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Climbing Strawberry seeds "Mount Everest" (Fragaria x ananassa)

Climbing Strawberry seeds...

السعر 2.50 € (SKU: V 1 CS)
,
5/ 5
<div id="idTab1" class="rte"> <h2><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><em><strong>Climbing Strawberry seeds "Mount Everest"</strong></em></span></h2> <h3><strong><span style="color:#ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of<strong> 10 </strong>seeds.</strong></span><em><br /></em></strong></h3> <p>A unique climbing strawberry! This fast, strong growing variety will produce runners up to 1,5m in length that make a real talking point when trained up a trellis or obelisk climbing frame, or cascading from window boxes and hanging baskets. Better still, Strawberry 'Mount Everest' is an ever-bearering variety that produces a delicious crop of medium sized, sweet, juicy fruits from June right through to September! Height: 1,5m. Spread: 30cm.</p> <p>Estimated time to cropping once planted: 4-8 months.<br />Estimated time to best yields: 4-8 months.</p> </div>
V 1 CS
Climbing Strawberry seeds "Mount Everest" (Fragaria x ananassa)
Bougainvillea spectabilis Violet and Red Seeds

Bougainvillea spectabilis...

السعر 1.95 € (SKU: T 61)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Bougainvillea spectabilis Mix Violet and Red Seeds</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color:#ff0000;font-size:14pt;"><strong>Price for Package of 10 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>Planting bougainvillea seeds is sure way to add a vibrant splash of color to the home or garden. These tropical favorites are relatively easy to maintain. They can thrive for many years, becoming even more beautiful with age.</p> <p>Bougainvilleas are fast growing, tropical, semi-evergreen vines from South America that produce cascading clusters of long lasting, brightly colored, petal-like bracts surrounding small tubular flowers from early spring through late summer.In zones 10-12</p> <p>Bougainvillea plants can be grown in the garden where they can be trained to climb 10-20 feet to cover porches, archways or walls or they can be grown as a colorful, spreading ground cover.</p> <p>Bougainvilleas are also well adapted to growing in containers and can be grown as house plants.</p> <p>Bougainvilleas have strong, woody thorns.The older the plant gets, the longer and bigger the thorns will be.</p> <h2>Growing Bougainvillea Plants in the Garden</h2> <p>Bougainvillea plants do not transplant well, so select a sheltered planting site in full sun where they can grow undisturbed. They aren't overly fussy about the soil as long as it is well drained. However, the addition of compost, processed manure or peat moss to the planting hole will get your Bougainvillea off to a good start.</p> <p>Bougainvilleas are very drought tolerant once established and should only be watered when the soil is dry an inch below the surface, except when growing in containers which should be kept slightly moist.</p> <p>Feed your Bougainvillea monthly beginning in early spring using a low-nitrogen, bloom type fertilizer, following label directions carefully. Do not fertilize in the fall or winter.Prune freely after blooming. Flowers appear on the new growth.</p> <h2>Growing Bougainvilleas as House Plants</h2> <p>Bougainvilleas can be grown as house plants but they will not bloom well indoors unless you can provide a minimum of five hours of bright sun each day and adequate humidity.</p> <p>They should be grown in a rich, well-drained commercial planting mix that is NOT pre-fertilized. Repotting should be done in late winter or early in the spring.</p> <p>Keep the soil evenly moist during the growing season, but allow it to gradually dry out by winter.Feed actively growing plants every two weeks with a soluble house plant type fertilizer, following label directions carefully.</p> <p>Bougainvilleas grow best with night temperatures of 65° and daytime temperatures of 70°-80°.</p> <p>Grow your Bougainvillea on a strong trellis or prune it in the spring to maintain a shrubby growth habit. Container grown Bougainvilleas can be moved to a sunny spot in the garden for the summer, but should be allowed to gradually dry out before bringing them back indoors by mid autumn.</p> <p>Inspect your plants carefully for spider mites, mealybugs and scale before returning them to the house.Propagating Bougainvillea Plants and Growing them from Seed</p> <p>Bougainvillea seeds can be sown indoors at any time of the year. Maintain a temperature of 70°-75° within the growing medium until germination, which typically takes 30 days or longer.</p> <h2><strong>Preparing to Grow</strong></h2> <p>The requirements for bougainvillea seed growth are quite similar to those of the mature plant. Bougainvilleas demand well draining soil. Any quality potting soil will suffice as a growing medium as long as it drains well and is slightly acidic. Select a container that does not narrow at the top. The roots of bougainvilleas and delicate, when the time comes for transplanting, the bougainvillea needs to be able to slide easily out of the old container. The pot does not need to be deep, but should hold enough of the growing medium to make frequent watering unnecessary. The seeds will need a good light source.</p> <h2>WIKIPEDIA:</h2> <p>Bougainvillea is a genus of thorny ornamental vines, bushes, and trees with flower-like spring leaves near its flowers. Different authors accept between four and 18 species in the genus. They are native plants of South America from Brazil west to Peru and south to southern Argentina (Chubut Province). Bougainvillea are also known as buganvilla (Spain), bugambilia (Mexico, Guatemala, Cuba, Philippines), pokok bunga kertas (Indonesia), "'bougenville"' (Pakistan), Napoleón (Honduras), veranera (Colombia, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Costa Rica and Panama), trinitaria (Colombia, Panama, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic &amp; Venezuela), Santa Rita (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) or papelillo (northern Peru).</p> <p>The vine species grow anywhere from 1 to 12 m (3 to 40 ft.) tall, scrambling over other plants with their spiky thorns. The thorns are tipped with a black, waxy substance. They are evergreen where rainfall occurs all year, or deciduous if there is a dry season. The leaves are alternate, simple ovate-acuminate, 4–13 cm long and 2–6 cm broad. The actual flower of the plant is small and generally white, but each cluster of three flowers is surrounded by three or six bracts with the bright colours associated with the plant, including pink, magenta, purple, red, orange, white, or yellow. Bougainvillea glabra is sometimes referred to as "paper flower" because the bracts are thin and papery. The fruit is a narrow five-lobed achene.</p> <p>Bougainvillea are relatively pest-free plants, but they may suffer from worms, snails and aphids. The larvae of some Lepidoptera species also use them as food plants, for example the giant leopard moth (Hypercompe scribonia).</p> <p><strong>History</strong></p> <p>The first European to describe these plants was Philibert Commerçon, a botanist accompanying French Navy admiral and explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville during his voyage of circumnavigation of the Earth, and first published for him by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789.[2] It is possible that the first European to observe these plants was Jeanne Baré, Commerçon's lover and assistant who was an expert in botany. Because she was not allowed on ship as a woman, she disguised herself as a man in order to make the journey (and thus became the first woman to circumnavigate the globe).</p> <p>Twenty years after Commerçon's discovery, it was first published as 'Buginvillæa' in Genera Plantarum by A.L. de Jussieu in 1789.[4] The genus was subsequently spelled in several ways until it was finally corrected to 'Bougainvillea' in the Index Kewensis in the 1930s. Originally, B. spectabilis and B. glabra were hardly differentiated until the mid-1980s when botanists recognized them to be totally distinct species. In the early 19th century, these two species were the first to be introduced into Europe, and soon, nurseries in France and England did a thriving trade providing specimens to Australia and other faraway countries. Meanwhile, Kew Gardens distributed plants it had propagated to British colonies throughout the world. Soon thereafter, an important event in the history of bougainvillea took place with the discovery of a crimson specimen in Cartagena, Colombia, by Mrs. R.V. Butt. Originally thought to be a distinct species, it was named B. buttiana in her honour. However, it was later discovered to be a natural hybrid of a variety of B. glabra and possibly B. peruviana - a "local pink bougainvillea" from Peru. Natural hybrids were soon found to be common occurrences all over the world. For instance, around the 1930s, when the three species were grown together, many hybrid crosses were created almost spontaneously in East Africa, India, the Canary Islands, Australia, North America, and the Philippines.</p> <p><strong>Cultivation and uses</strong></p> <p>Bougainvilleas are popular ornamental plants in most areas with warm climates. Locarno in Switzerland, with its mild Mediterranean climate, is famous for its bougainvilleas.[citation needed]</p> <p>Although it is frost-sensitive and hardy in U.S. Hardiness Zones 9b and 10, bougainvillea can be used as a houseplant or hanging basket in cooler climates. In the landscape, it makes an excellent hot season plant, and its drought tolerance makes it ideal for warm climates year-round. Its high salt tolerance makes it a natural choice for color in coastal regions. It can be pruned into a standard, but is also grown along fence lines, on walls, in containers and hanging baskets, and as a hedge or an accent plant. Its long arching thorny branches bear heart-shaped leaves and masses of papery bracts in white, pink, orange, purple, and burgundy. Many cultivars, including double-flowered and variegated, are available.</p> <p>Many of today's bougainvillea are the result of interbreeding among only three out of the eighteen South American species recognized by botanists. Currently, there are over 300 varieties of bougainvillea around the world. Because many of the hybrids have been crossed over several generations, it is difficult to identify their respective origins. Natural mutations seem to occur spontaneously throughout the world; wherever large numbers of plants are being produced, bud-sports will occur. This had led to multiple names for the same cultivar (or variety) and has added to the confusion over the names of bougainvillea cultivars.</p> <p>The growth rate of bougainvilleas varies from slow to rapid, depending on the variety. They tend to flower all year round in equatorial regions. Elsewhere, they are seasonal, with bloom cycles typically four to six weeks. Bougainvilleas grow best in dry soil, in very bright full sun and with frequent fertilization; but they require little water once established, and in fact will not flourish if over-watered. They can be easily propagated via tip cuttings.</p> <p>The bougainvillea is also a very attractive species for Bonsai enthusiasts, due to their ease of training and their radiant flowering during the spring.[6] They can be kept as indoor houseplants in temperate regions and kept small by bonsai techniques.</p> <p>The hybrid cultivar B. × buttiana 'Poulton's Special' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.</p> <p><strong>Symbolism and nomenclature</strong></p> <p>Various species of Bougainvillea are the official flowers of Guam (where it is known as the Puti Tai Nobiu);[8] Lienchiang and Pingtung Counties in Taiwan; Ipoh, Malaysia;[9] the cities of Tagbilaran, Philippines; Camarillo, California; Laguna Niguel, California; San Clemente, California; the cities of Shenzhen, Huizhou, Zhuhai, and Jiangmen in Guangdong Province, China; and Naha, Okinawa.</p> <p>Native to South America, Bougainvillea carries several names in the different regions where it is expontaneously present. Apart from Rioplatense Spanish santa-rita and Peruvian Spanish papelillo, it may be variously named primavera, três-marias, sempre-lustrosa, santa-rita, ceboleiro, roseiro, roseta, riso, pataguinha, pau-de-roseira and flor-de-papel in Brazilian Portuguese. Nevertheless, buganvílea [buɡɐ̃ˈviʎ̟ɐ] in Portuguese and buganvilia [buɣamˈbilja] in Spanish are the most common names accepted by people of the regions where these languages are spoken but it is an introduced plant.</p> <p><strong>Toxicity</strong></p> <p>The sap of the Bougainvillea can cause serious skin rashes, similar to toxicodendron species.</p>
T 61
Bougainvillea spectabilis Violet and Red Seeds

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Variation från Peru
Aji Charapita chili Seeds 2.25 - 1

Aji Charapita بذور

السعر 1.95 € (SKU: C 111)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Aji Charapita بذور</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>ثمن العبوة المكونة من 10 ، 25 ، 50 بذرة.</strong></span></h2> <p><strong>تنمو نباتات Charapita 2020 بشكل جيد (انظر الصور). كما ترى من صورنا ، فإن البذور مأخوذة من نباتاتنا (مزروعة عضوياً) وأنت تعرف ما ستحصل عليه من البذور التي تشتريها منا </strong></p> <p>هذا الفلفل الحار هو الأغلى في العالم! على الرغم من أنه لا يزال غير معروف إلى حد ما في معظم البلدان الغربية ، إلا أن Aji Charapita هو علاج مرغوب فيه للغاية بين خبراء الفلفل الحار وطهاة المطاعم من فئة الخمس نجوم.</p> <p>موطنها الأصلي غابات شمال بيرو ، يُعرف Aji Charapita باسم الفلفل الحار البري ولم يُزرع إلا مؤخرًا للاستخدام التجاري. نظرًا لندرتها وأسعارها الباهظة ، غالبًا ما تُعرف باسم "Mother of All Chilis" مع تصنيف Scoville للسخونة بين 30.000 - 50000 وحدة ، فإن Aji Charapita سيحدث ثقبًا في لسانك وكذلك محفظتك.</p> <p>يقال إن أجي شاربيتا الملقب بـ "أم الفلفل الحار" تكلف ما لا يقل عن 25000 دولار للكيلو ، مما يجعلها أغلى فلفل حار في العالم ، وواحدة من أغلى البهارات ، إلى جانب الفانيليا والزعفران.</p> <p>قد يكون صغيرًا (يصل ارتفاعه إلى متر واحد) ، ولكن لا ينبغي الاستهانة بفلفل Charapita chili أو "aji Charapita" كما هو معروف في بيرو. Aji Charapita (Capsicum chinense) أو Charapita عبارة عن شجيرة كثيفة تنتج كتلًا من (أكثر من 400 فاكهة لكل نبات) صغيرة ناضجة من الفلفل الأصفر المستدير.</p> <p>يستخدم هذا الفلفل الصغير الطازج ، وله نكهة فاكهية قوية تعطي الصلصات والصلصات طعمًا استوائيًا ، ولكنه يستخدم في الغالب في شكل مسحوق إلى قليل من البهارات في الأطباق المختلفة. تم ثقب الفاكهة الناضجة أو عصرها ببساطة واستخدام العصير كتوابل لاذعة على الطعام. تجلب هذه الفلفل الحار أيضًا العديد من الفوائد الصحية. يمكن أن تساعد الكابسيسينويد في تحسين الهضم والدورة الدموية عند تناولها كجزء من نظام غذائي متوازن.</p> <p>يحتوي صنف Aji Charapita على بذور صغيرة جدًا ، والتي تتطلب بدورها ظروفًا مثالية للبذر. لتحقيق إنبات ناجح ، من الضروري ضمان درجة حرارة لا تقل عن 25 درجة مئوية خلال فترة الإنبات ، ويجب استخدام ركيزة البذر أو أقراص Jiffy.</p> </body> </html>
C 111 (10 S)
Aji Charapita chili Seeds 2.25 - 1
برغموت بذور

برغموت بذور

السعر 3.50 € (SKU: V 21 CB)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>برغموت بذور</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>ثمن عبوة من 4 بذور.</strong></span></h2> <p>البرغموت أو الليمون العطري أو الليمون البرغامي هي فاكهة حمضية كمثرية الشكل إلى حد ما تنمو على الأشجار الصغيرة المعروفة البرغموت وهو هجين بين ليمون الكمثرى Pear Lemon والكريفون، معظم إنتاجها يقتصر على المنطقة الساحلية الايونية في مقاطعة ريدجو كالابريا (مقاطعة جنوب إيطاليا في إقليم كالابريا) إلى حد انه أصبح رمزا للمنطقة بأكملها وللمدينة. لا يثمر المحصول في أي جزء آخر من العالم بنفس وجودة الثمار ؛ وهو يزرع في ساحل العاج، الأرجنتين والبرازيل ولكن نوعية المحصول في جوهرها لا تقارن مع جوهر البرغموت المنتجة من مقاطعة ريدجو كالابريا لعوامل تتعلق بالتربة.</p> <p>و هو من الحمضيات ومن قشر هذه الثمرة ويستخرج منه زيت البرغموت الزكي ويستخدم أيضاً في صناعة العطور ولعلاج الاكتئاب ويستخدم لإنتاج الزيوت الأساسية التي تستخدم في إنتاج شاي إيرل جراي، والعطور، وفي صنع الحلويات، ومقاوم للاكتئاب، وهو مساعد للهضم أيضاً وهو من مكونات كولونيا (عطر) الاصلي المطور في ألمانيا في القرن السابع عشر. و ينتج مصنع تجاري في إيطاليا ضمن الصناعات الغذائية مربي الفاكهة باستخدامه كعنصر الرئيسي. وهو أيضا شعبي في اليونان كمادة حافظة، حيث يصنع مع قشور البرغموت المغلي في محلول سكري.</p> <p>للبرغموت تأثير منعش ومفيد في معالجة الإجهاد والقلق، يتناغم بشكل جيد مع الخزامى والبابونج والنارولي وابرة الراعي والورد وخشب الصندل، لكن لا يجب استخدامه قبل أو بعد التعرض لأشعة الشمس.</p> </body> </html>
V 21 CB
برغموت بذور

Bästsäljare produkt
Cassava, Yuca, Macaxeira, Mandioca, Aipim Seeds 3 - 6

Cassava, Yuca, Macaxeira,...

السعر 3.00 € (SKU: P 445)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Cassava, Yuca, Macaxeira, Mandioca, Aipim Seeds (Manihot esculenta)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 3 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><i><b>Manihot esculenta</b></i>,<span> </span>commonly called<span> </span><b>cassava</b><span> </span>(<span class="nowrap"><span class="IPA nopopups noexcerpt">/<span><span title="'k' in 'kind'">k</span><span title="/ə/: 'a' in 'about'">ə</span><span title="/ˈ/: primary stress follows">ˈ</span><span title="'s' in 'sigh'">s</span><span title="/ɑː/: 'a' in 'father'">ɑː</span><span title="'v' in 'vie'">v</span><span title="/ə/: 'a' in 'about'">ə</span></span>/</span></span>),<span> </span><b>manioc</b>,<span> </span><b>yuca</b>,<span> </span><b>macaxeira</b>,<span> </span><b>mandioca</b><span> </span>and<span> </span><b>aipim</b>, is a woody<span> </span>shrub<span> </span>native to South America of the<span> </span>spurge<span> </span>family,<span> </span>Euphorbiaceae. Although a perennial plant, cassava is extensively cultivated as an annual<span> </span>crop<span> </span>in<span> </span>tropical<span> </span>and<span> </span>subtropical<span> </span>regions for its edible<span> </span>starchy<span> </span>tuberous root, a major source of<span> </span>carbohydrates. Though it is often called<span> </span><i><b>yuca</b></i><span> </span>in Latin American Spanish and in the United States, it is not related to<span> </span>yucca, a shrub in the family<span> </span>Asparagaceae. Cassava is predominantly consumed in boiled form, but substantial quantities are used to extract cassava starch, called<span> </span>tapioca, which is used for food, animal feed, and industrial purposes. The Brazilian farinha, and the related<span> </span><i>garri</i><span> </span>of West Africa, is an edible coarse flour obtained by grating cassava roots, pressing moisture off the obtained grated pulp, and finally drying it (and roasting in the case of farinha).</p> <p>Cassava is the third-largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics, after<span> </span>rice<span> </span>and<span> </span>maize.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference">[3]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference">[4]</sup><span> </span>Cassava is a major<span> </span>staple food<span> </span>in the developing world, providing a basic diet for over half a billion people.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference">[5]</sup><span> </span>It is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils. Nigeria is the world's largest producer of cassava, while Thailand is the largest exporter of cassava starch.</p> <p>Cassava is classified as either sweet or bitter. Like other roots and tubers, both bitter and sweet varieties of cassava contain<span> </span>antinutritional<span> </span>factors and toxins, with the bitter varieties containing much larger amounts.<sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-0" class="reference">[6]</sup><span> </span>It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual<span> </span>cyanide<span> </span>to cause acute<span> </span>cyanide intoxication,<sup id="cite_ref-promedmail-4799579_7-0" class="reference">[7]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference">[8]</sup><span> </span>goiters, and even<span> </span>ataxia, partial paralysis, or death. The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource (a "food security<span> </span>crop") in times of famine or food insecurity in some places.<sup id="cite_ref-promedmail-4799579_7-1" class="reference">[7]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-1" class="reference">[6]</sup><span> </span>Farmers often prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests, animals, and thieves.<sup id="cite_ref-leisa_9-0" class="reference"></sup></p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Description">Description</span></h2> <p>The cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1 mm thick, rough and brown on the outside. Commercial<span> </span>cultivars<span> </span>can be 5 to 10 cm (2.0 to 3.9 in) in diameter at the top, and around 15 to 30 cm (5.9 to 11.8 in) long. A woody vascular bundle runs along the root's<span> </span>axis. The flesh can be chalk-white or yellowish. Cassava roots are very rich in<span> </span>starch<span> </span>and contain small amounts of calcium (16 mg/100 g), phosphorus (27 mg/100 g), and vitamin C (20.6 mg/100 g).<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference">[10]</sup><span> </span>However, they are poor in<span> </span>protein<span> </span>and other<span> </span>nutrients. In contrast, cassava leaves are a good source of protein (rich in lysine), but deficient in the<span> </span>amino acid<span> </span>methionine<span> </span>and possibly<span> </span>tryptophan.<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference">[11]</sup></p> <div class="thumb tmulti tleft"> <div class="thumbinner"> <div class="trow"> <div class="theader">Details of cassava plants</div> </div> <div class="trow"> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/Manihot_esculenta_dsc07325.jpg/135px-Manihot_esculenta_dsc07325.jpg" width="135" height="101" /></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Unprocessed roots</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/Cassava1_%283945716612%29.jpg/152px-Cassava1_%283945716612%29.jpg" width="152" height="101" /></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Leaf</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Cassava2_%283945624614%29.jpg/152px-Cassava2_%283945624614%29.jpg" width="152" height="101" /></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Leaf detail</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Cassava_buds_%284733912948%29.jpg/67px-Cassava_buds_%284733912948%29.jpg" width="67" height="101" /></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Picked buds</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/Manihot_esculenta_MHNT.BOT.2004.0.508.jpg/146px-Manihot_esculenta_MHNT.BOT.2004.0.508.jpg" width="146" height="101" /></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Seeds</div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span></h2> <div class="thumb tleft"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Albert_Eckhout_-_Mandioca.jpg/220px-Albert_Eckhout_-_Mandioca.jpg" width="220" height="221" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> 17th c. painting by<span> </span>Albert Eckhout<span> </span>in<span> </span>Dutch Brazil</div> </div> </div> <p>Wild populations of<span> </span><i>M. esculenta</i><span> </span>subspecies<span> </span><i>flabellifolia</i>, shown to be the progenitor of domesticated cassava, are centered in west-central Brazil, where it was likely first domesticated no more than 10,000 years<span> </span>BP.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference">[12]</sup><span> </span>Forms of the modern domesticated species can also be found growing in the wild in the south of Brazil. By 4,600 BC, manioc (cassava) pollen appears in the<span> </span>Gulf of Mexico<span> </span>lowlands, at the<span> </span>San Andrés<span> </span>archaeological site.<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference">[13]</sup><span> </span>The oldest direct evidence of cassava cultivation comes from a 1,400-year-old<span> </span>Maya<span> </span>site,<span> </span>Joya de Cerén, in<span> </span>El Salvador.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference">[14]</sup><span> </span>With its high food potential, it had become a<span> </span>staple food<span> </span>of the native populations of northern South America, southern Mesoamerica, and the Caribbean by the time of European contact in 1492. Cassava was a staple food of<span> </span>pre-Columbian<span> </span>peoples in the Americas and is often portrayed in<span> </span>indigenous art. The<span> </span>Moche<span> </span>people often depicted yuca in their ceramics.<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference">[15]</sup></p> <p>Spaniards in their early occupation of Caribbean islands did not want to eat cassava or maize, which they considered insubstantial, dangerous, and not nutritious. They much preferred foods from Spain, specifically wheat bread, olive oil, red wine, and meat, and considered maize and cassava damaging to Europeans.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference">[16]</sup><span> </span>The cultivation and consumption of cassava was nonetheless continued in both Portuguese and Spanish America. Mass production of cassava bread became the first Cuban industry established by the Spanish,<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference">[17]</sup>Ships departing to Europe from Cuban ports such as<span> </span>Havana,<span> </span>Santiago,<span> </span>Bayamo, and<span> </span>Baracoa<span> </span>carried goods to Spain, but sailors needed to be provisioned for the voyage. The Spanish also needed to replenish their boats with dried meat, water, fruit, and large amounts of cassava bread.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference">[18]</sup><span> </span>Sailors complained that it caused them digestive problems.<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference">[19]</sup><span> </span>Tropical Cuban weather was not suitable for wheat planting and cassava would not go stale as quickly as regular bread.</p> <p>Cassava was introduced to Africa by Portuguese traders from Brazil in the 16th century. Around the same period, it was also introduced to Asia through<span> </span>Columbian Exchange<span> </span>by Portuguese and Spanish traders, planted in their colonies in Goa, Malacca, Eastern Indonesia, Timor and the Philippines.<span> </span>Maize<span> </span>and cassava are now important staple foods, replacing native African crops in places such as Tanzania.<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference">[20]</sup><span> </span>Cassava has also become an important staple in Asia, extensively cultivated in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam.<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference">[21]</sup><span> </span>Cassava is sometimes described as the "bread of the tropics"<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference">[22]</sup><span> </span>but should not be confused with the tropical and equatorial<span> </span>bread tree<span> </span><i>(Encephalartos)</i>, the<span> </span>breadfruit<span> </span><i>(Artocarpus altilis)</i><span> </span>or the<span> </span>African breadfruit<span> </span><i>(Treculia africana)</i>.</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Production">Production</span></h2> <p>In 2016, global production of cassava root was 277 million<span> </span>tonnes, with<span> </span>Nigeria<span> </span>as the world's largest producer having 21% of the world total (table). Other major growers were<span> </span>Thailand,<span> </span>Brazil, and<span> </span>Indonesia.<sup id="cite_ref-faostat16_23-0" class="reference">[23]</sup></p> <table class="wikitable"> <tbody> <tr> <th colspan="2">Cassava production – 2016</th> </tr> <tr> <th>Country</th> <th><small>Production (millions of<span> </span>tonnes)</small></th> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/79/Flag_of_Nigeria.svg/23px-Flag_of_Nigeria.svg.png" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Nigeria</center></td> <td><center>57.1</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Flag_of_Thailand.svg/23px-Flag_of_Thailand.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Thailand</center></td> <td><center>31.1</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg/22px-Flag_of_Brazil.svg.png" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Brazil</center></td> <td><center>21.1</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Flag_of_Indonesia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Indonesia.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Indonesia</center></td> <td><center>20.7</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo.svg/20px-Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo.svg.png" width="20" height="15" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Democratic Republic of the Congo</center></td> <td><center>14.7</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><b>World</b></center></td> <td><center><b>277.1</b></center></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"><center><small>Source:<span> </span>FAOSTAT<span> </span>of the<span> </span>United Nations<sup id="cite_ref-faostat16_23-1" class="reference">[23]</sup></small></center></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Cassava is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, can be successfully grown on marginal soils, and gives reasonable yields where many other crops do not grow well. Cassava is well adapted within latitudes 30° north and south of the equator, at elevations between sea level and 2,000 m (6,600 ft) above sea level, in equatorial temperatures, with rainfalls from 50 mm (2.0 in) to 5 m (16 ft) annually, and to poor soils with a pH ranging from acidic to alkaline. These conditions are common in certain parts of Africa and South America.</p> <p>Cassava is a highly-productive crop when considering food calories produced per unit land area, per unit of time. Significantly higher than other staple crops, cassava can produce food calories at rates exceeding 250,000 kcal/hectare/day, as compared with 176,000 for rice, 110,000 for wheat and 200,000 for maize (corn).</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Economic_importance">Economic importance</span></h2> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also:<span> </span>Tapioca § Production</div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3e/Manihot_esculenta_-_cross_section_2.jpg/220px-Manihot_esculenta_-_cross_section_2.jpg" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> A cassava tuber in cross-section</div> </div> </div> <p>Cassava,<span> </span>yams<span> </span>(<i>Dioscorea</i><span> </span>spp.), and<span> </span>sweet potatoes<span> </span>(<i>Ipomoea batatas</i>) are important sources of food in the tropics. The cassava plant gives the third-highest yield of<span> </span>carbohydrates<span> </span>per cultivated area among crop plants, after<span> </span>sugarcane<span> </span>and<span> </span>sugar beets.<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference">[24]</sup><span> </span>Cassava plays a particularly important role in agriculture in developing countries, especially in<span> </span>sub-Saharan Africa, because it does well on poor soils and with low rainfall, and because it is a perennial that can be harvested as required. Its wide harvesting window allows it to act as a famine reserve and is invaluable in managing labor schedules. It offers flexibility to resource-poor farmers because it serves as either a subsistence or a cash crop.<sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference">[25]</sup></p> <p>Worldwide, 800 million people depend on cassava as their primary food staple.<sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference">[26]</sup><span> </span>No continent depends as much on root and tuber crops in feeding its population as does Africa. In the humid and sub-humid areas of tropical Africa, it is either a primary staple food or a secondary costaple. In<span> </span>Ghana, for example, cassava and yams occupy an important position in the agricultural economy and contribute about 46 percent of the agricultural gross domestic product. Cassava accounts for a daily caloric intake of 30 percent in<span> </span>Ghanaand is grown by nearly every farming family. The importance of cassava to many Africans is epitomised in the<span> </span>Ewe<span> </span>(a language spoken in Ghana,<span> </span>Togo<span> </span>and<span> </span>Benin) name for the plant,<span> </span><i>agbeli</i>, meaning "there is life".</p> <p>In<span> </span>Tamil Nadu, India, there are many cassava processing factories alongside<span> </span>National Highway 68<span> </span>between<span> </span>Thalaivasal<span> </span>and<span> </span>Attur. Cassava is widely cultivated and eaten as a staple food in<span> </span>Andhra Pradesh<span> </span>and in<span> </span>Kerala. In<span> </span>Assam<span> </span>it is an important source of carbohydrates especially for natives of hilly areas.</p> <p>In the subtropical region of southern China, cassava is the fifth-largest crop in term of production, after<span> </span>rice,<span> </span>sweet potato,<span> </span>sugar cane, and<span> </span>maize. China is also the largest export market for cassava produced in Vietnam and Thailand. Over 60 percent of cassava production in China is concentrated in a single province,<span> </span>Guangxi, averaging over seven million tonnes annually.</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Uses">Uses</span></h2> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also:<span> </span>Tapioca § Uses</div> <table class="box-More_citations_needed_section plainlinks metadata ambox ambox-content ambox-Refimprove"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="mbox-image"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/50px-Question_book-new.svg.png" width="50" height="39" /></div> </td> <td class="mbox-text"> <div class="mbox-text-span">This section<span> </span><b>needs additional citations for<span> </span>verification</b>.<span class="hide-when-compact"><span> </span>Please help<span> </span>improve this article<span> </span>by<span> </span>adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.<br /><small><span class="plainlinks"><i>Find sources:</i> "Cassava" – news <b>·</b><span> </span>newspapers <b>·</b><span> </span>books <b>·</b><span> </span>scholar <b>·</b><span> </span>JSTOR</span></small></span><span> </span><small class="date-container"><i>(<span class="date">August 2017</span>)</i></small><small class="hide-when-compact"><i><span> </span>(Learn how and when to remove this template message)</i></small></div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Cambodia16_lo_%284039995158%29.jpg/220px-Cambodia16_lo_%284039995158%29.jpg" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Processing cassava starch into cassava noodles,<span> </span>Kampong Cham</div> </div> </div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Alcoholic_beverages">Alcoholic beverages</span></h3> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article:<span> </span>Alcoholic beverage § Beverages by type</div> <p>Alcoholic beverages<span> </span>made from cassava include<span> </span>cauim<span> </span>and<span> </span>tiquira<span> </span>(Brazil),<span> </span>kasiri<span> </span>(Guyana, Suriname), impala (Mozambique), masato (Peruvian<span> </span>Amazonia chicha),<span> </span>parakari<span> </span>or kari (Guyana),<span> </span>nihamanchi<span> </span>(South America) also known as nijimanche (Ecuador and Peru), ö döi (chicha de yuca, Ngäbe-Bugle, Panama), sakurá (Brazil, Suriname), and tarul ko jaarh (Darjeeling, Sikkim, India).</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Culinary">Culinary</span></h3> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article:<span> </span>Cassava-based dishes</div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Cassava_heavy_cake.jpg/220px-Cassava_heavy_cake.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Cassava heavy cake</div> </div> </div> <p>Cassava-based dishes<span> </span>are widely consumed wherever the plant is cultivated; some have regional, national, or ethnic importance.<sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference">[27]</sup><span> </span>Cassava must be cooked properly to detoxify it before it is eaten.</p> <p>Cassava can be cooked in many ways. The root of the sweet variety has a delicate flavor and can replace potatoes. It is used in<span> </span>cholent<span> </span>in some households.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (December 2018)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span> </span>It can be made into a flour that is used in breads, cakes and cookies. In Brazil, detoxified manioc is ground and cooked to a dry, often hard or crunchy meal known as<span> </span><i>farofa</i><span> </span>used as a condiment, toasted in butter, or eaten alone as a side dish.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Nutritional_profile">Nutritional profile</span></h3> <table class="infobox nowrap"><caption>Cassava, raw</caption> <tbody> <tr> <th colspan="2">Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)</th> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Energy</th> <td>160 kcal (670 kJ)</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Carbohydrates</b></div> </th> <td> <div>38.1 g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Sugars</th> <td>1.7 g</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Dietary fiber</th> <td>1.8 g</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Fat</b></div> </th> <td> <div>0.3 g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Protein</b></div> </th> <td> <div>1.4 g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Vitamins</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b><span><abbr title="Percentage of Daily Value"><b>%DV</b></abbr><sup>†</sup></span></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Thiamine<span> </span><span>(B1)</span></th> <td> <div>8%</div> 0.087 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Riboflavin<span> </span><span>(B2)</span></th> <td> <div>4%</div> 0.048 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Niacin<span> </span><span>(B3)</span></th> <td> <div>6%</div> 0.854 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Vitamin B<span>6</span></th> <td> <div>7%</div> 0.088 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Folate<span> </span><span>(B9)</span></th> <td> <div>7%</div> 27 μg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Vitamin C</th> <td> <div>25%</div> 20.6 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Minerals</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b><span><abbr title="Percentage of Daily Value"><b>%DV</b></abbr><sup>†</sup></span></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Calcium</th> <td> <div>2%</div> 16 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Iron</th> <td> <div>2%</div> 0.27 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Magnesium</th> <td> <div>6%</div> 21 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Phosphorus</th> <td> <div>4%</div> 27 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Potassium</th> <td> <div>6%</div> 271 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Sodium</th> <td> <div>1%</div> 14 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Zinc</th> <td> <div>4%</div> 0.34 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Other constituents</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Water</th> <td>60 g</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"><hr /> <div class="wrap">Full Link to USDA Database entry</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"> <div class="plainlist"> <ul> <li>Units</li> <li>μg =<span> </span>micrograms • mg =<span> </span>milligrams</li> <li>IU =<span> </span>International units</li> </ul> </div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" class="wrap"><sup>†</sup>Percentages are roughly approximated using<span> </span>US recommendations<span> </span>for adults.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Raw cassava is 60% water, 38%<span> </span>carbohydrates, 1%<span> </span>protein, and has negligible<span> </span>fat<span> </span>(table).<sup id="cite_ref-fao_28-0" class="reference">[28]</sup><span> </span>In a 100 gram amount, raw cassava provides 160<span> </span>calories<span> </span>and contains 25% of the<span> </span>Daily Value<span> </span>(DV) for<span> </span>vitamin C, but otherwise has no<span> </span>micronutrients<span> </span>in significant content (no values above 10% DV; table). Cooked cassava starch has a<span> </span>digestibility<span> </span>of over 75%.<sup id="cite_ref-fao_28-1" class="reference">[28]</sup></p> <p>Cassava, like other foods, also has<span> </span>antinutritional<span> </span>and toxic factors. Of particular concern are the<span> </span>cyanogenic glucosides<span> </span>of cassava (linamarin<span> </span>and<span> </span>lotaustralin). On hydrolysis, these release<span> </span>hydrocyanic acid (HCN).<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2017)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span> </span>The presence of cyanide in cassava is of concern for human and for animal consumption. The concentration of these antinutritional and unsafe glycosides varies considerably between varieties and also with climatic and cultural conditions. Selection of cassava species to be grown, therefore, is quite important. Once harvested, bitter cassava must be treated and prepared properly prior to human or animal consumption, while sweet cassava can be used after simply boiling.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Comparison_with_other_major_staple_foods">Comparison with other major staple foods</span></h3> <p>A<span> </span>comparative table<span> </span>shows that<span> </span>cassava is a good energy source. In its prepared forms in which its toxic or unpleasant components have been reduced to acceptable levels, it contains an extremely high proportion of starch. Compared to most staples however, cassava accordingly is a poorer dietary source of protein and most other essential nutrients. Though an important staple, its main value is as a component of a balanced diet.</p> <p>Comparisons between the nutrient content of cassava and other major<span> </span>staple foods<span> </span>when raw,<span> </span>as shown in the table, must be interpreted with caution because most staples are not edible in such forms and many are indigestible, even dangerously poisonous or otherwise harmful.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2017)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span> </span>For consumption, each must be prepared and cooked as appropriate. Suitably cooked or otherwise prepared, the nutritional and antinutritional contents of each of these staples is widely different from that of raw form and depends on the methods of preparation such as soaking, fermentation, sprouting, boiling, or baking.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Biofuel">Biofuel</span></h3> <p>In many countries, significant research has begun to evaluate the use of cassava as an<span> </span>ethanol<span> </span>biofuel<span> </span>feedstock. Under the Development Plan for Renewable Energy in the<span> </span>Eleventh Five-Year Plan<span> </span>in the<span> </span>People's Republic of China, the target is to increase the production of ethanol fuel from nongrain feedstock to two million tonnes, and that of biodiesel to 200 thousand tonnes by 2010. This is equivalent to the replacement of 10 million tonnes of petroleum. As a result, cassava (tapioca) chips have gradually become a major source of ethanol production.<sup id="cite_ref-29" class="reference">[29]</sup><span> </span>On 22 December 2007, the largest cassava<span> </span>ethanol fuel<span> </span>production facility was completed in<span> </span>Beihai, with annual output of 200 thousand tons, which would need an average of 1.5 million tons of cassava. In November 2008, China-based Hainan Yedao Group invested US$51.5 million in a new<span> </span>biofuel<span> </span>facility that is expected to produce 33 million US gallons (120,000 m<sup>3</sup>) a year of bioethanol from cassava plants.<sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference"></sup></p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Animal_feed">Animal feed</span></h3> <div class="thumb tmulti tright"> <div class="thumbinner"> <div class="trow"> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e3/Cassava_being_grated.jpg/101px-Cassava_being_grated.jpg" width="101" height="131" /></div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bd/Close-up_of_grated_cassava.jpg/175px-Close-up_of_grated_cassava.jpg" width="175" height="131" /></div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/84/Cassava_drying_on_a_road.jpg/175px-Cassava_drying_on_a_road.jpg" width="175" height="131" /></div> </div> </div> <div class="trow"> <div class="thumbcaption">Tubers being grated; a close-up of the product; drying on road to be used for pig and chicken feed</div> </div> </div> </div> <p>Cassava tubers and hay are used worldwide as animal feed. Cassava hay is harvested at a young growth stage (three to four months) when it reaches about 30 to 45 cm (12 to 18 in) above ground; it is then sun-dried for one to two days until its final dry matter content approaches 85 percent. Cassava hay contains high protein (20–27 percent<span> </span>crude protein) and condensed<span> </span>tannins<span> </span>(1.5–4 percent CP). It is valued as a good roughage source for<span> </span>ruminants<span> </span>such as cattle.<sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference">[31]</sup></p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Laundry_starch">Laundry starch</span></h3> <p>Manioc is also used in a number of commercially available laundry products, especially as starch for shirts and other garments. Using manioc starch diluted in water and spraying it over fabrics before ironing helps stiffen collars.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Medicinal_use">Medicinal use</span></h3> <p>According to the<span> </span>American Cancer Society, cassava is<span> </span>ineffective<span> </span>as an anti-cancer agent: "there is no convincing scientific evidence that cassava or tapioca is effective in preventing or treating cancer".<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference">[32]</sup></p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Food_use">Food use</span></h2> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1e/A_woman_washes_cassava_in_rural_DRC_%287609952020%29.jpg/220px-A_woman_washes_cassava_in_rural_DRC_%287609952020%29.jpg" width="220" height="330" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> A woman washes cassava in a river</div> </div> </div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Potential_toxicity">Potential toxicity</span></h3> <p>Cassava roots, peels and leaves should not be consumed raw because they contain two<span> </span>cyanogenic glucosides,<span> </span>linamarin<span> </span>and<span> </span>lotaustralin. These are decomposed by<span> </span>linamarase, a naturally occurring<span> </span>enzyme<span> </span>in cassava, liberating<span> </span>hydrogen cyanide<span> </span>(HCN).<sup id="cite_ref-cereda_33-0" class="reference">[33]</sup><span> </span>Cassava varieties are often categorized as either sweet or bitter, signifying the absence or presence of toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides, respectively. The so-called sweet (actually not bitter) cultivars can produce as little as 20 milligrams of<span> </span>cyanide<span> </span>(CN) per kilogram of fresh roots, whereas bitter ones may produce more than 50 times as much (1 g/kg). Cassavas grown during<span> </span>drought<span> </span>are especially high in these toxins.<sup id="cite_ref-34" class="reference">[34]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-35" class="reference">[35]</sup><span> </span>A dose of 25 mg of pure cassava cyanogenic glucoside, which contains 2.5 mg of cyanide, is sufficient to kill a rat.<sup id="cite_ref-36" class="reference">[36]</sup><span> </span>Excess cyanide residue from improper preparation is known to cause acute cyanide intoxication, and goiters, and has been linked to ataxia (a neurological disorder affecting the ability to walk, also known as<span> </span><i>konzo</i>).<sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-2" class="reference">[6]</sup><span> </span>It has also been linked to tropical calcific<span> </span>pancreatitis<span> </span>in humans, leading to chronic pancreatitis.<sup id="cite_ref-37" class="reference">[37]</sup></p> <p>Symptoms of acute cyanide intoxication appear four or more hours after ingesting raw or poorly processed cassava: vertigo, vomiting, and collapse. In some cases, death may result within one or two hours. It can be treated easily with an injection of<span> </span>thiosulfate<span> </span>(which makes sulfur available for the patient's body to detoxify by converting the poisonous cyanide into thiocyanate).<sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-3" class="reference">[6]</sup></p> <p>"Chronic, low-level cyanide exposure is associated with the development of<span> </span>goiter<span> </span>and with tropical ataxic neuropathy, a nerve-damaging disorder that renders a person unsteady and uncoordinated. Severe cyanide poisoning, particularly during famines, is associated with outbreaks of a debilitating, irreversible paralytic disorder called<span> </span>konzo<span> </span>and, in some cases, death. The incidence of konzo and<span> </span>tropical ataxic neuropathy<span> </span>can be as high as three percent in some areas."<sup id="cite_ref-38" class="reference">[38]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-39" class="reference">[39]</sup></p> <p>During the<span> </span>shortages in Venezuela<span> </span>in the late-2010s, dozens of deaths were reported due to Venezuelans resorting to eating bitter cassava in order to curb starvation.<sup id="cite_ref-41" class="reference"></sup></p> <p>Societies that traditionally eat cassava generally understand that some processing (soaking, cooking, fermentation, etc.) is necessary to avoid getting sick. Brief soaking (four hours) of cassava is not sufficient, but soaking for 18–24 hours can remove up to half the level of cyanide. Drying may not be sufficient, either.<sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-4" class="reference">[6]</sup></p> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bd/PeeledCassava.jpg/220px-PeeledCassava.jpg" width="220" height="185" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Cassava root, peeled and soaking</div> </div> </div> <p>For some smaller-rooted, sweet varieties, cooking is sufficient to eliminate all toxicity. The cyanide is carried away in the processing water and the amounts produced in domestic consumption are too small to have environmental impact.<sup id="cite_ref-cereda_33-1" class="reference">[33]</sup><span> </span>The larger-rooted, bitter varieties used for production of flour or starch must be processed to remove the cyanogenic glucosides. The large roots are peeled and then ground into flour, which is then soaked in water, squeezed dry several times, and toasted. The starch grains that flow with the water during the soaking process are also used in cooking.<sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference">[42]</sup><span> </span>The flour is used throughout<span> </span>South America<span> </span>and the<span> </span>Caribbean. Industrial production of cassava flour, even at the cottage level, may generate enough cyanide and cyanogenic glycosides in the effluents to have a severe environmental impact.<sup id="cite_ref-cereda_33-2" class="reference">[33]</sup></p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Food_preparation">Food preparation</span></h3> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d2/Cassava_bread.jpg/220px-Cassava_bread.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Cassava bread</div> </div> </div> <p>A safe processing method known as the "wetting method" is to mix the cassava flour with water into a thick paste and then let it stand in the shade for five hours in a thin layer spread over a basket.<sup id="cite_ref-fca_43-0" class="reference">[43]</sup><span> </span>In that time, about 83% of the cyanogenic<span> </span>glycosides<span> </span>are broken down by the<span> </span>linamarase; the resulting hydrogen cyanide escapes to the atmosphere, making the flour safe for consumption the same evening.<sup id="cite_ref-fca_43-1" class="reference">[43]</sup></p> <p>The traditional method used in West Africa is to peel the roots and put them into water for three days to ferment. The roots then are dried or cooked. In Nigeria and several other west African countries, including Ghana, Cameroon, Benin, Togo, Ivory Coast, and Burkina Faso, they are usually grated and lightly fried in palm oil to preserve them. The result is a foodstuff called<span> </span><i>gari</i>. Fermentation is also used in other places such as Indonesia (see<span> </span>Tapai). The fermentation process also reduces the level of<span> </span>antinutrients, making the cassava a more nutritious food.<sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference">[44]</sup><span> </span>The reliance on cassava as a food source and the resulting exposure to the<span> </span>goitrogenic<span> </span>effects of<span> </span>thiocyanate<span> </span>has been responsible for the endemic<span> </span>goiters<span> </span>seen in the<span> </span>Akoko<span> </span>area of southwestern<span> </span>Nigeria.<sup id="cite_ref-pmid10497657_45-0" class="reference">[45]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-46" class="reference">[46]</sup></p> <p>A project called "BioCassava Plus" uses<span> </span>bioengineering<span> </span>to grow cassava with lower<span> </span>cyanogenic glycosides<span> </span>combined with<span> </span>fortification<span> </span>of<span> </span>vitamin A,<span> </span>iron<span> </span>and<span> </span>protein<span> </span>to improve the nutrition of people in<span> </span>sub-Saharan Africa.<sup id="cite_ref-47" class="reference">[47]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference">[48]</sup></p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Farming">Farming</span></h2> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Harvesting">Harvesting</span></h3> <p>Cassava is harvested by hand by raising the lower part of the stem and pulling the roots out of the ground, then removing them from the base of the plant. The upper parts of the stems with the leaves are plucked off before harvest. Cassava is propagated by cutting the stem into sections of approximately 15 cm, these being planted prior to the wet season.<sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference">[49]</sup></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d7/Cassava_stakes1_%284627297822%29.jpg/80px-Cassava_stakes1_%284627297822%29.jpg" width="80" height="120" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava stakes</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Cassava_grafting7_%284425027331%29.jpg/80px-Cassava_grafting7_%284425027331%29.jpg" width="80" height="120" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava<span> </span>grafting</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Postharvest_handling_and_storage">Postharvest handling and storage</span></h3> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/NP_Cassava_Processing_7_%285867707684%29.jpg/120px-NP_Cassava_Processing_7_%285867707684%29.jpg" width="120" height="80" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch processing</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1d/NP_Cassava_Starch_Processing_%285867152719%29.jpg/120px-NP_Cassava_Starch_Processing_%285867152719%29.jpg" width="120" height="80" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch flour processing</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/61/Vietnam_cassava_processing3_lo_%284070319057%29.jpg/80px-Vietnam_cassava_processing3_lo_%284070319057%29.jpg" width="80" height="120" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch wet-processing</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/Cassava_starch_processing_in_Colombia%27s_southwestern_Cauca_department.jpg/120px-Cassava_starch_processing_in_Colombia%27s_southwestern_Cauca_department.jpg" width="120" height="79" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/07/Secando_casabe.JPG/120px-Secando_casabe.JPG" width="120" height="90" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Spreading<span> </span><i>Casabe burrero</i><span> </span>(cassava bread) to dry, Venezuela</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dc/Vietnam_cassava_processing24lo_%284070342389%29.jpg/120px-Vietnam_cassava_processing24lo_%284070342389%29.jpg" width="120" height="80" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch being prepared for packaging</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/Vietnam_cassava_processing20_lo_%284071074448%29.jpg/80px-Vietnam_cassava_processing20_lo_%284071074448%29.jpg" width="80" height="120" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch packaged and ready for shipping</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e5/Frozen_cassava_leaves.jpg/120px-Frozen_cassava_leaves.jpg" width="120" height="90" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Frozen cassava leaves in a Los Angeles market</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> <p>Cassava undergoes post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) once the tubers are separated from the main plant. The tubers, when damaged, normally respond with a healing mechanism. However, the same mechanism, which involves<span> </span>coumaric acids, starts about 15 minutes after damage, and fails to switch off in harvested tubers. It continues until the entire tuber is oxidized and blackened within two to three days after harvest, rendering it unpalatable and useless. PPD is related to the accumulation of<span> </span>reactive oxygen species<span> </span>(ROS) initiated by cyanide release during mechanical harvesting. Cassava shelf life may be increased up to three weeks by overexpressing a cyanide insensitive alternative oxidase, which suppressed ROS by 10-fold.<sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference">[50]</sup><span> </span>PPD is one of the main obstacles preventing farmers from exporting cassavas abroad and generating income. Fresh cassava can be preserved like potato, using<span> </span>thiabendazole<span> </span>or bleach as a fungicide, then wrapping in plastic, coating in wax or freezing.<sup id="cite_ref-51" class="reference">[51]</sup></p> <p>While alternative methods for PPD control have been proposed, such as preventing ROS effects by use of plastic bags during storage and transport or coating the roots with wax, and freezing roots, such strategies have proved to be economically or technically impractical, leading to<span> </span>breeding<span> </span>of cassava varieties more tolerant to PPD and with improved durability after harvest.<sup id="cite_ref-gmr_52-0" class="reference">[52]</sup><span> </span>Plant breeding has resulted in different strategies for cassava tolerance to PPD.<sup id="cite_ref-gmr_52-1" class="reference">[52]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-cs_53-0" class="reference">[53]</sup><span> </span>One was induced by<span> </span>mutagenic<span> </span>levels of<span> </span>gamma rays, which putatively silenced one of the genes involved in PPD genesis, while another was a group of high-carotene<span> </span>clones in which the<span> </span>antioxidant<span> </span>properties of<span> </span>carotenoids<span> </span>are postulated to protect the roots from PPD.<sup id="cite_ref-cs_53-1" class="reference">[53]</sup></p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Pests">Pests</span></h3> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article:<span> </span>List of cassava diseases</div> <p>A major cause of losses during cassava storage is infestation by insects.<sup id="cite_ref-jis_54-0" class="reference">[54]</sup><span> </span>A wide range of species that feed directly on dried cassava chips have been reported as a major factor in spoiling stored cassava, with losses between 19% and 30% of the harvested produce.<sup id="cite_ref-jis_54-1" class="reference">[54]</sup><span> </span>In<span> </span>Africa, a previous issue was the cassava mealybug (<i>Phenacoccus manihoti</i>) and cassava green mite (<i>Mononychellus tanajoa</i>). These pests can cause up to 80 percent crop loss, which is extremely detrimental to the production of<span> </span>subsistence<span> </span>farmers. These pests were rampant in the 1970s and 1980s but were brought under control following the establishment of the "Biological Control Centre for Africa" of the<span> </span>International Institute of Tropical Agriculture<span> </span>(IITA) under the leadership of<span> </span>Hans Rudolf Herren.<sup id="cite_ref-55" class="reference">[55]</sup><span> </span>The Centre investigated<span> </span>biological control<span> </span>for cassava pests; two<span> </span>South American<span> </span>natural enemies<span> </span><i>Apoanagyrus lopezi</i><span> </span>(a<span> </span>parasitoid<span> </span>wasp) and<span> </span><i>Typhlodromalus<span> </span>aripo</i><span> </span>(a predatory mite) were found to effectively control the cassava mealybug and the cassava green mite, respectively.</p> <p>The<span> </span>African cassava mosaic virus<span> </span>causes the leaves of the cassava plant to wither, limiting the growth of the root.<sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference">[56]</sup><span> </span>An outbreak of the virus in Africa in the 1920s led to a major famine.<sup id="cite_ref-NYT_May_2010_57-0" class="reference">[57]</sup><span> </span>The virus is spread by the<span> </span>whitefly<span> </span>and by the transplanting of diseased plants into new fields. Sometime in the late-1980s, a mutation occurred in Uganda that made the virus even more harmful, causing the complete loss of leaves. This mutated virus spread at a rate of 50 mi (80 km) per year, and as of 2005 was found throughout<span> </span>Uganda,<span> </span>Rwanda,<span> </span>Burundi, the<span> </span>Democratic Republic of the Congo<span> </span>and the<span> </span>Republic of the Congo.<sup id="cite_ref-58" class="reference">[58]</sup></p> <p>Cassava brown streak virus disease<span> </span>has been identified as a major threat to cultivation worldwide.<sup id="cite_ref-NYT_May_2010_57-1" class="reference">[57]</sup></p> <p>A wide range of plant parasitic nematodes have been reported associated with cassava worldwide. These include<span> </span><i>Pratylenchus brachyurus</i>,<span> </span><i>Rotylenchulus reniformis</i>,<span> </span><i>Helicotylenchus</i><span> </span>spp.,<span> </span><i>Scutellonema</i><span> </span>spp. and<span> </span><i>Meloidogyne</i><span> </span>spp., of which<span> </span><i>Meloidogyne incognita</i><span> </span>and<span> </span><i>Meloidogyne javanica</i><span> </span>are the most widely reported and economically important.<sup id="cite_ref-59" class="reference">[59]</sup><span> </span><i>Meloidogyne</i><span> </span>spp. feeding produces physically damaging galls with eggs inside them. Galls later merge as the females grow and enlarge, and they interfere with water and nutrient supply.<sup id="cite_ref-Gapasin_60-0" class="reference">[60]</sup><span> </span>Cassava roots become tough with age and restrict the movement of the juveniles and the egg release. It is therefore possible that extensive galling can be observed even at low densities following infection.<sup id="cite_ref-Coyne_61-0" class="reference">[61]</sup><span> </span>Other pest and diseases can gain entry through the physical damage caused by gall formation, leading to rots. They have not been shown to cause direct damage to the enlarged storage roots, but plants can have reduced height if there was loss of enlarged root weight.<sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference">[62]</sup></p> <p>Research on nematode pests of cassava is still in the early stages; results on the response of cassava is, therefore, not consistent, ranging from negligible to seriously damaging.<sup id="cite_ref-63" class="reference">[63]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-64" class="reference">[64]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-Gapasin_60-1" class="reference">[60]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-65" class="reference">[65]</sup><span> </span>Since nematodes have such a seemingly erratic distribution in cassava agricultural fields, it is not easy to clearly define the level of direct damage attributed to nematodes and thereafter quantify the success of a chosen management method.<sup id="cite_ref-Coyne_61-1" class="reference">[61]</sup></p> <p>The use of nematicides has been found to result in lower numbers of galls per feeder root compared to a control, coupled with a lower number of rots in the storage roots.<sup id="cite_ref-66" class="reference">[66]</sup><span> </span>The organophosphorus nematicide<span> </span>femaniphos, when used, did not affect crop growth and yield parameter variables measured at harvest. Nematicide use in cassava is neither practical nor sustainable; the use of tolerant and resistant cultivars is the most practical and sustainable management method.</p> <h2><strong><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassava" target="_blank" title="Source WIKIPEDIA Cassava" rel="noreferrer noopener">Source WIKIPEDIA Cassava</a></strong></h2> </body> </html>
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5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>حامض كفيري بذور (Citrus hystrix)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>ثمن عبوة من 4 بذور.</strong></span></h2> <p>الحامض الكفيري أو الليمون الكفيري (بالإنجليزية: Kaffir lime)‏ ‏(US ‎/‏ˈmækrɪt‎/‏،UK ‎/‏məkˈruːt‎/‏ ) هو ثمرة حمضية موطنها جنوب شرق آسيا الاستوائية وجنوب الصين.</p> <p>تستخدم ثمار وأوراق الليمون الكفيري في مطبخ جنوب شرق آسيا كما تُستخدم زيوته في صناعة العطور، حسث ينبعث من قشرها وأوراقها المسحوقة رائحة حمضيات كثيفة.</p> <p>أسماء<br />أصل كلمة "حامض كفيري" غير مؤكد، الكلمة العربية لغير المسلمين هي "الكافر".</p> <p>يُعرف الليمون الكفيري بأسماء مختلفة في مناطقه الأصلية:</p> <p>jeruk purut في إندونيسيا.<br />jiàn yè chéng ( 箭叶橙 ) باللغة الصينية.<br />kabuyaw أو kulubot في الفلبين، حيث تمت تسمية مدينة كابوياو في مقاطعة لاغونا باسم الفاكهة.<br />limau purut في ماليزيا.<br />makrud أو makrut ( มะกรูด، ‎/máʔ.krùːt/‏ ) في تايلاند (اسم يستخدم أيضًا ‎/máʔ.krùːt/‏ مع البرغموت ).<br />mak khi hut ໝາກຂີ້ຫູດ mak khi hut ( ໝາກຂີ້ຫູດ، ‎/ma᷆ːk.kʰi᷆ː.hu᷆ːt/‏ ) في لاوس.<br />trúc أو chanh sác في فيتنام.<br />Combava في جزيرة ريونيون</p> <p>جدل التسمية<br />في جنوب إفريقيا يُعد "الكفير" إهانة عرقية للشعب الأفريقي الأسود، وبالتالي فإن بعض المؤلفين يفضلون تغيير الاسم من "الليمون الكافيري" إلى "الليمون المكروت" وهو اسم أقل شهرة باللغة الإنجليزية، بينما يشار إليه عادة في جنوب إفريقيا باسم الليمون التايلاندي.</p> <p>يكون الحامض الكفيري عبارة عن شجيرة شائكة طولها يتراوح من 2 إلى 11 متر (6 إلى 35 قدم)، مع أوراق "مزدوجة" عطرية ذات شكل مميز، تشتمل هذه الأوراق على شكل ساعة رملية على شفرة ورقة بالإضافة إلى ساق مستوٍ يشبه الأوراق (أو عنق)، تكون الثمرة خشنة وخضراء وتنضج إلى اللون الأصفر، وتتميز بالتصميم الخارجي الوعر وصغر حجمها الذي يكون باتساع حوالي 4 سنتيمتر (2 بوصة).</p> <p>الأوراق هي الجزء الأكثر استخدامًا من النبات فتكون طازجة أومجففة أو مجمدة، تستخدم الأوراق على نطاق واسع في المطبخ التايلاندي ومطبخ لاو (لأطباق مثل توم يم ) والمطبخ الكمبودي (للمعجون الأساسي " كروينج ")، كما تُستخدم الأوراق في المطبخ الفيتنامي لإضافة رائحة إلى أطباق الدجاج ولتقليل الرائحة النفاذة عند تبخير القواقع، وتُستخدم الأوراق في المطبخ الإندونيسي (خاصة المطبخ البالي والمطبخ الجاوي) للأطعمة مثل حساء الدجاج وتستخدم مع أوراق الغار الأندونيسية للدجاج والسمك، كما توجد في المطبخ الماليزي والبورمي، ويستخدم على نطاق واسع في المطبخ الهندي الجنوبي.</p> <p>تُستخدم قشرة النبات عادة في معجون الكاري في لاو وتايلاند كإضافة عطرية ونكهة قابضة، يُشار إلى نكهة الفاكهة باسم كومبافا، يتم استخدامه في المطبخ الكريولي لإضفاء نكهة على مشروب مسكَّر في موريشيوس وريونيون ومدغشقر، كما أنه في كمبوديا تستخدم الثمرة كاملة كفاكهة مسكرة للأكل.</p> <p>استخدام طبي<br />يتم استخدام عصير وقشور الحامض الكفيري في الطب التقليدي في بعض البلدان الآسيوية، غالبًا ما يستخدم عصير الفاكهة في الشامبو ويعتقد أنه يقتل قمل الرأس.</p> <p>استخدامات أخرى<br />يُستخدم العصير كمطهر للملابس والشعر في تايلاند وأحيانًا في كمبوديا، كما يستخدم الماء اللامع الممزوج بشرائح من الحامض الكفيري في الاحتفالات الدينية في كمبوديا.</p> <p>زراعة<br />يُزرع الليمون الكفيري في جميع أنحاء العالم في مناخات مناسبة كشجيرة حديقة لإنتاج الفاكهة المنزلية، هي مناسبة تمامًا لحدائق الحاويات وأواني الحديقة في الباحات والمصطبات وفي المعاهد الموسيقية.</p> <p>مكونات رئيسية<br />تم تحديد المركب المسؤول عن الرائحة المميزة على أنه سيترونيلال الموجود في زيت الورقة حتى 80 في المائة؛ تشمل المكونات الثانوية السترونيلول (10 في المائة) والنيرول والليمونين.</p> <p>من وجهة نظر الكيميائية المجسمة فإنه من اللافت للنظر أن أوراق الليمون الكافيري لا تحتوي إلا على تصاوغ فراغي من (S)سترونيلال في حين أن مصاوغها المرآتي يكون (+)-(R)-سيترونيلال يوجد في كل من بلسم الليمون و (بدرجة أقل) عشب الليمون، (ومع ذلك فإن السترونيلال هو عنصر ضئيل في الزيوت الأساسية الأخيرة).</p> <p>يحتوي قشر ثمار الليمون الكفيري على زيت أساسي يشبه زيت قشور ثمرة الليمون مكوناته الرئيسية هي الليمونين و بيتا- بينين.</p> <p>تسمُّم<br />يحتوي الليمون الكفيري على كميات كبيرة من الفوروموكومارين في كل من القشرة واللب، من المعروف أن فورانوكومارين يسبب التهاب الجلد الضوئي النباتي المنشأ، وهو التهاب جلدي محتمل، تم الإبلاغ عن حالة واحدة من التهاب الجلد الفطري الناجم عن الحامض الكفيري.</p> </body> </html>
V 162
KAFFIR LIME Seeds (Citrus hystrix)  - 1
Cacao Tree Seeds (Theobroma cacao)

كاكاو - شجرة بذور

السعر 4.00 € (SKU: V 86)
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<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>كاكاو - شجرة بذور</strong></h2> <h2><strong><span style="color: #ff0000;">ثمن حزمة من 2 البذور.</span></strong></h2> <p><strong>كما ترون من الصور لدينا ، لدينا مجموعة الكاكاو أكبر من جميع الآخرين.</strong></p> <p>شجرة الكاكاو (الاسم العلمي: Theobroma caca) متار موطنها الأصلي أمريكا الجنوبية. بذورها تستخدم في صناعة الكاكاو والشيكولاتة.</p> <p>تنمو الشيكولاتة على الشجرة القارية دائمة الخضرة والمعروفة بشجرة "الكاكاو" التي يحصد منها بذور تمثل المصادر المختلفة لجميع منتجات الكاكاو ومنها الشيكولاتة. وكانت تلك الشجرة تنمو في المناطق البرية من المناطق الاستوائية في أمريكا الجنوبية منذ 4000 سنة قبل الميلاد. وتتميز شجرة الكاكاو بأوراقها العريضة وتنمو حتى تصل إلى ارتفاع 7.5 م وتشبه بذور الكاكاو أو حبوبها إلى حدكبير اللوز.</p> <p>تاريخ اكتشاف الكاكاو</p> <p>تم اكتشاف شجرة الكاكاو من قبل شعوب المايا والآزتيك في أمريكا الشمالية والوسطى قبل 2000 عام من الآن. وقد كانت هذه الشعوب تقوم بعصر بذور الكاكاو وطحنها لإنتاج شراب الكاكاو. والملاحظ ان شراب الكاكاو حينها لم يكن محلي ولكن اعتادت هذه الشعوب على إضافة بهارات قد تكون حارة بعض الشيء لإضافة نكهة إلى شراب الكاكاو. من الجدير بالذكر أن الرسومات التاريخية في حضارة المايا توضح تعلق أهلها بشجرة الكاكاو وهي إحدى الدلائل على أنهم أول من اكتشف هذه الشجرة، وقد لعبت الشيكولاتة أو ما عرفت سابقاً بالكاكاو دوراً بارزاً في حياة المايا، إذ كان علية القوم يدفنون موتاهم ويضعون في قبورهم أنية أحشاء الكاكاو لاعتقادهم بأن هذا المشروب يشيع في نفوسهم البهجة في العالم الآخر.</p> <p>مع الغزو الأسباني لمكسيكو (شعوب ال (Aztects في عام 1520 طمعا في الثروات التي تملكها الأراضي المكسيكية, وجد الأسبان ما لم يكن في الحسبان (الشوكليت) وكانت البداية لقصة انتشار الشوكليت في باقي دول العالم. قام الإسبان بنقل بذور الكاكاو إلى أوروبا واستعبدوا المكسيكان ليقوموا بإنتاج حبوب الكاكاو لهم لتصديرها إلى أوروبا مع تغيير بسيط في الطعم النهائي لشراب الكاكاو.</p> <p>لم يعجب الأسبان طعم شراب الكاكاو على الطريقة الأمريكية فقاموا بتغيير البهارات المضافة للشراب وكانوا أول من خلط شراب الكاكاو بالسكر والحليب وفضلوا تقديمه حارا بعكس الأمريكان الذين كانوا يفضلونه باردا.</p> <p>لم يكف الإنتاج الأمريكي للكاكاو الاستهلاك الأسباني في الجهة المقابلة فكان الحل الوحيد لزيادة عدد العمال هو الاستعباد. بدأت حركة استعباد كبيرة في شعوب ال Maya &amp; Aztects من قبل المستعمرين الأسبان وقد كان استهلاك الأسبان للكاكاو في الفترة ما بين عام 1759 وعام 1788 حوالي 12 مليون باوند في كل عام.</p> <p>ظلت فكرة صنع الكاكاو سرا لا يملكه في أوروبا إلا الأسبان لمدة 100 عام منذ قدوم الكاكاو من أمريكا. وأصبح تقديم شراب الكاكاو في الطبقات الراقية والنبيلة من الأمور الأساسية وأيضا انتشر شراب الكاكاو في الكنائس الأسبانية وساعد هذا على انتشارها في باقي دول أوروبا بسرعة كبيرة ولم تفلح محاولات الأسبان للاحتفاظ بخلطة الكاكاو لأنفسهم مدة أطول.</p> <p>المكونات</p> <p>بذور الكاكاو النيئة تحتوي على مغنسيوم، نحاس، حديد، فوسفور، كالسيوم، بوتاسيوم، فيتامين ألف، فيتامين ج، فيتامين دي وغيرها..</p> <p>زراعة ثمرة الشيكولاتة ومراحل تصنيعها</p> <p>الزراعة</p> <p>الموطن الأصلي لشجرة الكاكاو هو الغابات الاستوائية الممطرة بأمريكا الجنوبية، ويمكن زراعتها في أي بلد استوائي، تتوفر فيه تربة غنية جيدة الصرف واغزارة في الرطوبة طيلة السنة، وهي لن تنمو حتى في المنطقة الاستوائية لو زاد الارتفاع عن حوالي 836 مترا. وموسم الحصاد يبدأ من أكتوبر حتى مارس وفي غانا تنتج الأشجار بمعدل رطلين من الكاكاو المجفف لكل شجرة في السنة، إذا زرعت بمعدل 360 شجرة للفدان الواحد. وتستمر في الإنتاج حوالي 40 سنة.</p> <p>الحصاد والتصنيع</p> <p>تقتطع الثمرة من النبات بسكين خاص، وتسحق لفصل البذور من اللبن، وتخمر البذور وتجفف كما سبق وصفه، وبذلك تصبح البذور الجافة، جاهزة للنقل إلى المصنع، حيث تنظف وتحمص في إسطوانات دوارة. وبعد ذلك تكسر البذور المحمصة إلى قطع صغيرة، وتفصل القشور عن لب البذور بعملية تذرية ثم تطحن قطع اللب، التي تعرف باسم Nibs بين إسطوانات دوارة، فتتحول إلى كتلة شبه سائلة، بسبب ما بها من زيت، وتسمى حنيئذ كتلة الكاكاو. وابتداء من هذه المرحلة تختلف المعاملة تبعا للمطلوب من المنتج، شيكولاتة أو كاكاو، يزال حوالي نصف الزيت أو زبدة الكاكو بواسطة الضغط، ثم تطحن العجينة اليابسة التي تنتج الخليط جيدا، يبين إسطوانات دوارة مصنوعة من الحجر، ولصنع الشوكولاتة اللبن، يضاف اللبن المجفف أو المكثف، ويحتفظ بالخليط حارا نوعا ما أثناء العملية. وفي هذه المرحلة الأخيرة يصبح تركيز الخليط، بحيث يتجمد عندما يبرد، واليوم يشهد العالم افراطاً في احتساء الكاكاو والقهوة كشراب حلو المذاق، أو ممزوج بالحليب.</p> <p>مراحل تصنيع الشوكولاته</p> <p>1- يتم اعداد الشوكولاته من بذور الكاكاو التي يتم استخراجها من الثمار الكبيرة التي تنتجها شجرة الكاكاو، في كل ثمرة كبيرة يوجد على الأقل 30-50 بذرة صغيرة من بذور الكاكاو</p> <p>2- يتم تسخين البذور إلى درجة حرارة معينة وتترك بضعة أيام حتى تتخمر ويتحول لونها إلى اللون البني المعتاد للكاكاو ومن ثم تجفف الحبوب بالشمس ويتم ارسالها لمصانع اعداد الشوكولاته.</p> <p>3- يتم طحن الحبوب للحصول على بودرة الكاكاو ومن ثم يتم عصر الحبوب للحصول على زبدة الكوكاو</p> <p>4- تصنع الشكولاته بشكلها النهائي عن طريق خلط بودرة الكوكاو وزبدة الكوكاو مع الحليب والسكر</p> <p>فوائد الكاكاو</p> <p>الكاكاو شجرة معمرة وبذورها تشفي الحمى والسعال والكاكاو مدرة للبول ومقوية للقلب والكلى, ان الثيوبرومين الموجود في بذور الكاكاو يريح العضلة الملساء للانبوب الهضمي وهذا ربما هو السبب الذي يجعل الكثير من الناس يتناولون الشوكولاته حتى بعد امتلاء البطن بالأطعمة إذا اراد ان يريح معدته بعد وجبة دسمة, والغلاف الخارجي لبذور الكاكاو والذي يعرف بالقصرة (Teast) يستخدم في الوقت الحاضر لعلاج مشاكل الكبد والمثانة والكلى والسكري وكمقوٍ عام وكمادة مقبضة ضد الإسهال، أكدت دراسة طبية أسترالية حديثة أن نصف الذين يعانون من الاكتئاب يلجأون إلى تناول قطع من الشوكولاتة حيث يحسون بعدها بانتعاش حالتهم النفسية وتحسن في مزاجهم.</p> <p>ووجدت الدراسة التي نشرت نتائجها في دورية British Journal of Psychiatry الطبية أن 54 بالمائة من الذين لجأوا إلى الشوكولاتة كانوا يعانون من اضطراب في مزاجهم وخوف من رفض المجتمع لهم.</p> <p>وشملت الدراسة، التي أعدها باحثون في أستراليا، ألفين و600 شخصاً من الذين يعانون من درجات متفاوتة من الاكتئاب. وقال معد الدراسة في جامعة ساوث ويلز الدكتور غوردون باركر إن إيجاد علاقة بين اشتهاء الشوكولاتة وأمزجة الناس كان أمرا مثيرا بالنسبة لنا.</p> <p>الجدير بالذكر أن العديد من الأبحاث أثبتت في السابق أن تناول مكعبات قليلة من الشوكولاتة يوميا قد يقي من ضيق الشرايين ويساعد في إقلال مخاطر الإصابة بأمراض القلب.</p> <p>ولم تقتصر فوائد الشوكولاته فقط على القلب والأوعية الدموية، لكنها امتدت أيضا إلى الأسنان حيث أعلن عدد من العلماء اليابانيين أنها من أكثر المواد مقدرة على التغلب على طبقة «البليك» المسببة للتسوس.</p> <p>فوائد الكاكاو للوقاية من السكري </p> <p>ذكرت دراسة حديثة أجريت في يونيو عام 2013 من قبل باحثين في جامعة بنسلفانيا الأمريكية على الفئران انخفاض خطر الإصابة بمرض السكري بنسبة 30%. ويشير الباحثون إلى دور الفلافونويدات في الوقاية من السكري عن طريق خفض مستوى الدهون الثلاثية والدهون في الكبد التي تزيد من مخاطر الإصابة بالسكري. وقال الدكتور "جوش لامبرت" أستاذ علوم الغذاء في جامعة ولاية بنسلفانيا بالولايات المتحدة أنهم قد لاحظوا انخفاض وزن الجسم أيضاً بصورة بسيطة ولكنه انخفاض مهم على أية حال على الرغم من ضآلته. كان العلماء قد أضافوا إلى النظام الغذائي للفئران ما يعادل 10 ملاعق كبيرة أو 5 أكواب من الكاكاو طوال فترة الدراسة والتي بلغت 12 أسبوعاً.</p> <p>فوائد الكاكاو لضغط الدم</p> <p>أكدت دراسة أجريت عام 2012 أن تناول مشروب الكاكاو (الهوت شوكلت) والشوكولاتة السوداء يعمل على خفض ارتفاع ضغط الدم عند الأشخاص الذين لا تزيد معدلات ضغطهم عن 85/140. وأرجع الباحثون في هذه الدراسة الأمر إلى الفلافونويدات التي توجد في الكاكاو.</p> <table style="width: 712px;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2" valign="top" style="width: 708px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">growing instructions</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">Vermehrung:</span></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">Seeds</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">Pretreatment:</span></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">soak seeds for 2-3 hours in warm water.</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">Stratification:</span></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">0</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">Sowing Time:</span></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">all year</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">Sowing depth:</span></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">See picture 6</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">Sowing substrate:</span></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">Use high-quality, sterile potting soil</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">Sowing temperature:</span></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">+25 - +28°C</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">Sowing Location:</span></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">bright + keep constantly moist, not wet</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">Germination time:</span></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">2-4 weeks.</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">Note:</span></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">direct Sow onto bed in May.</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">Watering:</span></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">Water regularly during the growing period</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;"> </span></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;"><br /><span style="color: #008000;"> Copyright © 2012 Seeds Gallery - Saatgut Galerie - Galerija semena. All Rights Reserved.</span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <div class="ephox-sloth-bin_30515846211581153291833 ephox-cement-smartpaste-eph-bin" style="width: 0px; height: 0px;"> <h2 style="color: #000000; background-image: none; margin: 1em 0px .25em; padding: 0px; border-bottom-style: solid; border-color: #C0C0C0; font-size: 1.5em; line-height: 1.3; font-family: Arial;"><span class="mw-headline">المكونات</span><span class="mw-editsection" style="font-size: small; margin-right: 1em; vertical-align: baseline; line-height: 1em; white-space: nowrap;"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color: #54595d; margin: 0px 0px 0px .25em;">[</span><a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%D9%83%D8%A7%D9%83%D8%A7%D9%88_(%D8%B4%D8%AC%D8%B1%D8%A9)&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="عدل القسم: المكونات" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">عدل</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color: #54595d; margin: 0px .25em 0px 0px;">]</span></span></h2> <p style="margin-top: .5em; margin-bottom: .5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.6em; color: #222222; font-family: Arial; font-size: 15.2px;">بذور الكاكاو النيئة تحتوي على <a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%85%D8%BA%D9%86%D8%B3%D9%8A%D9%88%D9%85" title="مغنسيوم" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">مغنسيوم</a>، <a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%86%D8%AD%D8%A7%D8%B3" title="نحاس" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">نحاس</a>، <a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%AF" title="حديد" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">حديد</a>، <a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%81%D9%88%D8%B3%D9%81%D9%88%D8%B1" class="mw-redirect" title="فوسفور" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">فوسفور</a>، <a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%83%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%8A%D9%88%D9%85" title="كالسيوم" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">كالسيوم</a>، <a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A8%D9%88%D8%AA%D8%A7%D8%B3%D9%8A%D9%88%D9%85" title="بوتاسيوم" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">بوتاسيوم</a>، <a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%81%D9%8A%D8%AA%D8%A7%D9%85%D9%8A%D9%86_%D8%A3%D9%84%D9%81" title="فيتامين ألف" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">فيتامين ألف</a>، <a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%81%D9%8A%D8%AA%D8%A7%D9%85%D9%8A%D9%86_%D8%AC" class="mw-redirect" title="فيتامين ج" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">فيتامين ج</a>، <a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%81%D9%8A%D8%AA%D8%A7%D9%85%D9%8A%D9%86_%D8%AF%D9%8A" title="فيتامين دي" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">فيتامين دي</a> وغيرها.<sup class="reference" style="line-height: 1.3em; white-space: nowrap; font-size: 11px;"><span title="هذا الادعاء بحاجة للتوثيق بمصدر موثوق. منذ أغسطس 2008">[<a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%88%D9%8A%D9%83%D9%8A%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%A7:%D8%A8%D8%AD%D8%A7%D8%AC%D8%A9_%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B5%D8%AF%D8%B1" title="ويكيبيديا:بحاجة لمصدر" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">بحاجة لمصدر</a>]</span></sup>.</p> <h2 style="color: #000000; background-image: none; margin: 1em 0px .25em; padding: 0px; border-bottom-style: solid; border-color: #C0C0C0; font-size: 1.5em; line-height: 1.3; font-family: Arial;"><span></span><span class="mw-headline">زراعة ثمرة الشيكولاتة ومراحل تصنيعها</span><span class="mw-editsection" style="font-size: small; margin-right: 1em; vertical-align: baseline; line-height: 1em; white-space: nowrap;"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color: #54595d; margin: 0px 0px 0px .25em;">[</span><a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%D9%83%D8%A7%D9%83%D8%A7%D9%88_(%D8%B4%D8%AC%D8%B1%D8%A9)&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="عدل القسم: زراعة ثمرة الشيكولاتة ومراحل تصنيعها" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">عدل</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color: #54595d; margin: 0px .25em 0px 0px;">]</span></span></h2> <h3 style="color: #000000; background-image: none; font-weight: bold; margin: .3em 0px 0px; padding-top: .5em; padding-bottom: 0px; border-bottom: 0px #C0C0C0; font-size: 1.2em; border-top-color: #C0C0C0; border-right-color: #C0C0C0; border-left-color: #C0C0C0; line-height: 1.6; font-family: Arial;"><span></span><span class="mw-headline">الزراعة</span><span class="mw-editsection" style="font-size: small; font-weight: normal; margin-right: 1em; vertical-align: baseline; line-height: 1em; white-space: nowrap;"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color: #54595d; margin: 0px 0px 0px .25em;">[</span><a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%D9%83%D8%A7%D9%83%D8%A7%D9%88_(%D8%B4%D8%AC%D8%B1%D8%A9)&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="عدل القسم: الزراعة" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">عدل</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color: #54595d; margin: 0px .25em 0px 0px;">]</span></span></h3> <p style="margin-top: .5em; margin-bottom: .5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.6em; color: #222222; font-family: Arial; font-size: 15.2px;">الموطن الأصلي لشجرة الكاكاو هو الغابات الاستوائية الممطرة بأمريكا الجنوبية، ويمكن زراعتها في أي بلد استوائي، تتوفر فيه تربة غنية جيدة الصرف واغزارة في الرطوبة طيلة السنة، وهي لن تنمو حتى في المنطقة الاستوائية لو زاد الارتفاع عن حوالي 836 مترا. وموسم الحصاد يبدأ من أكتوبر حتى مارس وفي غانا تنتج الأشجار بمعدل رطلين من الكاكاو المجفف لكل شجرة في السنة، إذا زرعت بمعدل 360 شجرة للفدان الواحد. وتستمر في الإنتاج حوالي 40 سنة.</p> <h3 style="color: #000000; background-image: none; font-weight: bold; margin: .3em 0px 0px; padding-top: .5em; padding-bottom: 0px; border-bottom: 0px #C0C0C0; font-size: 1.2em; border-top-color: #C0C0C0; border-right-color: #C0C0C0; border-left-color: #C0C0C0; line-height: 1.6; font-family: Arial;"><span></span><span class="mw-headline">الحصاد والتصنيع</span><span class="mw-editsection" style="font-size: small; font-weight: normal; margin-right: 1em; vertical-align: baseline; line-height: 1em; white-space: nowrap;"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color: #54595d; margin: 0px 0px 0px .25em;">[</span><a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%D9%83%D8%A7%D9%83%D8%A7%D9%88_(%D8%B4%D8%AC%D8%B1%D8%A9)&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="عدل القسم: الحصاد والتصنيع" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">عدل</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color: #54595d; margin: 0px .25em 0px 0px;">]</span></span></h3> <p style="margin-top: .5em; margin-bottom: .5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.6em; color: #222222; font-family: Arial; font-size: 15.2px;">تقتطع الثمرة من النبات بسكين خاص، وتسحق لفصل البذور من اللبن، وتخمر البذور وتجفف كما سبق وصفه، وبذلك تصبح البذور الجافة، جاهزة للنقل إلى المصنع، حيث تنظف وتحمص في إسطوانات دوارة. وبعد ذلك تكسر البذور المحمصة إلى قطع صغيرة، وتفصل القشور عن لب البذور بعملية تذرية ثم تطحن قطع اللب، التي تعرف باسم Nibs بين إسطوانات دوارة، فتتحول إلى كتلة شبه سائلة، بسبب ما بها من زيت، وتسمى حنيئذ كتلة الكاكاو. وابتداء من هذه المرحلة تختلف المعاملة تبعا للمطلوب من المنتج، شيكولاتة أو كاكاو، يزال حوالي نصف الزيت أو زبدة الكاكو بواسطة الضغط، ثم تطحن العجينة اليابسة التي تنتج الخليط جيدا، يبين إسطوانات دوارة مصنوعة من الحجر، ولصنع الشوكولاتة اللبن، يضاف اللبن المجفف أو المكثف، ويحتفظ بالخليط حارا نوعا ما أثناء العملية. وفي هذه المرحلة الأخيرة يصبح تركيز الخليط، بحيث يتجمد عندما يبرد، واليوم يشهد العالم افراطاً في احتساء الكاكاو <a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%82%D9%87%D9%88%D8%A9" title="قهوة" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">والقهوة</a> كشراب حلو المذاق، أو ممزوج <a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%A8" title="حليب" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">بالحليب</a>.</p> <h3 style="color: #000000; background-image: none; font-weight: bold; margin: .3em 0px 0px; padding-top: .5em; padding-bottom: 0px; border-bottom: 0px #C0C0C0; font-size: 1.2em; border-top-color: #C0C0C0; border-right-color: #C0C0C0; border-left-color: #C0C0C0; line-height: 1.6; font-family: Arial;"><span></span><span class="mw-headline">مراحل تصنيع الشوكولاته</span><span class="mw-editsection" style="font-size: small; font-weight: normal; margin-right: 1em; vertical-align: baseline; line-height: 1em; white-space: nowrap;"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color: #54595d; margin: 0px 0px 0px .25em;">[</span><a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%D9%83%D8%A7%D9%83%D8%A7%D9%88_(%D8%B4%D8%AC%D8%B1%D8%A9)&amp;action=edit&amp;section=7" title="عدل القسم: مراحل تصنيع الشوكولاته" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">عدل</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color: #54595d; margin: 0px .25em 0px 0px;">]</span></span></h3> <p style="margin-top: .5em; margin-bottom: .5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.6em; color: #222222; font-family: Arial; font-size: 15.2px;">1- يتم اعداد الشوكولاته من بذور الكاكاو التي يتم استخراجها من الثمار الكبيرة التي تنتجها شجرة الكاكاو، في كل ثمرة كبيرة يوجد على الأقل 30-50 بذرة صغيرة من بذور الكاكاو</p> <p style="margin-top: .5em; margin-bottom: .5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.6em; color: #222222; font-family: Arial; font-size: 15.2px;">2- يتم تسخين البذور إلى درجة حرارة معينة وتترك بضعة أيام حتى تتخمر ويتحول لونها إلى اللون البني المعتاد للكاكاو ومن ثم تجفف الحبوب بالشمس ويتم ارسالها لمصانع اعداد الشوكولاته.</p> <p style="margin-top: .5em; margin-bottom: .5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.6em; color: #222222; font-family: Arial; font-size: 15.2px;">3- يتم طحن الحبوب للحصول على بودرة الكاكاو ومن ثم يتم عصر الحبوب للحصول على زبدة الكوكاو</p> <p style="margin-top: .5em; margin-bottom: .5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.6em; color: #222222; font-family: Arial; font-size: 15.2px;">4- تصنع الشكولاته بشكلها النهائي عن طريق خلط بودرة الكوكاو وزبدة الكوكاو مع الحليب والسكر</p> <h2 style="color: #000000; background-image: none; margin: 1em 0px .25em; padding: 0px; border-bottom-style: solid; border-color: #C0C0C0; font-size: 1.5em; line-height: 1.3; font-family: Arial;"><span></span><span class="mw-headline">فوائد الكاكاو</span><span class="mw-editsection" style="font-size: small; margin-right: 1em; vertical-align: baseline; line-height: 1em; white-space: nowrap;"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color: #54595d; margin: 0px 0px 0px .25em;">[</span><a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%D9%83%D8%A7%D9%83%D8%A7%D9%88_(%D8%B4%D8%AC%D8%B1%D8%A9)&amp;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="عدل القسم: فوائد الكاكاو" style="color: #0b0080; background-image: none;">عدل</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color: #54595d; margin: 0px .25em 0px 0px;">]</span></span></h2> <p style="margin-top: .5em; margin-bottom: .5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.6em; color: #222222; font-family: Arial; font-size: 15.2px;">الكاكاو شجرة معمرة وبذورها تشفي الحمى والسعال والكاكاو مدرة للبول ومقوية للقلب والكلى, ان الثيوبرومين الموجود في بذور الكاكاو يريح العضلة الملساء للانبوب الهضمي وهذا ربما هو السبب الذي يجعل الكثير من الناس يتناولون الشوكولاته حتى بعد امتلاء البطن بالأطعمة إذا اراد ان يريح معدته بعد وجبة دسمة, والغلاف الخارجي لبذور الكاكاو والذي يعرف بالقصرة (Teast) يستخدم في الوقت الحاضر لعلاج مشاكل الكبد والمثانة والكلى والسكري وكمقوٍ عام وكمادة مقبضة ضد الإسهال، أكدت دراسة طبية أسترالية حديثة أن نصف الذين يعانون من الاكتئاب يلجأون إلى تناول قطع من الشوكولاتة حيث يحسون بعدها بانتعاش حالتهم النفسية وتحسن في مزاجهم.</p> <p style="margin-top: .5em; margin-bottom: .5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.6em; color: #222222; font-family: Arial; font-size: 15.2px;">ووجدت الدراسة التي نشرت نتائجها في دورية British Journal of Psychiatry الطبية أن 54 بالمائة من الذين لجأوا إلى الشوكولاتة كانوا يعانون من اضطراب في مزاجهم وخوف من رفض المجتمع لهم.</p> <p style="margin-top: .5em; margin-bottom: .5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.6em; color: #222222; font-family: Arial; font-size: 15.2px;">وشملت الدراسة، التي أعدها باحثون في أستراليا، ألفين و600 شخصاً من الذين يعانون من درجات متفاوتة من الاكتئاب. وقال معد الدراسة في جامعة ساوث ويلز الدكتور غوردون باركر إن إيجاد علاقة بين اشتهاء الشوكولاتة وأمزجة الناس كان أمرا مثيرا بالنسبة لنا.</p> <p style="margin-top: .5em; margin-bottom: .5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.6em; color: #222222; font-family: Arial; font-size: 15.2px;">الجدير بالذكر أن العديد من الأبحاث أثبتت في السابق أن تناول مكعبات قليلة من الشوكولاتة يوميا قد يقي من ضيق الشرايين ويساعد في إقلال مخاطر الإصابة بأمراض القلب.</p> <p style="margin-top: .5em; margin-bottom: .5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.6em; color: #222222; font-family: Arial; font-size: 15.2px;">ولم تقتصر فوائد الشوكولاته فقط على القلب والأوعية الدموية، لكنها امتدت أيضا إلى الأسنان حيث أعلن عدد من العلماء اليابانيين أنها من أكثر المواد مقدرة على التغلب على طبقة «البليك» المسببة للتسوس.</p> <p style="margin-top: .5em; margin-bottom: .5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.6em; color: #222222; font-family: Arial; font-size: 15.2px;"><b>فوائد الكاكاو للوقاية من السكري</b> <b></b><br />ذكرت دراسة حديثة أجريت في يونيو عام 2013 من قبل باحثين في جامعة بنسلفانيا الأمريكية على الفئران انخفاض خطر الإصابة بمرض السكري بنسبة 30%. ويشير الباحثون إلى دور الفلافونويدات في الوقاية من السكري عن طريق خفض مستوى الدهون الثلاثية والدهون في الكبد التي تزيد من مخاطر الإصابة بالسكري. وقال الدكتور "جوش لامبرت" أستاذ علوم الغذاء في جامعة ولاية بنسلفانيا بالولايات المتحدة أنهم قد لاحظوا انخفاض وزن الجسم أيضاً بصورة بسيطة ولكنه انخفاض مهم على أية حال على الرغم من ضآلته. كان العلماء قد أضافوا إلى النظام الغذائي للفئران ما يعادل 10 ملاعق كبيرة أو 5 أكواب من الكاكاو طوال فترة الدراسة والتي بلغت 12 أسبوعاً.</p> <p style="margin-top: .5em; margin-bottom: .5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.6em; color: #222222; font-family: Arial; font-size: 15.2px;"><b>فوائد الكاكاو لضغط الدم</b><b></b></p> <p style="margin-top: .5em; margin-bottom: .5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.6em; color: #222222; font-family: Arial; font-size: 15.2px;">أكدت دراسة أجريت عام 2012 أن تناول مشروب الكاكاو (الهوت شوكلت) والشوكولاتة السوداء يعمل على خفض ارتفاع ضغط الدم عند الأشخاص الذين لا تزيد معدلات ضغطهم عن 85/140. وأرجع الباحثون في هذه الدراسة الأمر إلى الفلافونويدات التي توجد في الكاكاو.</p> </div> </body> </html>
V 86
Cacao Tree Seeds (Theobroma cacao)

Bästsäljare produkt
Bourbon Vanilla Seeds (Vanilla planifolia)

Bourbon Vanilla Seeds...

السعر 3.50 € (SKU: MHS 104)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><span style="font-size: 14pt;"><strong>Bourbon Vanilla Seeds (Vanilla planifolia)</strong></span></h2> <h2><span style="color: #f80202; font-size: 14pt;"><strong>Price for Package of 50 or 100 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><span>Vanilla planifolia is a species of vanilla orchid. It is native to Mexico and Central America, and is one of the primary sources for vanilla flavouring, due to its high vanillin content. Common names are flat-leaved vanilla, Tahitian vanilla,[citation needed] and West Indian vanilla (also used for the Pompona vanilla, V. pompona). Often, it is simply referred to as "the vanilla". It was first scientifically named in 1808.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla planifolia is found in Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and northeastern South America. It prefers hot, wet, tropical climates. </span></p> <p><span>It is cultivated and harvested primarily in Veracruz, Mexico and in Madagascar.</span></p> <p><span>Like all members of the genus Vanilla, V. planifolia is a vine. It uses its fleshy roots to support itself as it grows.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Flowers</span></strong></p> <p><span>Flowers are greenish-yellow, with a diameter of 5 cm (2 in). They last only a day, and must be pollinated manually, during the morning, if fruit is desired. The plants are self-fertile, and pollination simply requires a transfer of the pollen from the anther to the stigma. If pollination does not occur, the flower is dropped the next day. In the wild, there is less than 1% chance that the flowers will be pollinated, so in order to receive a steady flow of fruit, the flowers must be hand-pollinated when grown on farms.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Fruit</span></strong></p> <p><span>Fruit is produced only on mature plants, which are generally over 3 m (10 ft) long. The fruits are 15-23 cm (6-9 in) long pods (often incorrectly called beans). Outwardly they resemble small bananas. They mature after about five months, at which point they are harvested and cured. Curing ferments and dries the pods while minimizing the loss of essential oils. Vanilla extract is obtained from this portion of the plant.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia). The word vanilla, derived from vainilla, the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina (vaina itself meaning sheath or pod), is translated simply as "little pod". Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people cultivated the vine of the vanilla orchid, called tlilxochitl by the Aztecs. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s.</span></p> <p><span>Pollination is required to set the vanilla fruit from which the flavoring is derived. In 1837, Belgian botanist Charles François Antoine Morren discovered this fact and pioneered a method of artificially pollinating the plant.[3] The method proved financially unworkable and was not deployed commercially.[4] In 1841, Edmond Albius, a slave who lived on the French island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean, discovered at the age of 12 that the plant could be hand-pollinated. Hand-pollination allowed global cultivation of the plant.</span></p> <p><span>Three major species of vanilla currently are grown globally, all of which derive from a species originally found in Mesoamerica, including parts of modern-day Mexico.[6] They are V. planifolia (syn. V. fragrans), grown on Madagascar, Réunion, and other tropical areas along the Indian Ocean; V. tahitensis, grown in the South Pacific; and V. pompona, found in the West Indies, and Central and South America.[7] The majority of the world's vanilla is the V. planifolia species, more commonly known as Bourbon vanilla (after the former name of Réunion, Île Bourbon) or Madagascar vanilla, which is produced in Madagascar and neighboring islands in the southwestern Indian Ocean, and in Indonesia.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla is the second-most expensive spice after saffron.  Despite the expense, vanilla is highly valued for its flavor.  As a result, vanilla is widely used in both commercial and domestic baking, perfume manufacture, and aromatherapy.</span></p> <p><strong><span>History</span></strong></p> <p><span>According to popular belief, the Totonac people, who inhabit the east coast of Mexico in the present-day state of Veracruz, were the first to cultivate vanilla. According to Totonac mythology, the tropical orchid was born when Princess Xanat, forbidden by her father from marrying a mortal, fled to the forest with her lover. The lovers were captured and beheaded. Where their blood touched the ground, the vine of the tropical orchid grew.[4] In the 15th century, Aztecs invading from the central highlands of Mexico conquered the Totonacs, and soon developed a taste for the vanilla pods. They named the fruit tlilxochitl, or "black flower", after the matured fruit, which shrivels and turns black shortly after it is picked. Subjugated by the Aztecs, the Totonacs paid tribute by sending vanilla fruit to the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan.</span></p> <p><span>Until the mid-19th century, Mexico was the chief producer of vanilla. In 1819, French entrepreneurs shipped vanilla fruits to the islands of Réunion and Mauritius in hopes of producing vanilla there. After Edmond Albius discovered how to pollinate the flowers quickly by hand, the pods began to thrive. Soon, the tropical orchids were sent from Réunion to the Comoros Islands, Seychelles, and Madagascar, along with instructions for pollinating them. By 1898, Madagascar, Réunion, and the Comoros Islands produced 200 metric tons of vanilla beans, about 80% of world production. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, Indonesia is currently responsible for the vast majority of the world's Bourbon vanilla production and 58% of the world total vanilla fruit production.</span></p> <p><span>The market price of vanilla rose dramatically in the late 1970s after a tropical cyclone ravaged key croplands. Prices remained high through the early 1980s despite the introduction of Indonesian vanilla. In the mid-1980s, the cartel that had controlled vanilla prices and distribution since its creation in 1930 disbanded. Prices dropped 70% over the next few years, to nearly US$20 per kilogram; prices rose sharply again after tropical cyclone Hudah struck Madagascar in April 2000. The cyclone, political instability, and poor weather in the third year drove vanilla prices to an astonishing US$500/kg in 2004, bringing new countries into the vanilla industry. A good crop, coupled with decreased demand caused by the production of imitation vanilla, pushed the market price down to the $40/kg range in the middle of 2005. By 2010, prices were down to $20/kg. Cyclone Enawo caused in similar spike to $500/kg in 2017.</span></p> <p><span>Madagascar (especially the fertile Sava region) accounts for much of the global production of vanilla. Mexico, once the leading producer of natural vanilla with an annual yield of 500 tons of cured beans, produced only 10 tons in 2006. An estimated 95% of "vanilla" products are artificially flavored with vanillin derived from lignin instead of vanilla fruits.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Etymology</span></strong></p> <p><span>Vanilla was completely unknown in the Old World before Cortés. Spanish explorers arriving on the Gulf Coast of Mexico in the early 16th century gave vanilla its current name. Spanish and Portuguese sailors and explorers brought vanilla into Africa and Asia later that century. They called it vainilla, or "little pod". The word vanilla entered the English language in 1754, when the botanist Philip Miller wrote about the genus in his Gardener’s Dictionary. Vainilla is from the diminutive of vaina, from the Latin vagina (sheath) to describe the shape of the pods.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Vanilla orchid</span></strong></p> <p><span>The main species harvested for vanilla is V. planifolia. Although it is native to Mexico, it is now widely grown throughout the tropics. Indonesia and Madagascar are the world's largest producers. Additional sources include V. pompona and V. tahitiensis (grown in Niue and Tahiti), although the vanillin content of these species is much less than V. planifolia.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla grows as a vine, climbing up an existing tree (also called a tutor), pole, or other support. It can be grown in a wood (on trees), in a plantation (on trees or poles), or in a "shader", in increasing orders of productivity. Its growth environment is referred to as its terroir, and includes not only the adjacent plants, but also the climate, geography, and local geology. Left alone, it will grow as high as possible on the support, with few flowers. Every year, growers fold the higher parts of the plant downward so the plant stays at heights accessible by a standing human. This also greatly stimulates flowering.</span></p> <p><span>The distinctively flavored compounds are found in the fruit, which results from the pollination of the flower. These seed pods are roughly a third of an inch by six inches, and brownish red to black when ripe. Inside of these pods is an oily liquid full of tiny seeds.[22] One flower produces one fruit. V. planifolia flowers are hermaphroditic: they carry both male (anther) and female (stigma) organs. However, self-pollination is blocked by a membrane which separates those organs. The flowers can be naturally pollinated by bees of genus Melipona (abeja de monte or mountain bee), by bee genus Eulaema, or by hummingbirds. The Melipona bee provided Mexico with a 300-year-long advantage on vanilla production from the time it was first discovered by Europeans. The first vanilla orchid to flower in Europe was in the London collection of the Honourable Charles Greville in 1806. Cuttings from that plant went to Netherlands and Paris, from which the French first transplanted the vines to their overseas colonies. The vines grew, but would not fruit outside Mexico. Growers tried to bring this bee into other growing locales, to no avail. The only way to produce fruits without the bees is artificial pollination. Today, even in Mexico, hand pollination is used extensively.</span></p> <p><span>In 1836, botanist Charles François Antoine Morren was drinking coffee on a patio in Papantla (in Veracruz, Mexico) and noticed black bees flying around the vanilla flowers next to his table. He watched their actions closely as they would land and work their way under a flap inside the flower, transferring pollen in the process. Within hours, the flowers closed and several days later, Morren noticed vanilla pods beginning to form. Morren immediately began experimenting with hand pollination. A few years later in 1841, a simple and efficient artificial hand-pollination method was developed by a 12-year-old slave named Edmond Albius on Réunion, a method still used today. Using a beveled sliver of bamboo, an agricultural worker lifts the membrane separating the anther and the stigma, then, using the thumb, transfers the pollinia from the anther to the stigma. The flower, self-pollinated, will then produce a fruit. The vanilla flower lasts about one day, sometimes less, so growers have to inspect their plantations every day for open flowers, a labor-intensive task.</span></p> <p><span>The fruit, a seed capsule, if left on the plant, ripens and opens at the end; as it dries, the phenolic compounds crystallize, giving the fruits a diamond-dusted appearance, which the French call givre (hoarfrost). It then releases the distinctive vanilla smell. The fruit contains tiny, black seeds. In dishes prepared with whole natural vanilla, these seeds are recognizable as black specks. Both the pod and the seeds are used in cooking.</span></p> <p><span>Like other orchids' seeds, vanilla seeds will not germinate without the presence of certain mycorrhizal fungi. Instead, growers reproduce the plant by cutting: they remove sections of the vine with six or more leaf nodes, a root opposite each leaf. The two lower leaves are removed, and this area is buried in loose soil at the base of a support. The remaining upper roots cling to the support, and often grow down into the soil. Growth is rapid under good conditions.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Cultivars</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span>Bourbon vanilla</span></strong><span> or Bourbon-Madagascar vanilla, produced from V. planifolia plants introduced from the Americas, is from Indian Ocean islands such as Madagascar, the Comoros, and Réunion, formerly the Île Bourbon. It is also used to describe the distinctive vanilla flavor derived from V. planifolia grown successfully in tropical countries such as India.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Mexican vanilla</span></strong><span>, made from the native V. planifolia,[26] is produced in much less quantity and marketed as the vanilla from the land of its origin. Vanilla sold in tourist markets around Mexico is sometimes not actual vanilla extract, but is mixed with an extract of the tonka bean, which contains the toxin coumarin. Tonka bean extract smells and tastes like vanilla, but coumarin has been shown to cause liver damage in lab animals and has been banned in food in the US by the Food and Drug Administration since 1954.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Tahitian vanilla</span></strong><span> is from French Polynesia, made with V. tahitiensis. Genetic analysis shows this species is possibly a cultivar from a hybrid of V. planifolia and V. odorata. The species was introduced by French Admiral François Alphonse Hamelin to French Polynesia from the Philippines, where it was introduced from Guatemala by the Manila Galleon trade.</span></p> <p><strong><span>West Indian vanilla</span></strong><span> is made from V. pompona grown in the Caribbean and Central and South America.</span></p> <p><span>The term French vanilla is often used to designate particular preparations with a strong vanilla aroma, containing vanilla grains and sometimes also containing eggs (especially egg yolks). The appellation originates from the French style of making vanilla ice cream with a custard base, using vanilla pods, cream, and egg yolks. Inclusion of vanilla varietals from any of the former French dependencies or overseas France may be a part of the flavoring. Alternatively, French vanilla is taken to refer to a vanilla-custard flavor.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Chemistry</span></strong></p> <p><span>Vanilla essence occurs in two forms. Real seedpod extract is a complex mixture of several hundred different compounds, including vanillin, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, furfural, hexanoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, eugenol, methyl cinnamate, and isobutyric acid.[citation needed] Synthetic essence consists of a solution of synthetic vanillin in ethanol. The chemical compound vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is a major contributor to the characteristic flavor and aroma of real vanilla and is the main flavor component of cured vanilla beans.[30] Vanillin was first isolated from vanilla pods by Gobley in 1858. By 1874, it had been obtained from glycosides of pine tree sap, temporarily causing a depression in the natural vanilla industry. Vanillin can be easily synthesized from various raw materials, but the majority of food-grade (&gt; 99% pure) vanillin is made from guaiacol.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Pollination</span></strong></p> <p><span>Flowering normally occurs every spring, and without pollination, the blossom wilts and falls, and no vanilla bean can grow. Each flower must be hand-pollinated within 12 hours of opening. In the wild, very few natural pollinators exist, with most pollination thought to be carried out by the shiny green Euglossa viridissima, some Eulaema spp. and other species of the euglossine or orchid bees, Euglossini, though direct evidence is lacking. Closely related Vanilla species are known to be pollinated by the euglossine bees.[40] The previously suggested pollination by stingless bees of the genus Melipona is thought to be improbable, as they are too small to be effective and have never been observed carrying Vanilla pollen or pollinating other orchids, though they do visit the flowers.[41] These pollinators do not exist outside the orchid's home range, and even within that range, vanilla orchids have only a 1% chance of successful pollination. As a result, all vanilla grown today is pollinated by hand. A small splinter of wood or a grass stem is used to lift the rostellum or move the flap upward, so the overhanging anther can be pressed against the stigma and self-pollinate the vine. Generally, one flower per raceme opens per day, so the raceme may be in flower for over 20 days. A healthy vine should produce about 50 to 100 beans per year, but growers are careful to pollinate only five or six flowers from the 20 on each raceme. The first flowers that open per vine should be pollinated, so the beans are similar in age. These agronomic practices facilitate harvest and increases bean quality. The fruits require five to six weeks to develop, but around six months to mature. Over-pollination results in diseases and inferior bean quality.[35] A vine remains productive between 12 and 14 years.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Harvest</span></strong></p> <p><span>Harvesting vanilla fruits is as labor-intensive as pollinating the blossoms. Immature, dark green pods are not harvested. Pale yellow discoloration that commences at the distal end of the fruits is not a good indication of the maturity of pods. Each fruit ripens at its own time, requiring a daily harvest. "Current methods for determining the maturity of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) beans are unreliable. Yellowing at the blossom end, the current index, occurs before beans accumulate maximum glucovanillin concentrations. Beans left on the vine until they turn brown have higher glucovanillin concentrations but may split and have low quality. Judging bean maturity is difficult as they reach full size soon after pollination. Glucovanillin accumulates from 20 weeks, maximum about 40 weeks after pollination. Mature green beans have 20% dry matter but less than 2% glucovanillin."[46] The accumulation of dry matter and glucovanillin are highly correlated.To ensure the finest flavor from every fruit, each individual pod must be picked by hand just as it begins to split on the end. Overmatured fruits are likely to split, causing a reduction in market value. Its commercial value is fixed based on the length and appearance of the pod.</span></p> <p><span>If the fruit is more than 15 cm (5.9 in) in length, it is categorized as first-quality. The largest fruits greater than 16 cm and up to as much as 21 cm are usually reserved for the gourmet vanilla market, for sale to top chefs and restaurants. If the fruits are between 10 and 15 cm long, pods are under the second-quality category, and fruits less than 10 cm in length are under the third-quality category. Each fruit contains thousands of tiny black vanilla seeds. Vanilla fruit yield depends on the care and management given to the hanging and fruiting vines. Any practice directed to stimulate aerial root production has a direct effect on vine productivity. A five-year-old vine can produce between 1.5 and 3 kg (3.3 and 6.6 lb) pods, and this production can increase up to 6 kg (13 lb) after a few years. The harvested green fruit can be commercialized as such or cured to get a better market price.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Culinary uses</span></strong></p> <p><span>The four main commercial preparations of natural vanilla are:</span></p> <p><span>Whole pod</span></p> <p><span>Powder (ground pods, kept pure or blended with sugar, starch, or other ingredients)</span></p> <p><span>Extract (in alcoholic or occasionally glycerol solution; both pure and imitation forms of vanilla contain at least 35% alcohol)</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla sugar, a packaged mix of sugar and vanilla extract</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla flavoring in food may be achieved by adding vanilla extract or by cooking vanilla pods in the liquid preparation. A stronger aroma may be attained if the pods are split in two, exposing more of a pod's surface area to the liquid. In this case, the pods' seeds are mixed into the preparation. Natural vanilla gives a brown or yellow color to preparations, depending on the concentration. Good-quality vanilla has a strong, aromatic flavor, but food with small amounts of low-quality vanilla or artificial vanilla-like flavorings are far more common, since true vanilla is much more expensive.</span></p> <p><span>Regarded as the world's most popular aroma and flavor, vanilla is a widely used aroma and flavor compound for foods, beverages and cosmetics, as indicated by its popularity as an ice cream flavor.[64] Although vanilla is a prized flavoring agent on its own, it is also used to enhance the flavor of other substances, to which its own flavor is often complementary, such as chocolate, custard, caramel, coffee, and others. Vanilla is a common ingredient in Western sweet baked goods, such as cookies and cakes.</span></p> <p><span>The food industry uses methyl and ethyl vanillin as less-expensive substitutes for real vanilla. Ethyl vanillin is more expensive, but has a stronger note. Cook's Illustrated ran several taste tests pitting vanilla against vanillin in baked goods and other applications, and to the consternation of the magazine editors, tasters could not differentiate the flavor of vanillin from vanilla; however, for the case of vanilla ice cream, natural vanilla won out.[66] A more recent and thorough test by the same group produced a more interesting variety of results; namely, high-quality artificial vanilla flavoring is best for cookies, while high-quality real vanilla is slightly better for cakes and significantly better for unheated or lightly heated foods. The liquid extracted from vanilla pods was once believed to have medical properties, helping with various stomach ailments.</span></p> </body> </html>
MHS 104
Bourbon Vanilla Seeds (Vanilla planifolia)

Produkt med tidsreducerat pris
Tulsi, Holy Basil Seeds...

Tulsi, Holy Basil Seeds...

السعر الأساسي 1.65 € ‎-18% السعر 1.35 € (SKU: MHS 89)
Offer ends in:
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Thai Holy Basil Seeds (Ocimum tenuiflorum)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 100 (0,036g) seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>This kind of Basil has a spicy, peppery, clove-like taste, may be the basil Thai people love most and is at least used in all street kitchens and restaurants in the country.</p> <p>Ocimum tenuiflorum, also known as Ocimum sanctum, holy basil, or tulasi or tulsi (also sometimes spelled thulasi), is an aromatic plant in the family Lamiaceae which is native to the Indian subcontinent and widespread as a cultivated plant throughout the Southeast Asian tropics.[2][3] It is an erect, many-branched subshrub, 30–60 cm (12–24 in) tall with hairy stems and simple phyllotaxic green or purple leaves that are strongly scented.</p> <p> </p> <p>Leaves have petioles and are ovate, up to 5 cm (2.0 in) long, usually slightly toothed. The flowers are purplish in elongate racemes in close whorls.[3] The two main morphotypes cultivated in India and Nepal are green-leaved (Sri or Lakshmi tulasi) and purple-leaved (Krishna tulasi).[4]</p> <p> </p> <p>Tulasi is cultivated for religious and medicinal purposes, and for its essential oil. It is widely known across the Indian subcontinent as a medicinal plant and a herbal tea, commonly used in Ayurveda, and has an important role within the Vaishnava tradition of Hinduism, in which devotees perform worship involving holy basil plants or leaves. This plant is revered as an elixir of life.</p> <p> </p> <p>The variety of Ocimum tenuiflorum used in Thai cuisine is referred to as Thai holy basil (Thai: กะเพรา kaphrao);[2] it is not to be confused with Thai basil, which is a variety of Ocimum basilicum.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Genetics</strong></p> <p>DNA barcodes of various biogeographical isolates of Tulsi from the Indian subcontinent are now available. In a large-scale phylogeographical study of this species conducted using chloroplast genome sequences, a group of researchers from Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, have found that this plant originates from North Central India.[5][6] The discovery might suggest the evolution of Tulsi is related with the cultural migratory patterns in the Indian subcontinent.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Uses</strong></p> <p><strong>In Hinduism</strong></p> <p>Tulsi leaves are an essential part in the worship of Vishnu and his avatars, including Krishna and Ram, and other male Vaishnava deities such as Hanuman, Balarama, Garuda and many others. Tulsi is a sacred plant for Hindus and is worshipped as the avatar of Lakshmi.[7] It is believed that water mixed with the petals given to the dying raises their departing souls to heaven.[8] Tulsi, which is Sanskrit for "the incomparable one", is most often regarded as a consort of Krishna in the form of Lakshmi.[9][10] According to the Brahma Vaivarta Purana, tulsi is an expression of Sita.[11][full citation needed] There are two types of tulsi worshipped in Hinduism: "Rama tulsi" has light green leaves and is larger in size; "Shyama tulsi" has dark green leaves and is important for the worship of Hanuman.[12] Many Hindus have tulasi plants growing in front of or near their home, often in special pots. Traditionally, tulsi is planted in the centre of the central courtyard of Hindu houses. It is also frequently grown next to Hanuman temples, especially in Varanasi.[13][full citation needed]</p> <p> </p> <p>According to Vaishnavas, it is believed in Puranas that during Samudra Manthana, when the gods win the ocean-churning against the asuras, Dhanvantari comes up from the ocean with Amrit in hand for the gods. Dhanvantari, the divine healer, sheds happy tears, and when the first drop falls in the Amrit, it forms tulasi. In the ceremony of Tulsi Vivaha, tulsi is ceremonially married to Krishna annually on the eleventh day of the waxing moon or twelfth of the month of Kartik in the lunar calendar. This day also marks the end of the four-month Chaturmas, which is considered inauspicious for weddings and other rituals, so the day inaugurates the annual marriage season in India. The ritual lighting of lamps each evening during Kartik includes the worship of the tulsi plant, which is held to be auspicious for the home. Vaishnavas especially follow the daily worship of tulsi during Kartik.[14] In another legend, Tulsi was a pious woman who sought a boon to marry Vishnu. Lakshmi, Vishnu's consort, cursed her to become a plant in earth. However, Vishnu appeased her by giving her a boon that she would grace him when he appears in the form of Shaligrama in temples.[15]</p> <p> </p> <p>Vaishnavas traditionally use Hindu prayer beads made from tulsi stems or roots, which are an important symbol of initiation. Tulsi rosaries are considered to be auspicious for the wearer, and believed to put them under the protection of Hanuman. They have such a strong association with Vaishnavas, that followers of Hanuman are known as "those who bear the tulsi round the neck".</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Ayurveda</strong></p> <p>Tulasi (Sanskrit:-Surasa) has been used for thousands of years in Ayurveda for its diverse healing properties. It is mentioned in the Charaka Samhita,[16] an ancient Ayurvedic text. Tulsi is considered to be an adaptogen,[17] balancing different processes in the body, and helpful for adapting to stress.[18] Marked by its strong aroma and astringent taste, it is regarded in Ayurveda as a kind of "elixir of life" and believed to promote longevity.</p> <p> </p> <p>Tulasi extracts are used in ayurvedic remedies for a variety of ailments. Traditionally, tulasi is taken in many forms: as herbal tea, dried powder, fresh leaf or mixed with ghee. Essential oil extracted from Karpoora tulasi is mostly used for medicinal purposes and in herbal cosmetics.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Thai cuisine</strong></p> <p>The leaves of holy basil, known as kaphrao in the Thai language (Thai: กะเพรา), are commonly used in Thai cuisine. Kaphrao should not be confused with horapha (Thai: โหระพา), which is normally known as Thai basil, or with Thai lemon basil (maenglak; Thai: แมงลัก).</p> <p>The best-known dish made with this herb is phat kaphrao (Thai: ผัดกะเพรา) — a stir-fry of Thai holy basil with meats, seafood or, as in khao phat kraphao, with rice.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Insect repellent</strong></p> <p>For centuries, the dried leaves have been mixed with stored grains to repel insects.[24] In Sri Lanka this plant is used as a mosquito repellent. Sinhala: Maduruthalaa</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Pharmacological study</strong></p> <p>Some of the main chemical constituents of tulsi are: oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, rosmarinic acid, eugenol, carvacrol, linalool, β-caryophyllene (about 8%), β-elemene (c.11.0%), and germacrene D (about 2%).</p> <p>Isolated O. sanctum extracts have some antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Genome sequence</strong></p> <p>The genome of Tulsi plant has been sequenced and the draft genome has been published independently by research teams from CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants at Lucknow and National Centre for Biological Sciences at Bengaluru. The genome size was estimated to be 612 mega bases and results from the sequencing project show that certain metabolite-biosynthesis genes such as genes for biosynthesis of Anthocyanin in Krishna Tulsi variety, Ursolic acid and Eugenol in Rama Tulsi variety were expressed in large quantities. These metabolites were shown to have anti-cancerous properties as well. It was further commented that these metabolites could be utilized as anti-cancerous drugs.</p> <p> </p> </body> </html>
MHS 89
Tulsi, Holy Basil Seeds (Ocimum tenuiflorum)
  • ‎-18%

Bästsäljare produkt
Persian lime Seeds – limoo, Tahiti lime  - 3

بذور الليمون الفارسي

السعر 1.95 € (SKU: V 119)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>بذور الليمون الفارسي</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>ثمن عبوة من 2 بذور.</strong></span></h2> <p>يُعرف الجير الفارسي (الحمضيات × اللاتيفوليا) أو الليموزين أيضًا باسم تاهيتي الجير أو بيرز الجير (سمي على اسم جون تي بيرز ، الذي طور هذا الصنف الخالي من البذور حوالي عام 1895 في مشتلته في بورترفيل ، كاليفورنيا) ، وهو فاكهة حمضيات مرتبطة بالمعيار. جير.</p> <p>لها رائحة عطرة وحارة بشكل فريد. يبلغ قطر الثمرة حوالي 6 سم ، وغالبًا ما يكون لها نهايات حلمة قليلاً ، وعادة ما تباع وهي خضراء ، على الرغم من أنها صفراء عندما تصل إلى النضج الكامل. كما أنه متاح على نطاق واسع وهو جاف ، حيث يستخدم غالبًا بهذه الطريقة في الطبخ الفارسي. إنه أكبر حجما ، وذو بشرة أكثر سمكا ، مع عطريات حمضيات أقل كثافة من الجير الرئيسي (Citrus aurantifolia).</p> <p>تتمثل مزايا الجير الفارسي في الزراعة التجارية مقارنةً بالجير الرئيسي في الحجم الأكبر ، وعدم وجود البذور ، والصلابة ، وعدم وجود الأشواك على الشجيرات ، وإطالة مدة صلاحية الفاكهة. فهي أقل حمضية من الليمون الحامض الرئيسي ولا تحتوي على المرارة التي تضفي على نكهة الليمون الرئيسية الفريدة.</p> <p>يتم تسويق الليمون الفارسي بشكل أساسي في ستة أحجام ، تُعرف بـ 110 و 150 و 175 و 200 و 230 و 250. ما إن نمت في المقام الأول في فلوريدا في الولايات المتحدة ، فقد برزت بعد أن تم القضاء على بساتين الجير الرئيسية هناك بسبب إعصار في عام 1926 ، وفقًا لجمعية بومولوجيكال الأمريكية ، بعد ذلك ، دمر إعصار أندرو بساتين الجير الفارسية في عام 1992.</p> <p>تتم زراعة أعداد كبيرة من الليمون الحامض الفارسي ومعالجته وتصديره كل عام بشكل أساسي من المكسيك إلى الأسواق الأمريكية والأوروبية والآسيوية. يتم التعامل مع واردات الولايات المتحدة من الجير الفارسي من المكسيك في الغالب من خلال ماكالين ، تكساس.</p> <p>ينشأ الليمون الفارسي من الشرق الأقصى ونمت لأول مرة على نطاق واسع في بلاد فارس (إيران الآن) وجنوب العراق.</p> <p>w Iran) and southern Iraq.</p> </body> </html>
V 119
Persian lime Seeds – limoo, Tahiti lime  - 3

Bästsäljare produkt

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Variation från Japan
Yuzu Seeds Japanese citrus fruit -20°C (Citrus junos) 4.15 - 1

بذور Yuzu ، فواكه الحمضيات...

السعر 4.15 € (SKU: V 118 Y)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>بذور Yuzu ، فواكه الحمضيات اليابانية -20 درجة مئوية - الحمضيات junos</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>ثمن حزمة من 2 أو 4 البذور.</strong></span></h2> <p>The fruit looks somewhat like a small grapefruit with an uneven skin, and can be either yellow or green depending on the degree of ripeness. It is hardy to <strong>-20C.</strong></p> <p>Yuzu limes are small to medium in size, averaging 5-10 centimeters in diameter, and are round, oblate, to slightly lopsided in shape. The peel is thick, pebbly, rough, pocked with many prominent oil glands and pores, and matures from dark green to golden yellow. Underneath the peel, the yellow flesh is minimal, divided into 9-10 segments by white membranes, contains some juice, and is filled with many large, inedible cream-colored seeds. Yuzu limes are highly aromatic, and the rind is rich in essential oils that are released when the fruit’s surface is scratched or cut. The juice and zest also have a unique, acidic blend of sour, tart, and spicy flavors with notes of lime, grapefruit, mandarin. <br /><br /></p> <h2>Seasons/Availability</h2> <p><br />Yuzu limes are available in the winter through the early spring. <br /><br /></p> <h2>Current Facts</h2> <p><br />Yuzu limes, botanically classified as Citrus junos, are slow-growing citrus that are found on an evergreen tree or shrub that can reach over five meters in height and belongs to the Rutaceae family. Believed to be a hybrid between the satsuma mandarin and the ichang papeda, Yuzu limes are not botanically a lime but have earned the title since they are often prepared and used similarly. Yuzu limes are mainly cultivated in China, Japan, and Korea and are favored for their tart and spicy juice and zest. They are also valued for their strong fragrance and in Japan, it is one of the most popular scents to be used for cosmetics, candles, cleaning supplies, and bath products. While popular in Asia, Yuzu limes are still relatively unknown in the Western world, but they have been gaining awareness through famous chefs praising and using its unique flavor. <br /><br /></p> <h2>Nutritional Value</h2> <p><br />Yuzu limes are an excellent source of potassium and vitamin C. They also contain flavonoids, vitamin P which can help absorb other nutrients and increase circulation, and nomilin, which can help aid the body in relaxation. <br /><br /></p> <h2>Applications</h2> <p><br />Yuzu limes are best suited for both raw and cooked applications and are used for their juice and zest. When juiced, Yuzu limes can be mixed into sauces, vinegar, dressings, and marinades, or they can be shaken into cocktails, flavored water, and tea. Yuzu lime peels can also be used to flavor salted butter for seafood dishes, zested over salad or sashimi, used to flavor ponzu sauce, or ground into powdered form and sprinkled over dishes as a concentrated flavor. In addition to savory dishes, Yuzu lime juice and zest can be baked into tarts or pies, mixed into sorbets, or used in custard. Yuzu limes pair well with coriander, mint, eggs, sashimi, scallops, grilled fish, snow crab, poultry, steak, pork, pepper, black sesame seeds, cumin, lime, raspberry, pomegranate, and cherries. The fruits will keep two weeks when stored in the refrigerator. <br /><br /></p> <h2>Ethnic/Cultural Info</h2> <p><br />In Japan, the Yuzu lime is one of the most popular fragrances and is most well-known for its use in the winter solstice bath. Each year during the winter solstice, public bathhouses will slice the fruit in half and float them in hot water, creating an aromatic experience. This bathing practice dates back to the 18th century and soaking in Yuzu water is believed to help prevent sicknesses such as flu and colds, and the essential oils and vitamin C are believed to help soften the skin and relieve pain. In addition to bathing, the Yuzu fragrance is also utilized in Yuzu tama or Yuzu egg production. On the island of Shikoku, Japan, farmers feed their hens a mixture of Yuzu peel, sesame seeds, corn, and kale to naturally create an egg that has the flavor and scent of the Yuzu lime. These eggs are sold at a premium price and are traditionally used for tamago kake gohan, which is cooked rice with a raw egg mixed in. <br /><br /></p> <h2>Geography/History</h2> <p><br />The origins of Yuzu limes are somewhat disputed among scientists, but the majority of scientists conclude that the fruit’s origins are within the upper regions of the Yangtze River in China and have been growing since ancient times. Yuzu limes were then introduced to Japan in 710 CE where they became increasingly popular for their light scent. In 1914, Frank Meyer, the man who discovered the Meyer lemon, visited China and brought seeds from the Yuzu fruit back to the United States. Included in his description of the fruit, he noted that he sourced the seeds from the Hubei Provence along the upper slopes of the Yangtze River at an astonishing elevation of 4,000 feet. The temperatures dip below freezing in that area, and there are no other citrus varieties that grow near the region. Today Yuzu limes are predominately available at local markets in Asia, but there are also a few farms in the United States that commercially cultivate the fruit and sell at farmers markets and specialty grocers</p> </body> </html>
V 118 Y 2-S
Yuzu Seeds Japanese citrus fruit -20°C (Citrus junos) 4.15 - 1
Ashitaba seeds (Tomorrow's Leaf) (Angelica keiskei) 3.95 - 1

Ashitaba seeds (Tomorrow's...

السعر 3.95 € (SKU: MHS 100)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Ashitaba seeds (Tomorrow's Leaf) (Angelica keiskei)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color:#ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 5 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><span>Angelica keiskei Koidzumi, commonly known under the Japanese name of Ashitaba (アシタバ or 明日葉 ashitaba, literally "Tomorrow's Leaf"), is a cold hardy perennial plant from the angelica genus with an average growth height of 50–120 cm. It is endemic to Hachijō-jima, though it is artificially cultivated in Izu Ōshima, Mikura-jima, Nii-jima, To-shima and parts of Honshū as well.</span></p> <p><span>The plant's additional cultivar epithet koidzumi refers to botanist Gen'ichi Koizumi, while its Japanese nomenclature stems from the above-average regenerative capabilities it exhibits after injury. Harvesting a leaf at the break of day often results in a new sprout growing overnight, being visible the following morning.</span></p> <p><span>Traditionally it is seen as a major contributor to the supposedly healthier, extended lives of the local residents, possibly due to the chalconoids that are unique to this species of angelica. At one point in Edo period, the haulm's yellow sap was effectively used in the external treatment of smallpox, which prompted Kaibara Ekken to describe the herb in his Yamato honzō (大和本草), under the name of ashitagusa (鹹草), as "a powerful tonic drug." In folk medicine it is claimed to be diuretic, tonic, to improve digestion, and, when applied topically, to speed wound healing and prevent infection. Also, its nutritive qualities are said to be the factor behind the internal exiles' and their families' never waning stamina in the face of their arduous compulsory labor.</span></p> <p><span>For similar reasons, it very widely serves as pasture for cows, reckoned to improve the quality of milk as well as the yield and to maintain cattle health at the same time. It should be pointed out that most of these claims have yet to be proven in clinical trials, while studies have substantiated the presence of furocoumarins in several of these plants' components. Furanocumarin is an agent known to increase skin sensitivity to sunlight and may cause dermatitis.</span></p> <p><span>Nonetheless, modest conditions for cultivation and fast rate of growth, with optimal temperatures ranging between 12-22 degrees, have led many locals to plant ashitaba in herb gardens, flower pots, and backyards. These days the main use of their stipes, leaves, and taproots is in regional cuisine, where they are prepared as soba, tempura, shōchū, tea, ice cream, pasta etc. The Mikura-jima variety might excel in this regard as it is reputed to be less bitter than others.</span></p> <p><span>Note that ashitaba closely resembles Angelica japonica, but can be distinguished by its blooming period, which lasts from May to October whereas A. japonica's blooming period lasts only between May and July. Another indicator is the characteristic color of its sap.[2] The larvae of the Common Yellow Swallowtail are known to feed frequently on the plant.</span></p> <h2><span>Medicinal properties</span></h2> <p><span>A. keiskei has been claimed to exhibit cytotoxic, antidiabetic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial properties via in vitro studies, but the efficacy of these qualities have yet to be confirmed in vivo.[3] Among current investigations is its potential as a nerve growth factor,[4] as well as potential usefulness in cancer, menopause, and other conditions.[5] Ashitaba may have positive effects on circulation by preventing red blood cells from clumping.</span></p> <h2><strong><span>Claims of being a vegetable source of vitamin B12</span></strong></h2> <p><span>Although it is often suggested that A. keiskei is a vegetable source of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), recently published, peer-reviewed scientific investigations of pharmacology and phytochemical constituents of interest report nothing that substantiates this claim.[7][8] Traditional methods for measuring vitamin B12 in foods are compromised by contaminants (e.g. soil, bacteria, etc.) that contain detectable concentrations of inactive B12 analogs, which may explain the origin of this belief.[9] More recent studies reveal certain mushrooms and algae as the only naturally occurring sources of B12 outside of the animal kingdom.[10] Of these, only Chlorella has demonstrated the ability to reduce methyl malonic acid (MMA) levels (a product of B12 deficiency) in human subjects.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Soak seeds overnight in cool, non-chlorinated water and then refrigerate the seeds (approximately 40 degrees F) in the moist medium for 3 days.  </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span>The moist medium could be moist sand, moist potting soil, moist coir or moist peat.  </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span>Note that our recommendation is MOIST, not SODDEN or VERY WET and that we are recommending REFRIGERATION not FREEZING.  </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span>After this pretreatment, plant the (still moist) seeds.  </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span>Sow on surface, barely cover with soil and press in firmly and keep evenly moist until germination.  </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span>Use a greenhouse, shade house or grow lights.  </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span>Germination Temperature is around 20C/68F</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span>Germination occurs 30 to 60 days after sowing.   </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span>Seedlings are slow-growing and will require about 60 days to transplant.  </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span>Once past the seedling stage, the plant is fast growing. </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span>The plants prefer rich, deep, ever moist, well-drained soil and full sun to part shade.  </span></strong></p> <p><strong>Water every other day.</strong></p>
MHS 100
Ashitaba seeds (Tomorrow's Leaf) (Angelica keiskei) 3.95 - 1