeds on the surface of soil makes planting easier, but keeping them moist until germination can be difficult, since they're exposed. If you are growing them in flats or containers, you can cover them lightly with plastic wrap, plastic domes or tuck them inside of plastic bags.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:10pt;">For seeds sown outdoors or if you prefer not to use plastic, another viable option is to cover the seeds with a thin layer of fine vermiculite. Vermiculite is porous enough to let light shine through, while retaining enough water to stay in place and keep the seeds and soil under it moist.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:10pt;">Vermiculite can often be found near seed starting supplies. It's a mica-type material that is heated up and expanded, to increase its water holding. Vermiculite is the small silvery metallic-looking flecks often included in seed starting mixes. The particles soak up water and nutrients and hold them in the mix until the plants are ready to access them.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:10pt;">Look for finely ground horticulture vermiculite. The vermiculite sold in home improvement stores is used in insulation and plaster and does not have the same water absorbing quality.</span></div> <p><span style="font-size:10pt;"><strong>Wikipedia:</strong></span></p> <p>Germination is the process by which plants, fungi and bacteria emerge from seeds and spores, and begin growth. The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm. However the growth of a sporeling from a spore, for example the growth of hyphae from fungal spores, is also germination. In a more general sense, germination can imply anything expanding into greater being from a small existence or germ, a method that is commonly used by many seed germination projects.</p> <p><strong>Seed germination</strong></p> <p>Germination is the growth of an embryonic plant contained within a seed; it results in the formation of the seedling. The seed of a vascular plant is a small package produced in a fruit or cone after the union of male and female sex cells. All fully developed seeds contain an embryo and, in most plant species some store of food reserves, wrapped in a seed coat. Some plants produce varying numbers of seeds that lack embryos; these are called empty seeds<span style="font-size:8pt;"> </span>and never germinate. Most seeds go through a period of dormancy where there is no active growth; during this time the seed can be safely transported to a new location and/or survive adverse climate conditions until circumstances are favorable for growth. Dormant seeds are ripe seeds that do not germinate because they are subject to external environmental conditions that prevent the initiation of metabolic processes and cell growth. Under proper conditions, the seed begins to germinate and the embryonic tissues resume growth, developing towards a seedling.</p> <h3>Factors affecting germination</h3> <p>Seed germination depends on both internal and external conditions. The most important external factors include temperature, water, oxygen and sometimes light or darkness. Various plants require different variables for successful seed germination. Often this depends on the individual seed variety and is closely linked to the ecological conditions of a plant's natural habitat. For some seeds, their future germination response is affected by environmental conditions during seed formation; most often these responses are types of seed dormancy.</p> <ul><li><strong>Water</strong> is required for germination. Mature seeds are often extremely dry and need to take in significant amounts of water, relative to the dry weight of the seed, before cellular metabolism and growth can resume. Most seeds need enough water to moisten the seeds but not enough to soak them. The uptake of water by seeds is called imbibition, which leads to the swelling and the breaking of the seed coat. When seeds are formed, most plants store a food reserve with the seed, such as starch,proteins, or oils. This food reserve provides nourishment to the growing embryo. When the seed imbibes water, hydrolytic enzymes are activated which break down these stored food resources into metabolically useful chemicals.<sup class="reference">[2]</sup> After the seedling emerges from the seed coat and starts growing roots and leaves, the seedling's food reserves are typically exhausted; at this point photosynthesis provides the energy needed for continued growth and the seedling now requires a continuous supply of water, nutrients, and light.</li> </ul><ul><li><strong>Oxygen</strong> is required by the germinating seed for metabolism.<span style="font-size:8pt;"> </span>Oxygen is used in aerobic respiration, the main source of the seedling's energy until it grows leaves.<span style="font-size:8pt;"> </span>Oxygen is an atmospheric gas that is found in soil pore spaces; if a seed is buried too deeply within the soil or the soil is waterlogged, the seed can be oxygen starved. Some seeds have impermeable seed coats that prevent oxygen from entering the seed, causing a type of physical dormancy which is broken when the seed coat is worn away enough to allow gas exchange and water uptake from the environment.</li> </ul><ul><li><strong>Temperature</strong> affects cellular metabolic and growth rates. Seeds from different species and even seeds from the same plant germinate over a wide range of temperatures. Seeds often have a temperature range within which they will germinate, and they will not do so above or below this range. Many seeds germinate at temperatures slightly above 60-75 F (16-24 C) [room-temperature if you live in a centrally heated house], while others germinate just above freezing and others germinate only in response to alternations in temperature between warm and cool. Some seeds germinate when the soil is cool 28-40 F (-2 - 4 C), and some when the soil is warm 76-90 F (24-32 C). Some seeds require exposure to cold temperatures (vernalization) to break dormancy. Seeds in a dormant state will not germinate even if conditions are favorable. Seeds that are dependent on temperature to end dormancy have a type of physiological dormancy. For example, seeds requiring the cold of winter are inhibited from germinating until they take in water in the fall and experience cooler temperatures. Four degrees Celsius is cool enough to end dormancy for most cool dormant seeds, but some groups, especially within the family Ranunculaceae and others, need conditions cooler than -5 C. Some seeds will only germinate after hot temperatures during a forest fire which cracks their seed coats; this is a type of physical dormancy.</li> </ul><p>Most common annual vegetables have optimal germination temperatures between 75-90 F (24-32 C), though many species (e.g.radishes or spinach) can germinate at significantly lower temperatures, as low as 40 F (4 C), thus allowing them to be grown from seed in cooler climates. Suboptimal temperatures lead to lower success rates and longer germination periods.</p> <ul><li><strong>Light or darkness</strong> can be an environmental trigger for germination and is a type of physiological dormancy. Most seeds are not affected by light or darkness, but many seeds, including species found in forest settings, will not germinate until an opening in the canopy allows sufficient light for growth of the seedling.</li> </ul><p>Scarification mimics natural processes that weaken the seed coat before germination. In nature, some seeds require particular conditions to germinate, such as the heat of a fire (e.g., many Australian native plants), or soaking in a body of water for a long period of time. Others need to be passed through an animal's digestive tract to weaken the seed coat enough to allow the seedling to emerge.</p> <h3>Dormancy</h3> <p>Some live seeds are dormant and need more time, and/or need to be subjected to specific environmental conditions before they will germinate. Seed dormancy can originate in different parts of the seed, for example, within the embryo; in other cases the seed coat is involved. Dormancy breaking often involves changes in membranes, initiated by dormancy-breaking signals. This generally occurs only within hydrated seeds. Factors affecting seed dormancy include the presence of certain plant hormones, notably abscisic acid, which inhibits germination, and gibberellin, which ends seed dormancy. In brewing, barley seeds are treated with gibberellin to ensure uniform seed germination for the production of barley malt.</p> <h3>Seedling establishment</h3> <p>In some definitions, the appearance of the radicle marks the end of germination and the beginning of "establishment", a period that ends when the seedling has exhausted the food reserves stored in the seed. Germination and establishment as an independent organism are critical phases in the life of a plant when they are the most vulnerable to injury, disease, and water stress.<span style="font-size:8pt;"> </span>The germination index can be used as an indicator of phytotoxicity in soils. The mortality between dispersal of seeds and completion of establishment can be so high that many species have adapted to produce huge numbers of seeds</p> <h2>Germination rate and Germination capacity</h2> <p>In agriculture and gardening, the <strong>germination rate</strong> describes how many seeds of a particular plant species, variety or seedlot are likely to germinate over a given period. Its a measure of germination time course. It is usually expressed as a percentage, e.g., an 85% germination rate indicates that about 85 out of 100 seeds will probably germinate under proper conditions over the germination period given. The germination rate is useful for calculating the seed requirements for a given area or desired number of plants. In seed physiologists and seed scientists "germination rate" is the reciprocal of time taken for the process of germination to complete starting from time of sowing. On the other hand the number of seed able to complete germination in a population i.e. seed lot is referred as "germination capacity".</p> <h3>Dicot germination</h3> <p>The part of the plant that first emerges from the seed is the embryonic root, termed the radicle or primary root. It allows the seedling to become anchored in the ground and start absorbing water. After the root absorbs water, an embryonic shoot emerges from the seed. This shoot comprises three main parts: the cotyledons (seed leaves), the section of shoot below the cotyledons (hypocotyl), and the section of shoot above the cotyledons (epicotyl). The way the shoot emerges differs among plant groups.</p> <h4>Epigeous</h4> <p>In <strong>epigeous</strong> (or epigeal) germination, the <em>hypocotyl</em> elongates and forms a hook, pulling rather than pushing the cotyledons and apical meristem through the soil. Once it reaches the surface, it straightens and pulls the cotyledons and shoot tip of the growing seedlings into the air. Beans, tamarind, and papaya are examples of plants that germinate this way.</p> <h4>Hypogeous</h4> <p>Another way of germination is hypogeous (or hypogeal), where the epicotyl elongates and forms the hook. In this type of germination, the cotyledons stay underground where they eventually decompose. Peas, gram and mango, for example, germinate this way.</p> <h3>Monocot germination</h3> <p>In monocot seeds, the embryo's radicle and cotyledon are covered by a coleorhiza and coleoptile, respectively. The coleorhiza is the first part to grow out of the seed, followed by the radicle. The coleoptile is then pushed up through the ground until it reaches the surface. There, it stops elongating and the first leaves emerge.</p> <h3>Precocious germination</h3> <p>While not a class of germination, precocious germination refers to seed germination before the fruit has released seed.<span style="font-size:8pt;"> </span>The seeds of the green apple commonly germinate in this manner.</p> <h2>Pollen germination</h2> <p>Another germination event during the life cycle of gymnosperms and flowering plants is the germination of a pollen grain afterpollination. Like seeds, pollen grains are severely dehydrated before being released to facilitate their dispersal from one plant to another. They consist of a protective coat containing several cells (up to 8 in gymnosperms, 2-3 in flowering plants). One of these cells is a tube cell. Once the pollen grain lands on the stigma of a receptive flower (or a female cone in gymnosperms), it takes up water and germinates. Pollen germination is facilitated by hydration on the stigma, as well as by the structure and physiology of the stigma and style. Pollen can also be induced to germinate <em>in vitro</em> (in a petri dish or test tube).</p> <p>During germination, the tube cell elongates into a pollen tube. In the flower, the pollen tube then grows towards the ovule where it discharges the sperm produced in the pollen grain for fertilization. The germinated pollen grain with its two sperm cells is the mature male microgametophyte of these plants.</p> <h3>Self-incompatibility</h3> <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: Self-incompatibility in plants</div> <p>Since most plants carry both male and female reproductive organs in their flowers, there is a high risk of self-pollination and thusinbreeding. Some plants use the control of pollen germination as a way to prevent this self-pollination. Germination and growth of the pollen tube involve molecular signaling between stigma and pollen. In self-incompatibility in plants, the stigma of certain plants can molecularly recognize pollen from the same plant and prevent it from germinating.</p> <h2>Spore germination</h2> <p>Germination can also refer to the emergence of cells from resting spores and the growth of sporeling hyphae or thalli from spores infungi, algae and some plants.</p> <p>Conidia are asexual reproductive (reproduction without the fusing of gametes) spores of fungi which germinate under specific conditions. A variety of cells can be formed from the germinating conidia. The most common are germ tubes which grow and develop into hyphae. Another type of cell is a conidial anastomosis tube (CAT); these differ from germ tubes in that they are thinner, shorter, lack branches, exhibit determinate growth and home toward each other. Each cell is of a tubular shape, but the conidial anastomosis tube forms a bridge that allows fusion between conidia.</p> <h3>Resting spores</h3> <p>In resting spores, germination that involves cracking the thick cell wall of the dormant spore. For example, in zygomycetes the thick-walled zygosporangium cracks open and the zygospore inside gives rise to the emerging sporangiophore. In slime molds, germination refers to the emergence of amoeboid cells from the hardened spore. After cracking the spore coat, further development involves cell division, but not necessarily the development of a multicellular organism (for example in the free-living amoebas of slime molds).</p> <h3>Ferns and mosses</h3> <p>In plants such as bryophytes, ferns, and a few others, spores germinate into independent gametophytes. In the bryophytes (e.g.,mosses and liverworts), spores germinate into protonemata, similar to fungal hyphae, from which the gametophyte grows. In ferns, the gametophytes are small, heart-shaped prothalli that can often be found underneath a spore-shedding adult plant.</p>
0000049
Sowing Seeds that Need Light for Germination 0 - 1

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Tips for substrate and sowing

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<h2><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><em><strong>Tips for substrate and sowing</strong></em></span></h2> <p></p>
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Hardiness Zones

Hardiness Zones

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<div><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><em><strong>Hardiness Zones</strong></em></span></div> <div></div> <div>The hardiness zones are informative: the extremes of winter cold are a major determinant of whether a plant species can be cultivated outdoors at a particular location; however, the USDA hardiness zones have a number of drawbacks if used without supplementary information.</div> <div>The zones do not incorporate summer heat levels into the zone determination; thus sites which may have the same mean winter minima, but markedly different summer temperatures, will be accorded the same hardiness zone. An extreme example of this phenomenon is seen when comparing the Shetland Islands and southern Alabama, which are both on the boundary of zones 8 and 9 and share the same winter minima, but little else in their climates. In summer, the humid subtropical climate of Alabama is about 20 degrees Celsius hotter than the temperate maritime climate of Shetland, and there are few similar plants that can be grown at both locations. Due to its maritime climate, the UK is in AHS Heat Zone 2 (having 1 to 8 days hotter than 30 degrees Celsius) according to the AHS (American Horticultural Society), whereas Alabama is in Zones 7 to 9 (61 to 150 days hotter than 30 degrees Celsius). Users need to combine the hardiness zone with the heat zone to gain greater understanding of what can be grown in a particular location.</div> <div>Another issue is that the hardiness zones do not take into account the reliability of the snow cover. Snow acts as an insulator against extreme cold, protecting the root system of hibernating plants. If the snow cover is reliable, the actual temperature to which the roots are exposed will not be as low as the hardiness zone number would indicate. As an example, Quebec City in Canada is located in zone 4, but can rely on an important snow cover every year, making it possible to cultivate plants normally rated for zones 5 or 6. But, in Montreal, located to the southwest in zone 5, it is sometimes difficult to cultivate plants adapted to the zone because of the unreliable snow cover.</div> <div>Other factors that affect plant survival, though not considered in hardiness zones, are soil moisture, humidity, the number of days of frost, and the risk of a rare catastrophic cold snap. Some risk evaluation – the probability of getting a particularly severe low temperature – often would be more useful than just the average conditions.</div> <div>Lastly, many plants may survive in a locality but will not flower if the day length is insufficient or if they require vernalization (a particular duration of low temperature). With annuals, the time of planting can often be adjusted to allow growth beyond their normal geographical range.</div> <div>An alternative means of describing plant hardiness is to use "indicator plants" (the USDA also publishes a list of these to go with the hardiness zone map). In this method, common plants with known limits to their range are used.</div> <div>Gardening books are available that provide more information on climate zones. For example, Sunset Books (associated with Sunset Magazine) publishes a series that break up climate zones more finely than the USDA zones. They identify 45 distinct zones in the US, incorporating ranges of temperatures in all seasons, precipitation, wind patterns, elevation, and length and structure of the growing season.</div> <table style="width:99%;" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="1"><tbody><tr><td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;"><strong>Zone</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;"><strong>untere Grenze</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="34%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;"><strong>obere Grenze</strong></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">1</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- - -</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="34%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">unter -45,5° C</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">2</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- 45,5° C</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="34%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- 40,1° C</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">3</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- 40,0° C</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="34%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- 34,5° C</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">4</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- 34,4° C</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="34%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- 28,9° C</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">5</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- 28,8° C</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="34%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- 23,4° C</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">6</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- 23,3° C</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="34%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- 17,8° C</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">7</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- 17,7° C</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="34%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- 12,3° C</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">8</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- 12,2° C</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="34%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- 6,7° C</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">9</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- 6,6° C</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="34%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- 1,2° C</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">10</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- 1,1° C</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="34%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">+ 4,4° C</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">11</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">+ 4,5° C</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="34%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">+ 10,0° C</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">12</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="33%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">ab 10,1° C</span></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="34%"> <p><span style="color:#0000ff;">- - -</span></p> </td> </tr></tbody></table><h3>European cities</h3> <p>The table herein provides hardiness zone data for some European cities (based on climatological data):</p> <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4"><tbody><tr><th>City</th><th width="60">Zone</th><th>City</th><th width="60">Zone</th></tr><tr><td>Amsterdam, The Netherlands</td> <td><strong>8</strong></td> <td>Antwerp, Belgium</td> <td><strong>8</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Belfast, Northern Ireland</td> <td><strong>9</strong></td> <td>Berlin, Germany</td> <td><strong>7a</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Bratislava, Slovakia</td> <td><strong>7a</strong></td> <td>Bucharest, Romania</td> <td><strong>6a</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Cardiff, Wales</td> <td><strong>9</strong></td> <td>Catania, Italy</td> <td><strong>10</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Copenhagen, Denmark</td> <td><strong>7a</strong></td> <td>Cork, Ireland</td> <td><strong>9b</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Dublin, Ireland</td> <td><strong>9</strong></td> <td>Düsseldorf, Germany</td> <td><strong>8</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Edinburgh, Scotland</td> <td><strong>8</strong></td> <td>Gdańsk, Poland</td> <td><strong>7</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Glasgow, Scotland</td> <td><strong>9a</strong></td> <td>Hamburg, Germany</td> <td><strong>7</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Helsinki, Finland</td> <td><strong>5b</strong></td> <td>Istanbul, Turkey</td> <td><strong>8b</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Kaliningrad, Russia</td> <td><strong>6</strong></td> <td>Kiev, Ukraine</td> <td><strong>5</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Kraków, Poland</td> <td><strong>6</strong></td> <td>Lisbon, Portugal</td> <td><strong>10a</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Ljubljana, Slovenia</td> <td><strong>7</strong></td> <td>London, England</td> <td><strong>9a</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Madrid, Spain</td> <td><strong>8-9</strong></td> <td>Málaga, Spain</td> <td><strong>10b</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Marseille, France</td> <td><strong>9</strong></td> <td>Milan, Italy</td> <td><strong>7-8</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Minsk, Belarus</td> <td><strong>5а</strong></td> <td>Moscow, Russia</td> <td><strong>4</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Munich, Germany</td> <td><strong>6</strong></td> <td>Murmansk, Russia</td> <td><strong>5</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Nicosia, Cyprus</td> <td><strong>10b</strong></td> <td>Oslo, Norway</td> <td><strong>6</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Simferopol, Ukraine</td> <td><strong>7a</strong></td> <td>Palma, Spain</td> <td><strong>10</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Paris, France</td> <td><strong>8a</strong></td> <td>Poznań, Poland</td> <td><strong>7a</strong></td> <td> </td> </tr><tr><td>Prague, Czech Republic</td> <td><strong>7a</strong></td> <td>Reykjavík, Iceland</td> <td><strong>7</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Riga, Latvia</td> <td><strong>6</strong></td> <td>Rome, Italy</td> <td><strong>9b</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Rovaniemi, Finland</td> <td><strong>4</strong></td> <td>Saint Petersburg, Russia</td> <td><strong>5a</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina</td> <td><strong>7</strong></td> <td>Santander, Spain</td> <td><strong>10a</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Simrishamn, Sweden</td> <td><strong>8a</strong></td> <td>Sochi, Russia</td> <td><strong>9</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Sofia, Bulgaria</td> <td><strong>6</strong></td> <td>Stockholm, Sweden</td> <td><strong>6a</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Strasbourg, France</td> <td><strong>7</strong></td> <td>Tallinn, Estonia</td> <td><strong>5</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Tuapse, Russia</td> <td><strong>8</strong></td> <td>Tórshavn, Faroe Islands</td> <td><strong>7-8</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Tromsø, Norway</td> <td><strong>7</strong></td> <td>Trondheim, Norway</td> <td><strong>6</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Umeå, Sweden</td> <td><strong>5</strong></td> <td>Vienna, Austria</td> <td><strong>6-7</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Vilnius, Lithuania</td> <td><strong>5</strong></td> <td>Vorkuta, Russia</td> <td><strong>2</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Valletta, Malta</td> <td><strong>10b</strong></td> <td>Warsaw, Poland</td> <td><strong>6</strong></td> </tr><tr><td>Zürich, Switzerland</td> <td><strong>7</strong></td> </tr></tbody></table>
0000039
Hardiness Zones

List of Plants, Vegetables and Herbs light germinators, dark germinator etc.

List of Plants, Vegetables...

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<h2><strong>List of Plants, Vegetables and Herbs light germinators, dark germinator etc.</strong></h2> <p><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><em><strong> </strong></em></span></p> <center> <table bgcolor="#FFFFCC"><tbody><tr bgcolor="#FFFF80" align="left"><td bgcolor="#CCFFFF"><center><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Art</strong></span></center></td> <td bgcolor="#CCFFFF"><center><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>1 g sind Korn</strong></span></center></td> <td bgcolor="#CCFFFF"><center><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>optimale Keimtemperatur</strong></span></center></td> <td bgcolor="#CCFFFF" align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>mindest</strong>  </span><br /><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Keimtemp.</strong></span></td> <td bgcolor="#CCFFFF"><center><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Aussaattiefe</strong></span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Andenbeere</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">600 bis 800</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+22°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 16°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">0,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Anis</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">250 bis 350 </span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+15°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 4°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">0,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Arnika</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">700 bis 900</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +28°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 8°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Artischocken</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">30 bis 30</span></center></td> <td bgcolor="#FFFFCC"><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 16°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Aubergine</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">200 bis 250</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+22°C bis +28°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 18°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">0,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Baldrian</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1300 bis 2300</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+15°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 6°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Basilikum</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">700 bis 1000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 12°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Beifuß</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">7000 bis 11000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+16°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 12°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Bergbohnenkraut</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2000 bis 3600</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 10°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Blattsalat</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">700 bis 1200</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+15°C bis +18°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Bleichsellerie</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2000 bis 3000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+22°C bis +30°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 18°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Blumenkohl</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">300 bis 400</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +22°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 8°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Bohnenkraut</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1300 bis 2000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 10°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Borretsch</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">50 bis 60</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 8°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Brennesel, kleine</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1800 bis 2500</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+10°C bis +20°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 2°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Brokkoli</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">300 bis 400</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +22°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 8°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Brunnenkresse</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">4000 bis 5000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+10°C bis +15°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 6°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">0,2 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Buschbohnen</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2 bis 4</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 8°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">3 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Chicoree</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">500 bis 1000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 12°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Chinakohl</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">600 bis 650</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 18°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Dill</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">500 bis 1000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +24°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 6°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Eissalat</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">700 bis 1200</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+15°C bis +18°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Endivien</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">750 bis 950</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 12°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Erbsen</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">3 bis 4</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+15°C bis +20°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 6°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Estragon</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">3000 bis 6000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 12°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Feldsalat</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">350 bis 700</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+15°C bis +20°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 5°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Fenchel</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">120 bis 250</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+22°C bis +30°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 6°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">0,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Gartenkresse</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">250 bis 450</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +24°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Grünkohl</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">300 bis 400</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +22°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Gurken</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">30 bis 60</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +30°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 10°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Kamille Echte</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">16000 bis 30000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+16°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Kapuzinerkresse</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">8 bis 10</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 15°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Kerbel</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">300 bis 700</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 6°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Knollenfenchel</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">120 bis 250</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+22°C bis +30°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 8°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">0,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Knollensellerie</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2000 bis 3000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+22°C bis +30°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 18°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Kohlrabi</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">300 bis 400</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +22°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 12°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Kohlrüben</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">400 bis 450</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 8°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Kopfsalat</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">700 bis 1200</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+15°C bis +18°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Kümmel</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">300 bis 500</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 6°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Kürbis</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">4 bis 10</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 10°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">3 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Lavendel Echter</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1000 bis 1500</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 16°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">0,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Liebstock</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">200 bis 500</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 6°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">3 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Löffelkraut</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1500 bis 2300</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 6°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">0,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Löwenzahn</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">3800 bis 4000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 12°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Mairüben</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">500 bis 550</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +22°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Majoran</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">3500 - 3700</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 12°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Mangold</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">50 bis 60</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+16°C bis +22°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 6°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Melone</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">25 bis 45</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +30°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 18°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Möhren</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">750 bis 1300</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">3 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Oregano</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">5000 bis 10000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">18°C bis 25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 12°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Pak Choi</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">600 bis 650</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 18°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Paprika</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">150 bis 400</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 16°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">0,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Pastinaken</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">200 bis 400</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+15°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 6°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">3 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Petersilie</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">600 bis 800</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Pfefferminze</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">11000 bis 20000 </span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 16°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Pflücksalat</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">700 bis 1200</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+15°C bis +18°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Pimpinelle</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">100 bis 250</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+16°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 6°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Porree</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">350 bis 400</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 8°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Portulak</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2500</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 12°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">0,2 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Prunkbohne</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 8°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Puffbohnen</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">unter 1g</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+15°C bis +20°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 6°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Radicchio</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">500 bis 1000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+22°C bis +28°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 12°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Radies</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">40 bis 150</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+15°C bis +22°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Rettich</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">40 bis 150</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 8°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Romanasalat</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">700 bis 1200</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+15°C bis +18°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Rosenkohl</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">300 bis 400</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +22°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 8°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Rosmarin</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">750 bis 1300</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Rote Rüben</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">50 bis 60</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+16°C bis +22°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 8°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Rotkohl</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">300 bis 400</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +22°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 8°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Salbei</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">100 bis 250</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 12°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">0,2 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Sauerampfer</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">850 bis 1200</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+16°C bis +23°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Schnittknoblauch</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">800 bis 900</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 5°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Schnittlauch</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">700 bis 1000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 5°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Schnittsellerie</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2000 - 3000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+22°C bis +30°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 18°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Schwarzwurzeln</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">70 bis 90</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+15°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Senf, Schwarzer</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">350 bis 450</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Sellerie</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2000 bis 3000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+22°C bis 30°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 18°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Spinat</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">70 bis 100</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+10°C bis +20°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 2°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">3 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Stangenbohnen</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2 bis 4</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 8°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">3 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Stangensellerie</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2000 - 3000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+22°C bis +30°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 18°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Stielmus</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">500 bis 550</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +22°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Teltower Rübchen</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">500 bis 600</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +22°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Thymian</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">3000 bis 6000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+16°C bis +22°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 6°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Tomaten</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">350 bis 400</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+22°C bis +28°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 18°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">0,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Waltmeister</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">100 bis 140</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">erst -4°C bis -5°C </span></center><center><span style="color:#008000;">dann +5°C bis +12°C</span></center></td> <td><span style="color:#008000;">.</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Frostkeimer</span></center><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Weinraute</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">350 bis 450</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+10°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Weißhohl</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">300 bis 400</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +22°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 8°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Wermut</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">9000 bis 13000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 6°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Winterkresse</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">900 bis 1400</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+12°C bis +22°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Winterportulak</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1300 bis 1500</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+8°C bis +12°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 2°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">0,5 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Winterzwiebel</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">500</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Wirsing</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">300 bis 400</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +22°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 8°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Wurzelpetersilie</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">600 bis 800</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Ysop</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">800 bis 1000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 12°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Zitronenmelisse</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1500 bis 1900</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +30°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 12°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr><td><span style="color:#008000;">Zitronenminze</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">1500 bis 1900</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+ 8°C</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></center></td> </tr><tr align="center"><td align="left"><span style="color:#008000;">Zucchetti</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">6 bis 10</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><span style="color:#008000;">+ 10°C</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">3 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr align="center"><td align="left"><span style="color:#008000;">Zuckerhut</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">500 bis 1000</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+20°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><span style="color:#008000;">+ 12°C</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></center></td> </tr><tr align="center"><td align="left"><span style="color:#008000;">Zwiebel</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">300 bis 350</span></center></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">+18°C bis +25°C</span></center></td> <td><span style="color:#008000;">+ 3°C</span></td> <td><center><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></center></td> </tr></tbody></table></center> <p> </p> <center></center> <p> </p> <div><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></div> <p> </p> <div> <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5" border="1"><tbody><tr><td width="162"><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></td> <td width="130"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Keimfähig Jahre</span></p> </td> <td width="121"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Keimbedingung / Tiefe</span></p> </td> <td width="189"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Aussaat</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">KÜCHENKRÄUTER</span></p> </td> <td width="130"><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></td> <td width="121"><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></td> <td width="189"><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Basilikum</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">4-5</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Mai</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Bohnenkraut</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">April</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Borretsch</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-September</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Brunnerkresse</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">4-5</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-Mai</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Dill</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">April-Juni</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Gartenkresse</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">April-Oktober</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Kamille</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-April</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Katzenminze</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">5</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-April / August-September</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Kerbel</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3-4</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-Juni</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Koriander</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1-2 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">April</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Kümmel</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3-4</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-April</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Lavendel</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Mai</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Liebstockel</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1-2</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">August-September</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Majoran</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Mai</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Melisse</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">April-Juni</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Oregano</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Mai</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Petersilie</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-Juli</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Pfefferminze</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-April</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Rosmarin</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">April-Mai Gewächshaus</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Salbei</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">beides</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Mai</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Sauerampfer</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">4-5</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-April / August</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Schnittknoblauch (Knolau)</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-Juli</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Schnittlauch</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">April-Mai</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Thymian</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">April-Mai</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Ysop</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Mai</span></p> </td> </tr></tbody></table></div> <p> </p> <div><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></div> <p> </p> <div> <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5" border="1"><tbody><tr><td width="162"><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></td> <td width="130"><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></td> <td width="121"><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></td> <td width="189"><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">GEMÜSE</span></p> </td> <td width="130"><span style="color:#008000;">Keimfähig Jahre </span></td> <td width="121"><span style="color:#008000;">Keimbedingung / Tiefe </span></td> <td width="189"><span style="color:#008000;"> Aussaat</span></td> </tr></tbody></table></div> <p> </p> <div> <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5" border="1"><tbody><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Buschbohnen</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3-4</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Mai-Juli</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Blumenkohl</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-April Gewächshaus / Mai-Juli</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Chicorée</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3-5</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1,5 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Mai-Juni</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Dicke Bohnen</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3-4</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">5 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Februar-April</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Endivie</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">4-5</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1,5 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-Juli</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Erbsen</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3-4</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">5 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-Juli</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Feldsalat</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Februar-April / August-Oktober</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Gurke</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">4-6</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Mai-Juni (Freiland)</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Kohl</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">4-5</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-Mai</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Kopfsalat</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3-4</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1,5 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Februar-September</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Kürbis</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3-4 (möglich bis 6)</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Mai-Juni</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Mais</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">4-5</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Mai</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Mangold</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3-4</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-September</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Melone</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3-4 (möglich bis 6)</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Mai</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Möhren</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3-4</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Februar-Juli</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Paprika</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3-4</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">0,5 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-April Gewächshaus</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Pastinake</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1-2</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Februar-Juni</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Pflücksalat</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3-4</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1,5 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-August</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Porree</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1-2</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1,5 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">April-Juli</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Radieschen, Rettich</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">4-5</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Februar-August</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Rote Bete</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">4-5</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">April-Juli</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Schwarzwurzeln</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1-2</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März-April</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Selerie</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3-4</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">April Gewächshaus</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Spinat</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3-4</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Februar-Oktober</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Tomate</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3-4</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">0,5 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">März Gewächshaus</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Zucchini</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">4-5</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Mai / März-April Gewächshaus</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Zwiebeln</span></p> </td> <td width="130"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="121"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="189"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Februar-März / August</span></p> </td> </tr></tbody></table></div> <p> </p> <div><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></div> <p> </p> <p>&lt;/</p> <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5" border="1"><tbody><tr><td width="162"><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></td> <td width="85"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Keimfähig Jahre</span></p> </td> <td class="dsR2"> <div align="center"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Keimbedingung / Tiefe</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="114"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Aussaat</span></p> <p><span style="color:#008000;">A - Anzucht</span></p> <p><span style="color:#008000;">D - Direktassaat</span></p> </td> <td width="114"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Blüte</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">SOMMERBLUMEN</span></p> </td> <td width="85"><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></td> <td class="dsR2"><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></td> <td width="114"><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></td> <td width="114"><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Aster</span></p> </td> <td width="85"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1-2</span></p> </div> </td> <td class="dsR2"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">0,5-1 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="114"> <div align="left"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">A - März-Juni</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="114"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">August-September</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Bechermalve</span></p> </td> <td width="85"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">3-47</span></p> </div> </td> <td class="dsR2"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="114"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">A -März-Mai</span></p> </td> <td width="114"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Juni-August</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Elfenspiegel</span></p> </td> <td width="85"><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></td> <td class="dsR2"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="114"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">A -März-April</span></p> </td> <td width="114"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Juni-August</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Fleißiges Lieschen</span></p> </td> <td width="85"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td class="dsR2"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Lichtkeimer</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="114"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">A - Februar-April</span></p> </td> <td width="114"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Juni-Oktober</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Flockenblume</span></p> </td> <td width="85"><span style="color:#008000;"> </span></td> <td class="dsR2"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="114"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">D - April-Juni</span></p> </td> <td width="114"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Juni-September</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Fuchsschwanz</span></p> </td> <td width="85"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">4-5</span></p> </div> </td> <td class="dsR2"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="114"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">D - März-Juni</span></p> </td> <td width="114"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Juni-Oktober</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Glockenrebe</span></p> </td> <td width="85"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td class="dsR2"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">0,5 cm</span></p> </td> <td width="114"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">A - Februar-April</span></p> </td> <td width="114"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Juni-Oktober</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td width="162"> <p class="fett"><span style="color:#008000;">Jungfer im Grünen</span></p> </td> <td width="85"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">2-3</span></p> </div> </td> <td class="dsR2"> <div align="center"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">1 cm</span></p> </div> </td> <td width="114"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">D - April-August</span></p> </td> <td width="114"> <p><span></span></p></td></tr></tbody></table>
0000051
List of Plants, Vegetables and Herbs light germinators, dark germinator etc.

CAULIFLOWER SOWING, PLANTING, GROWING, AND HARVESTING

CAULIFLOWER SOWING,...

السعر 0.00 € (SKU: 0000018)
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5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em><strong>CAULIFLOWER SOWING, PLANTING, GROWING, AND HARVESTING</strong></em></span></h2> <p>BOTANICAL NAME: Brassica oleracea</p> <p>PLANT TYPE: Vegetable</p> <p>SUN EXPOSURE: Full Sun</p> <p>SOIL TYPE: Loamy</p> <p>SOIL PH: Slightly Acidic to Neutral</p> <p>FLOWER COLOR: White</p> <p>BLOOM TIME: Spring</p> <p> </p> <p>Cauliflower is a cool-season crop and a descendant of the common cabbage. It is more difficult to than its relatives because it does not tolerate the heat or cold as well. For this reason, cauliflower is usually grown commercially.</p> <p>If you plant to attempt growing cauliflower in the home garden, it requires consistently cool temperatures with temperatures in the 60s. Otherwise, it prematurely “button”—form small button-size heads—rather than forming one, nice white head.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>When to Start</strong></p> <p>Broccoli seeds are best started indoors<strong> </strong><strong>7 to 9 weeks before the last frost</strong>, at a temperature of 70 to 75 degrees F. They can also be sown outdoors 2 weeks before the last frost. For a winter crop in zones 8 and warmer, sow in late summer. Expect germination in 10 to 14 days.</p> <p>The same guidelines apply to Cauliflower, except when starting indoors, sow your seeds <strong>5 to 7 weeks before the last frost</strong>. Expect germination in 8 to 10 days.</p> <p>Since Cauliflower is more sensitive to cold than its cabbage-family relatives, <strong>you need to start it early enough</strong> that it has a chance to mature before the heat of the summer. Be careful, however, not to start it so early it gets damaged by the cold.</p> <p><strong>How to Start</strong></p> <p><strong>Sow your Broccoli and Cauliflower seeds at a depth of 4 times the size of the seed</strong>, or ½ inch deep, and water thoroughly. Once the seeds have sprouted, <strong>be sure to keep the soil lightly moist</strong>.</p> <p><strong>Make sure the plants receive plenty of light</strong> -- fluorescent light for around 14 to 16 hours a day is also ideal for the fastest growth. You will want to keep the seedlings <strong>just a few inches below the light</strong> so they don't“stretch”and get“leggy". If you don't have fluorescent lighting, a south-facing window will do just fine.</p> <p>Broccoli -- 45 to 60 days from sowing to harvesting</p> <p>Cauliflower -- 30 to 80 days from sowing to harvesting</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Special Considerations</strong></p> <p><strong>If your seedlings have been held too long or mistreated</strong> in some way before planting, they can create“buttons”, or small heads, that tend to flower prematurely.</p> <p>Climatic elements such as extreme cold and drought can cause your plants to<strong> </strong><strong>halt their full growth and form only “buttons”.</strong></p> <p><strong>Don't allow your transplants to get too mature</strong> before moving them to your garden. If you do, they may become stressed by transplant shock.</p> <p><strong>A starter fertilizer</strong> applied when you transplant your seedlings will get your Broccoli and Cauliflower off to a good start, but it will not compensate for all the possible problems just mentioned.</p> <p><strong>Beets, Onions, and Garlic</strong> are all good companions for your Broccoli and Cauliflower.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Growing Tips</strong></p> <ul> <li>Broccoli -- once the head is fully developed, but before the individual flowers start to open, <strong>cut the central head along with 5 or 6 inches of stem</strong>. Removing the central head will stimulate development of the side shoots, which will allow you to continue your harvest for several weeks.</li> <li>Cauliflower -- the heads (curds) develop quickly under proper conditions, typically growing to 6 to 8 inches within 7 to 12 days after branching begins.<strong> Harvest the mature heads (they should be compact and firm) by cutting the main stem</strong>. If the heads develop a coarse,“ricey”appearance, they have over-matured. Cauliflower does not typically have side shoots, so you can compost the plants after the heads have been harvested.</li> <li><strong>Store fresh, unwashed Broccoli in your refrigerator's vegetable crisper for 3 to 5 days</strong>. Put it in a loose or perforated plastic bad, being sure not to store it if it's wet -- wet Broccoli will quickly become limp and can get moldy. Its best flavor and nutritional value will be maintained if storage is brief.</li> <li><strong>Uncooked Cauliflower can be stored in a paper or plastic bag in the refrigerator</strong> for up to a week. Place it stem side down to keep moisture from collecting in the florets.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <div> <p><strong>PLANTING</strong></p> </div> <ul> <li>Select a site with at lesat 6 hours of full sun.</li> <li>Soil needs be very rich in organic matter; add composted mature to the soil before planting. Fertile soil holds in moiture to prevent heads from “buttoning.”</li> <li>Test your soil! (Get a soil test through your cooperative extension office.) The soil pH should be between 6.5 and 6.8.</li> <li>It is best to start cauliflower from transplants rather than seeds. Transplant 2 to 4 weeks before the average frost date in the spring, no sooner and not much later.</li> <li>Space the transplants 18 to 24 inches apart with 30 inches between rows. Use starter fertilizer when transplanting.</li> <li>Plant fall cauliflower about the same time as fall cabbage. This is usually 6 to 8 weeks before the first fall frost and also need to be after the temperature is below 75 degrees F.</li> <li>If you really want to try starting cauliflower from seeds, start the seeds 4 to 5 weeks before the plants are needed. Plant the seeds in rows 3 to 6 inches apart and ¼ to ½ of an inch deep. Do not forget to water the seeds during their germination and growth. Once they become seedlings, transplant them to their permanent place in the garden.</li> <li>In early spring, be ready to cover your plants with old milk jugs or protection if needed. For fall crops, shade them if they need protection from the heat.</li> <li>Add mulch to conserve moisture.</li> <li></li> </ul> <div> <p><strong>CARE</strong></p> </div> <ul> <li>Make sure that the plants have uninterrupted growth. Any interruption can cause the plants to develop a head prematurely or ruin the edible part completely.</li> <li>Cauliflower requires consistent soil moisture. They need 1 to 1.5 inches of water each week; with normal rainfall, this usually requires supplement watering.</li> <li>For best growth, side-dress the plants with a nitrogen fertilizer.</li> <li>Note that the cauliflower will start out as a loose head and it takes time for the head to form. Many varieties take at least 75 to 85 days from transplant. Be patient.</li> <li>When the curd (the white head) is about 2 to 3 inches in diameter, tie the outer leaves together over the head with a rubber band, tape, or twine. This is called blanching, and it protects the head from the sun and helps you get that pretty white color.</li> <li>The plants are usually ready for harvest 7 to 12 days after blanching.</li> <li></li> </ul> <div> <p><strong>PESTS/DISEASES</strong></p> </div> <ul> <li>Cabbageworm: Nectar from dwarf zinnias lures ladybugs and other predators that help to protect cauliflower from cabbageworms.</li> <li>Cabbage root maggots</li> <li>Aphids</li> <li>Harlequin bugs</li> <li>Clubroot</li> <li>Black rot</li> <li></li> </ul> <div> <p><strong>HARVEST/STORAGE</strong></p> </div> <ul> <li>When the heads are compact, white, and firm, then it is time to harvest them. Ideally, the heads will grow 6 to 8 inches in diameter.</li> <li>Cut the heads off the plant with a large knife. Be sure to leave some of the leaves around the head to keep it protected.</li> <li>If the heads are too small but have started to open up, they will not improve and should be harvested.</li> <li>If the cauliflower has a coarse appearance, it is too mature and should be tossed.</li> <li>If you want to store cauliflower, you can put the head in a plastic bag and store it in the refrigerator. It should last for about a week.</li> <li>For long-term storage, you can also freeze or pickle the heads.</li> <li></li> </ul> <div> <p><strong>RECOMMENDED VARIETIES</strong></p> </div> <ul> <li>‘Snowball’, which produces medium heads and a good yield throughout the growing season.</li> <li>‘Orange’, which has a similar taste to the white cauliflower but has more vitamin A.</li> </ul> <p> </p> </body> </html>
0000018
CAULIFLOWER SOWING, PLANTING, GROWING, AND HARVESTING

Propagation - Sowing Passiflora Seeds

Propagation - Sowing...

السعر 0.00 € (SKU: 0000024)
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5/ 5
<h2><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><em><strong>Propagation - Sowing Passiflora Seeds: </strong></em></span></h2> <p>Soak the seeds in lukewarm water, 24-48 h.<strong></strong></p> <p>Always use sterilized planting soil. Moisten planting media. Place the seeds on the soil cover them 0,5 cm.</p> <p>Keep the soil moist, not wet. A bright, warm place, approx. 25 °C, for the seeds would be fine.</p> <p>Within 1-3 months the seeds will germinate, sometimes a bit longer.</p> <p> </p> <p>To improve germination, lightly sandpaper the seeds on one or both sides using fine sandpaper, then soak them in tepid water for 24 hours. Sow 2-5mm deep in peat or soil based seed compost. Temperature is probably the most important factor in germination, ideally at 20 degrees C (68F) for 16 hours and 30 degrees C (86F) for 8 hours each day. If this is not possible, then a constant temperature of 26 degrees C (79F) is advisable. Using this technique fresh seed germinates in two to four weeks and older seed in four to eight weeks, but 12 to 48 weeks is not exceptional.</p>
0000024
Propagation - Sowing Passiflora Seeds
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Seeds Gallery Depth Planting Guide 0 - 2

Seeds Gallery Depth...

السعر 0.00 € (SKU: )
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Seeds Gallery Depth </strong><strong>P</strong><strong>l</strong><strong>a</strong><strong>n</strong><strong>t</strong><strong>i</strong><strong>n</strong><strong>g </strong><strong>G</strong><strong>u</strong><strong>i</strong><strong>d</strong><strong>e</strong></h2> <h4><strong>In general, seeds should be planted at a depth of two times the width, or diameter, of the seed.</strong></h4> <p> </p> <table class="responsive-table" style="height:3266px;width:1300px;border-style:dotted;"><tbody><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8888;"> <h6> </h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8888;"> <h6>Row spacing (cm)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8888;"> <h6>Plant spacing (cm)</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8888;"> <h6>Depth (cm)</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8888;"> <h6>Seeds per gram</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8888;"> <h6>Best Soil Temp °C</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8888;"> <h6>Rate per Hectare</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8888;"> <h6>Days to Maturity</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Amaranth (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-75</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>900</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>16-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1.2kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Artichoke (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>200-240</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>160-180</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1-2</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>22</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>15-18</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>600g</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>300-400</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Asparagus (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>90-120</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>20-35</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1-2</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>23-28</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>16-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1.5kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2-3 years</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Broad Beans</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-90</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>15-25</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>5</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5-1</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>6-24</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>150-200kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>90-120</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Bush Beans (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-60</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-15</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2-3</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2-4</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>16-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-85</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>55-70</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Climbing Beans (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>100</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>10-20</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2-3</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>3-4</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>16-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>65-80</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Beetroot (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>45-60</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>5-10</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-90</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>7-9kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>55-70</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Broccoli</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-60</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>35-50</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5-1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>175-330</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>7-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>400g</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-90</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Brussels Sprouts</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>100</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>45-60</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5-1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>225-300</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>7-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>400g</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>85-95</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Buckwheat</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Broadcast</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Broadcast</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5-1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>30</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6> </h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-100kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>30-45</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Burdock</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1-2</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6> </h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>6kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>120</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Cabbage</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-75</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>35-60</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5-1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>200-380</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>10-35</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>300g</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-110</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Capsicum (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>100-150</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-60</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.6</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>120-160</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>18-35</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>400g</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>70-90</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Carrot</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>25-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2-5</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5-1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>600-900</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>10-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>3-4.5kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>65-90</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Cauliflower</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-100</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>45-60</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.4-0.6</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>240-420</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>10-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>300g</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>110-155</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Celeriac</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>45-80</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>15-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.2-0.5</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2100-3000</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-21</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>300g</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>90-120</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Celery</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>45-80</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>15-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.2-0.5</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2100-3000</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>12-21</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>400g</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>120</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Chili</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>90-120</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>40-50</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.6</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>130-190</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>18-35</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>500g</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>65-80</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Collards</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-100</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>40-50</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5-1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>300</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>500g</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-80</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Corn (Maize) (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-90</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>20-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2-3</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2-4</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>16-35</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-10</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>100-150</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Corn (Sweet) (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-90</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>20-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2-3</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>4-7</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>16-35</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>10-15kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>80-100</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Cucumber (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>120-150</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>40-60</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>30-40</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>16-35</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1-2kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-70</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Eggplant (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>80-90</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-80</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5-0.8</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>200-250</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>24-32</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>250g</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>90-110</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Gourd (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>150</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>90-120</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>10</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>20-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>95-120</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Herbs, Parsley</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-60</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>20-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5-1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>500-650</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>10-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>3.5-4.5kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>65-135</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Kale</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-100</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>40-50</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>250-370</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>500g</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-65</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Kohl Rabi</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>35-40</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>10-20</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5-1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>250-350</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2-2.5kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>55-70</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Leek</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>30-75</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>10-15</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5-1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>350-450</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2.5-3.5kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>105-130</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Lettuce</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>35-50</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>20-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.6</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>600-1200</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-27</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1-2kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-85</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Luffa (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>150</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>45-75</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>3</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>6</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>20-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>80</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Marrow (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>100-120</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>90-120</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>6-8</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>20-35</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2-4</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>90-120</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Mustard</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-75</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>35-60</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5-1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>300</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>10-35</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>300g</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>40-60</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Okra (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>90-120</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>35-60</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>15-25</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>20-35</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-9kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>80-98</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Onion</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>30-40</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>5-10</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5-1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>240-400</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>3.5-4.5kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>180-240</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Parsnip</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>35-50</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-10</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5-1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>230-400</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>6-21</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>5-6kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>120-140</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Pea</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>45-60</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>5-8</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2-3</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>3-5</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-24</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>100-120kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>65-80</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Pea (Snow)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-100</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>6-8</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2-3</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>3-5</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-24</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-80kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-74</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Pumpkin (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>250-300</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>90-120</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>3</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>5-12</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>20-32</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1.5-2.5kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>105-140</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Radish</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>25-35</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>3-5</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1-2</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>100-140</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>15-25kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>40-50</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Rhubarb</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-70</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>40-50</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1.2</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6> </h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6> </h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6> </h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Rock melon (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>120-150</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>40-60</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1-2</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>25-40</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>20-32</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1.8-2.5kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>75-115</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Rosella (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>90-120</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>45</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-70</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>24-32</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2.2-2.5kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>175</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:76px;"><td style="width:149px;height:76px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Salad Greens, Endive</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:76px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>45-60</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:76px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>20-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:76px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5-1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:76px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>700-1000</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:76px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>15-25</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:76px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>600-1kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:76px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>70</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Salsify</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>20-40</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>5-10</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6> </h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-80</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6> </h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>110-180</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Shallots</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>20-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2-3</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>350-480</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>3-4.5kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>85-105</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Silver beet</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-60</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>15-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1.5-2</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-60</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>10-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-20kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-85</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Spinach - Bush</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>30-40</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>12-20</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1-2</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-70</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>8-24</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>14-18kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>39-50</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Spinach - Climbing</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>100-150</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>15-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1-2</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>13-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>16-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1.5-2kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-70</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Squash (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>90-120</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-80</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2-3</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>7-12</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>21-35</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2.5-5kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-60</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Sunflower (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-100</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>20-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1-2</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>7-15</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6> </h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>10-12kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>70-80</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Swede</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>45-70</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>10-20</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>380-480</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>15-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>70-75</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Tomato (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-150</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>40-60</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>0.5</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>250-400</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>16-35</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>300-400g</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-120</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Turnip</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>30-50</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>12-20</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>1</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>400-500</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>12-30</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2.5-4kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>45-65</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Watermelon (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>150-200</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>60-75</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2-3</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>10-20</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>21-35</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>3-4kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>68-100</h6> </td> </tr><tr style="height:58px;"><td style="width:149px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>Zucchini (AF)</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>90-110</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>50-90</h6> </td> <td style="width:140px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2-3</h6> </td> <td style="width:141px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>6-12</h6> </td> <td style="width:142px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>21-35</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>2.5-5kg</h6> </td> <td style="width:144px;height:58px;border-style:dotted;border-color:#8c8585;"> <h6>44-63</h6> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p> </p> <p><span style="font-family:georgia, palatino, serif;font-size:14pt;">(AF) = After Frost.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family:georgia, palatino, serif;font-size:14pt;">We are not a farming advisory service. For commercial advice please contact your local Agricultural Department. We supply Traditional Open Pollinated seed for home gardeners and information supplied is done so in good faith. We take no responsibility for its accuracy. This seed planting guide is only a general reference. For more information consult gardening books or magazines; local knowledge is invaluable.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family:georgia, palatino, serif;font-size:14pt;">Seed depth is governed by the size of seed. Usually one to two times seed thickness. For spacing try to imagine the space taken up by mature plants. Sow accordingly or more thickly and thin out later. Some, mostly small seeds, require raising as seedlings and transplanting, others, mostly large seeds, prefer to be direct sown.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family:georgia, palatino, serif;font-size:14pt;">Variables such as soil types, fertility soil temperature, climatic conditions and cultural practices all have different effects on growth response of seeds. Local knowledge is invaluable. In milder climates, in sheltered town gardens and by the sea, where there are milder conditions including no frost, allow plantings later and earlier.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family:georgia, palatino, serif;font-size:14pt;">HERBS require similar conditions to vegetables. We can give no one ideal set of growth conditions. As a general guide most require a sunny position, moist and well drained, mulched, mostly fertile weed-free soil, protected from frost and wind.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family:georgia, palatino, serif;font-size:14pt;"><em>Copyright </em><em>© </em><em>2</em><em>0</em><em>1</em><em>2 Seeds Gallery, All Rights Reserved</em></span></p>
Seeds Gallery Depth Planting Guide 0 - 2

How to Grow Strawberries from Seed 0 - 1

How to Grow Strawberries...

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<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <p>Strawberries are hardy perennials, but the plants become less robust after about three years. Start your strawberries from seed, and then propagate by cuttings and runners.  Follow along with this handy How to Grow Strawberries from Seeds guide  and grow some sweetness.!</p> <p><strong>Latin</strong></p> <p><em>Fragaria vesca</em><br />Family: Rosaceae</p> <p><strong>Difficulty</strong><br />Challenging</p> <p><strong>Season &amp; Zone</strong><br /><strong>Exposure:</strong><span> </span>Full sun<br /><strong>Zone:</strong><span> </span>5-9</p> <p><strong>Timing</strong><br />Sow indoors in the winter. An earlier start may result in berries the first year. Start any time between December and the beginning of February. After that time, they will still work, but you will not harvest berries during the first season. Transplant out at least 3 weeks after last frost.</p> <p><strong>Starting</strong><br />Germination is the trickiest aspect to growing strawberries. Be patient, and try the tricks below.</p> <p>Tuck your strawberry seed packet inside a sealed plastic bag or airtight container and place in your freezer for 3-4 weeks. When you remove the bag or container,<span> </span><em><strong>do not break the seal</strong></em><span> </span>until it (and its living contents) have reached room temperature. This may take several hours. Err on the side of caution. Opening the package too quickly may result in water condensing on the cold seeds, and this will reduce your chances of success.</p> <p>Once the sealed package has “thawed” to room temperature, you’re ready to plant. Sow the seeds on the surface of pre-moistened, sterilized seed starting mix in trays or small containers. Place these on a piece of felt or other thick cloth that has its end sitting in water. The idea is to wick up water from below so that the seedling medium stays constantly and evenly damp until germination.</p> <p>Keep your seeded trays under bright fluorescent lights at a constant temperature of 18-24°C (65-75°F). Germination may take anywhere from 7 days to 6 weeks. Be patient. Once germination occurs, increase ventilation around your plants to prevent damping off.</p> <p>Once your seedlings have their third true leaf, they can be transplanted into their own pots. Be sure to harden your seedlings off carefully and gradually before transplanting outside.</p> <p><strong>Growing</strong><br />Space transplants 60cm (24″) apart in rows 90-120cm (36-48″) apart. Everbearing varieties (such as ours) tend to produce fewer runners, and will produce more fruit if the runners are removed. In the first year of growth, it may be preferable to encourage runners, and let them fill in the spaces between transplants with new offspring plants.</p> <p>Grow strawberries in a well-drained, sandy loam that has been generously dug with organic matter such as finished compost or well-rotted manure. Dig ¼ cup complete organic fertilizer into the soil beneath each transplant. Keep soil moist, but not soggy. A mulch of straw around plants may help prevent the soil from drying out.</p> <p><strong>Companion Planting</strong><br />These little plants respond strongly to nearby plants. Couple them with beans, borage, garlic, lettuce, onions, peas, spinach, and thyme. Avoid Brassicas and fennel.</p> </body> </html>
How to Grow Strawberries from Seed 0 - 1

Scoville scale 0 - 1

Scoville scale

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<p>The<span> </span><b>Scoville scale</b><span> </span>is a<span> </span>measurement<span> </span>of the<span> </span>pungency<span> </span>(spiciness or "heat") of<span> </span>chili peppers<span> </span>and other spicy foods, as recorded in Scoville Heat Units (SHU) based on the concentration of<span> </span>capsaicinoids, among which<span> </span>capsaicin<span> </span>is the predominant component.<span> </span>The scale is named after its creator, American pharmacist<span> </span>Wilbur Scoville, whose 1912 method is known as the Scoville<span> </span>organoleptic<span> </span>test.<span> </span>The Scoville organoleptic test is the most practical method for estimating SHU and is a subjective assessment derived from the capsaicinoid sensitivity by people experienced with eating hot chilis.</p> <p>An alternative method, using<span> </span>high-performance liquid chromatography<span> </span>(HPLC) can be used to analytically quantify the capsaicinoid content as an indicator of pungency.<span> </span>As of 2011, the subjective organoleptic test has been largely superceded by analytical methods such as chromatography.</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Scoville_organoleptic_test">Scoville organoleptic test</span></h2> <p>In the Scoville organoleptic test, an exact weight of dried pepper is dissolved in alcohol to extract the heat components (capsaicinoids), then diluted in a solution of sugar water.<sup id="cite_ref-twi_3-4" class="reference">[3]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-Peter2012_10-0" class="reference">[10]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-tainter_11-0" class="reference">[11]</sup><span> </span>Decreasing concentrations of the extracted capsaicinoids are given to a panel of five trained tasters, until a majority (at least three) can no longer detect the heat in a dilution.<sup id="cite_ref-five38_1-1" class="reference">[1]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-twi_3-5" class="reference">[3]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-Peter2012_10-1" class="reference">[10]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-tainter_11-1" class="reference">[11]</sup><span> </span>The heat level is based on this dilution, rated in multiples of 100 SHU.<sup id="cite_ref-Peter2012_10-2" class="reference">[10]</sup></p> <p>Another source using<span> </span>subjective assessment<span> </span>stated: "Conventional methods used in determining the level of pungency or capsaicin concentration are using a panel of tasters (Scoville Organoleptic test method). ... Pepper pungency is measured in Scoville Heat Units (SHU). This measurement is the highest dilution of a chili pepper extract at which heat can be detected by a taste panel."<sup id="cite_ref-guzman_4-2" class="reference">[4]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference">[12]</sup></p> <p>A weakness of the Scoville organoleptic test is its imprecision due to human subjectivity, depending on the taster's palate and number of mouth heat<span> </span>receptors, which vary widely among people.<sup id="cite_ref-five38_1-2" class="reference">[1]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-guzman_4-3" class="reference">[4]</sup><span> </span>Another weakness is<span> </span>sensory fatigue;<sup id="cite_ref-five38_1-3" class="reference">[1]</sup><span> </span>the palate is quickly desensitized to capsaicinoids after tasting a few samples within a short time period.<sup id="cite_ref-Peter2012_10-3" class="reference">[10]</sup><span> </span>Results vary widely (up to ± 50%) between laboratories.<sup id="cite_ref-tainter_11-2" class="reference">[11]</sup></p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Pungency_units">Pungency units</span></h2> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/38/Red_savina_cropped.jpg/220px-Red_savina_cropped.jpg" width="220" height="202" class="thumbimage" /><div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> The<span> </span>Red Savina pepper, a hot chili.<sup id="cite_ref-:3_13-0" class="reference">[13]</sup></div> </div> </div> <p>Since the 1980s, spice heat has been assessed quantitatively by<span> </span>high-performance liquid chromatography<span> </span>(HPLC), which measures the concentration of heat-producing capsaicinoids, typically with capsaicin content as the main measure.<sup id="cite_ref-guzman_4-4" class="reference">[4]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-collins_5-2" class="reference">[5]</sup><span> </span>As stated in one review: "the most reliable, rapid, and efficient method to identify and quantify capsaicinoids is HPLC; the results of which can be converted to Scoville Heat Units by multiplying the parts-per-million by 16."<sup id="cite_ref-guzman_4-5" class="reference">[4]</sup><span> </span>HPLC results permit the measurement of a substance’s capsaicin capacity to produce perceived heat ("pungency"). This method gives results in<span> </span>American Spice Trade Association<span> </span>"pungency units", which are defined as one part capsaicin per million parts<span> </span>dried pepper mass.<sup id="cite_ref-collins_5-3" class="reference">[5]</sup></p> <p>For<span> </span>parts per million<span> </span>(ppm) measurements, SHU units are calculated from "parts per million of heat" (ppmH), which is found with the following calculation:</p> <p><span class="mwe-math-element"><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/851d90fcf2e4f5511e93e76868ab5f72c66e5acf" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" alt="{displaystyle {text{ppmH}}={frac {{text{peak area}}({{text{capsaicin}})}+0.82cdot {text{peak area}}({text{dihydrocapsaicin)}}}{{text{peak area}}({text{standard)}}}}}" /></span></p> <p>Peak areas are calculated from HPLC traces of dry samples of the substance to be tested in 1 ml of<span> </span>acetonitrile. The standard used to calibrate the calculation is 1 gram of capsaicin. Scoville heat units are found by multiplying the ppmH value by a factor of 15 or 16.<sup id="cite_ref-collins_5-5" class="reference"></sup></p> <p>An orally administered capsule of capsaicinoids claiming 100,000 Scoville units will correspond to around 6.6 mg of capsaicinoids.</p> <p>The levels of pungency, in terms of Scoville units are:</p> <table class="wikitable"><caption></caption> <tbody><tr><th>Pungency</th> <th>SHU</th> </tr><tr><td>Very highly pungent</td> <td>Above 80,000</td> </tr><tr><td>Highly pungent</td> <td>25,000 to 70,000</td> </tr><tr><td>Moderately pungent</td> <td>3,000 to 25,000</td> </tr><tr><td>Mildly pungent</td> <td>700 to 3,000</td> </tr><tr><td>Non pungent</td> <td>0 to 700</td> </tr></tbody></table><p></p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Scoville_ratings">Scoville ratings</span></h2> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Considerations">Considerations</span></h3> <p>Since Scoville ratings are defined per unit of dry mass, comparison of ratings between products having different water content can be misleading. For example, typical fresh chili peppers have a water content around 90%, whereas<span> </span>Tabasco sauce<span> </span>has a water content of 95%.<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference">[15]</sup><span> </span>For law-enforcement-grade<span> </span>pepper spray, values from 500,000 up to 5 million SHU have been reported,<sup id="cite_ref-five38_1-4" class="reference">[1]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference">[16]</sup><span> </span>but the actual strength of the spray depends on the dilution.</p> <p>Numerical results for any specimen vary depending on its cultivation conditions and the uncertainty of the laboratory methods used to assess the capsaicinoid content.<sup id="cite_ref-guzman_4-7" class="reference">[4]</sup><span> </span>Pungency values for any pepper are variable, owing to expected variation within a species, possibly by a factor of 10 or more, depending on<span> </span>seed lineage, climate and<span> </span>humidity, and soil composition supplying nutrients. The inaccuracies described in the measurement methods also contribute to the imprecision of these values.<sup id="cite_ref-guzman_4-8" class="reference">[4]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-tainter_11-3" class="reference">[11]</sup></p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Capsicum_peppers"><i>Capsicum</i><span> </span>peppers</span></h3> <p><i>Capsicum</i><span> </span>chili peppers<span> </span>are commonly used to add pungency in<span> </span>cuisines<span> </span>worldwide.<sup id="cite_ref-twi_3-7" class="reference">[3]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-guzman_4-9" class="reference">[4]</sup><span> </span>The range of pepper heat reflected by a Scoville score is from 100 or less (sweet peppers) to over 3 million (Pepper X) (table below; Scoville scales for individual chili peppers are in the respective linked article).</p> <table class="wikitable"><tbody><tr><th>Scoville heat units</th> <th>Example peppers</th> </tr><tr><td>800,000 to 3,200,000</td> <td>Pepper X,<sup id="cite_ref-chili2_17-0" class="reference"></sup><span> </span>Carolina Reaper,<sup id="cite_ref-latimes_18-0" class="reference"></sup><span> </span>Dragon's Breath<sup id="cite_ref-CBS_19-0" class="reference"></sup></td> </tr><tr><td>350,000 to 800,000</td> <td>Red savina,<sup id="cite_ref-:3_13-1" class="reference"></sup><span> </span>Chocolate habanero<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"></sup></td> </tr><tr><td>100,000 to 350,000</td> <td>Habanero,<span> </span>Scotch Bonnet<sup id="cite_ref-About_21-0" class="reference"></sup></td> </tr><tr><td>10,000 to 100,000</td> <td>Malagueta pepper,<span> </span>Cayenne pepper</td> </tr><tr><td>1,000 to 10,000</td> <td>Guajillo pepper,<span> </span>Jalapeño</td> </tr><tr><td>100 to 1,000</td> <td>Banana pepper,<span> </span>Cubanelle</td> </tr><tr><td>0 to 100</td> <td>Bell pepper,<span> </span>Pimento</td> </tr></tbody></table><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Capsaicinoids">Capsaicinoids</span></h3> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ad/Capsaicin_pharmacophore.svg/350px-Capsaicin_pharmacophore.svg.png" width="350" height="230" class="thumbimage" /><div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Capsaicin pharmacophore</div> </div> </div> <p>The class of compounds causing pungency in plants like chili peppers is called<span> </span>capsaicinoids, which display a<span> </span>linear correlation<span> </span>between concentration and Scoville scale, and may vary in content during<span> </span>ripening.<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference">[22]</sup><span> </span>Capsaicin is the major capsaicinoid in chili peppers.<sup id="cite_ref-collins_5-6" class="reference">[5]</sup></p> <table class="wikitable"><tbody><tr><th>Scoville heat units</th> <th>Chemical</th> <th>Ref</th> </tr><tr><td>16,000,000,000</td> <td>Resiniferatoxin</td> <td><sup id="cite_ref-QUE_23-0" class="reference">[23]</sup></td> </tr><tr><td>5,300,000,000</td> <td>Tinyatoxin</td> <td><sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference">[24]</sup></td> </tr><tr><td>15,000,000 to 16,000,000</td> <td>Capsaicin,<span> </span>Dihydrocapsaicin</td> <td><sup id="cite_ref-Govindarajan_Sathyanarayana_1991_25-0" class="reference">[25]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-:1_14-1" class="reference">[14]</sup></td> </tr><tr><td>9,200,000</td> <td>Nonivamide</td> <td><sup id="cite_ref-Govindarajan_Sathyanarayana_1991_25-1" class="reference">[25]</sup></td> </tr><tr><td>9,100,000</td> <td>Nordihydrocapsaicin</td> <td><sup id="cite_ref-Govindarajan_Sathyanarayana_1991_25-2" class="reference">[25]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-:1_14-2" class="reference">[14]</sup></td> </tr><tr><td>8,600,000</td> <td>Homocapsaicin,<span> </span>Homodihydrocapsaicin</td> <td><sup id="cite_ref-Govindarajan_Sathyanarayana_1991_25-3" class="reference">[25]</sup></td> </tr><tr><td>160,000</td> <td>Shogaol</td> <td><sup id="cite_ref-:0_26-0" class="reference">[26]</sup></td> </tr><tr><td>100,000 to 200,000</td> <td>Piperine</td> <td><sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference">[27]</sup></td> </tr><tr><td>60,000</td> <td>Gingerol</td> <td><sup id="cite_ref-:0_26-1" class="reference">[26]</sup></td> </tr><tr><td>16,000</td> <td>Capsiate</td> <td><sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (July 2019)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup></td> </tr></tbody></table>
Scoville scale 0 - 1

Plant seeds scarification  - 2

Plant seeds scarification

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<div id="mntl-sc-block_1-0"> <h2><span style="color:#000000;"><strong>Plant seeds scarification</strong></span></h2> <p><span style="color:#000000;">Scarification in botany involves weakening, opening, or otherwise altering the coat of a seed to encourage germination. The seeds of many plant species are often impervious to water and gasses, thus preventing or delaying germination.  Scarification is often done mechanically, thermally, and chemically. </span></p> <p><span style="color:#000000;">Seed scarification is scarring seeds. A seed's hard outer coat makes it impervious to gasses and moisture that would cause them to germinate. To overcome this you need to scratch, break or nick the seed coat. In nature, this naturally occurs when seeds pass through the digestive tract of some animals, through freezing temperatures or microbial activities that break down the seed coat. Seeds that need to be scarified before sowing are usually large or have thick seed coatings like seeds in the morning glory family, runner beans like purple hyacinth beans vine or canna seeds.</span></p> <p><span style="color:#000000;">The process of seed scarification can be accomplished by rubbing the seed on file or sandpaper. Be careful not to go too deep into the seed itself. Scratch the seeds just enough that you can see a difference is color of the seeds should be enough. Water is easily soaked up through the seed coat after you've done this.</span></p> <h2><span style="color:#000000;"><strong>Methods of Scarification of Seeds</strong></span></h2> <p><span style="color:#000000;">Seeds with hard coats may need to be scarified - the process where the seed coat is modified in some way so that moisture can enter and germination occurs.</span></p> <h2><span style="color:#000000;"><strong>There are several methods of scarification:</strong><strong></strong></span></h2> </div> <ol style="list-style-type:upper-alpha;"><li><span style="color:#000000;">Soaking the seeds in hot water</span></li> <li><span style="color:#000000;">Damage hard outer seeds coat with Pliers, knife, nail clipper...</span></li> <li><span style="color:#000000;">Using a file or sandpaper (one must be careful to not go too deep and damage the embryo inside)</span></li> <li><span style="color:#000000;">Acid (this can be quite dangerous and you must follow directions carefully!).</span></li> </ol><p><span style="color:#000000;">The type of scarification will depend on which seeds you are germinating.</span></p> <h2><span style="color:#000000;"><strong><span class="mntl-sc-block-heading__text">Scarification Breaks Dormancy</span></strong></span></h2> <p><span style="color:#000000;">Physical dormancy is due to structural limitations to germination such as hard impervious seed coats. Under natural conditions weathering for a number of years weakens the seed coat. Certain seeds, such as the sweet pea, have a tough husk that can be artificially worn or weakened to render the seed coat permeable to gasses and water by scarification.  </span></p> <p><span style="color:#000000;">In some tree species, dormancy is the result of a thick, hard seed coat that may be broken by scarification. In nature, the seed coat may be broken by microbial action, passage of the seed through the digestive tract of a bird or other animal, exposure to alternate freezing and thawing, or fire.</span></p> <h2><span style="color:#000000;"><strong><span class="mntl-sc-block-heading__text">Seed Stratification</span></strong></span></h2> <p><span style="color:#000000;">Seed stratification is sometimes better known as the cold stratification. The seed of many tree species will not germinate until they have been exposed to cool temperatures and moist conditions for several weeks or months. Gardeners can accomplish the same results indoors by a process called stratification. Tree seed can be stratified by placing the seed in a moist 50:50 mixture of sand and peat moss. Suitable containers include coffee cans, plastic jars, and cottage cheese containers. (Punch holes in the lid of the container to provide air.) Seed can also be stratified in plastic bags. Stratify the seed in the refrigerator.</span></p> <p><span style="color:#000000;">The seed of some trees, such as redbud, have hard impermeable seed coats and dormant embryos. They require both scarification and stratification for germination.</span></p> <p><span style="color:#000000;"><iframe width="640" height="385" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/icB9HrqdQqU?rel=0&amp;hd=1" frameborder="0" class="embed-responsive-item"> </iframe></span></p>
Plant seeds scarification  - 2