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Good quality product
By Petar Petar on 10/05/2021
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Good quality product
By Petar Petar on 10/05/2021
 Verified Purchase
Good quality product
By Petar Petar on 10/05/2021
 Verified Purchase

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Variation från Peru

هذا النبات له ثمار عملاقة
Worlds Largest Giant Corn Seeds Cuzco

أكبر بذور الذرة العملاقة في...

السعر 2.25 € (SKU: P 40)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>أكبر بذور الذرة العملاقة في العالم - كوزكو</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>ثمن حزمة من 5 أو 10 بذور.</strong></span></h2> <p>موطن بيرو وإكوادور الذرة العملاقة البيروفية - والمعروفة أيضًا باسم Choclo هي مجموعة كبيرة متنوعة من الذرة.</p> <p>يصل السيقان إلى ارتفاع يصل إلى 5 - 5،50 مترًا ، وسيقوم برج من الصنف في هذا الصنف برجًا بأصناف قياسية عند 4 أمتار ضخمة.</p> <p>في الأصناف القياسية من الذرة ، يتراوح متوسط ​​الوزن بين 25 و 35 غراما لكل 100 نواة في الذرة العملاقة في بيرو ، يتراوح الوزن لكل 100 نواة من 90 - 95 غراما لكل 100 نواة - أي ما يقرب من 3 أضعاف الحجم والإنتاج.</p> <p>هي ذرة متأخرة ونضج ويقدر أنها تحتاج إلى 120 - 150 يومًا لتنضج. فهي ليست محصولاً سهلاً لإنتاجه ، فهي تتطلب التصميم واليقظة للنمو.</p> <p>قد يظن المرء أن السكان الأصليين لجبال الأنديز سوف يتكيفون مع ظروف الرياح ، لكن هذا ليس هو الحال. لقد تطورت في وادي Urrabamba في بيرو والمنطقة المجاورة لها والتي كانت محمية ولديها طقس معتدل نسبيًا.</p> <p>بيرو الذرة العملاقة الملقب Choclo</p> <p>إنهم لا يتحملون رياح قوية ويحتاجون إلى عمل دائم ، على ارتفاع يتراوح بين 4 و 5،50 متر وهذا عمل روتيني ونصف.</p> <p>النباتات تنتج العديد من الكيزان قصيرة نسبيا مع حبات ضخمة.</p> <p>الذوق مشابه للذرة الحلوة القياسية. ليست حلوة بشكل مفرط - خفيفة إلى حلوة لطيف مع نسيج دسم سيكون أفضل وصف. البيرويون عادة يغليهم. في إكوادور وبوليفيا يجففونها أولاً ثم ينفجرون أو "يذوبون" في الزيت - مثل الفشار إلى حد ما. يمكن أن نستمتع بها مثل gringos مثل أي الذرة الأخرى.</p> <p>يجب أن تزرع الذرة في كتل بدلاً من الصفوف ويجب عدم زرعها بالقرب من أصناف أخرى من الذرة [انظر - عزل الذرة الحلوة.] يميل التلقيح المتقاطع إلى إنتاج ذرة نشوية ذات ذوق فقير. السكر اللؤلؤي ، وفقًا لبعض الموردين ، لا يحتاج إلى عزل كما تفعل الأنواع الأخرى - وهذا أمر جيد بالنسبة لؤلؤة السكر ، ولكن ليس بالضرورة التنوع الآخر.</p> <p>يمكن أن تزرع الذرة العملاقة في بيرو مباشرة في التربة ، أو يمكن أيضا أن تبدأ في الداخل وزرعها في وقت لاحق. إذا كنت تبدأ في الداخل ، فتأكد من أن لديك حاوية أكبر من المعتاد ، حيث يمكن أن تتفوق على الحاوية بسهولة قبل وقت الزرع. أيا كان اختيارك ، قم بزرعه في كتل ، على الأقل أربعة صفوف ، للتلقيح السليم وآذان ممتلئة جيدًا</p> <p>عمق البذر Aprox: 5 سم</p> <p>إنبات: 6 إلى 8 أيام</p> <p>النضج: في 120 - 150 يوما.</p> <p>اللون: أبيض - أصفر باهت</p> <p>تباعد البذور: 30-35 سم على حدة.</p> <p>تباعد الصف: 100 سم</p> <p>مناطق الصلابة في وزارة الزراعة الأمريكية: 3- 9</p> <p>حجم النبات: 400 - 550 سم</p> <p>قطعة خبز ذرة حجم: 17-20 سم</p> <p>شمس ساطعة</p> <p>أعلى من متوسط ​​العائد لكل قدم مربع. لقطات - توقع 3 آذان أو أكثر لكل ساق.</p> <p>الذرة لها جذور ضحلة ، وتستخدم الكثير من النيتروجين وكذلك العناصر النزرة. لمساعدة محصولك على الانطلاق إلى أفضل بداية ممكنة ، قم بإعداد التربة أولاً بأسمدة غنية بالنتروجين. السماد الفاسد أو السماد مفيد أيضا.</p> <p>زرع النباتات في الجانب الشمالي من الحديقة حيث أن سيقان الذرة سوف تحرم أشعة الشمس من بقية محاصيل الحديقة الخاصة بك ، قد ترغب أيضًا في زراعة بعض النباتات حيث توفر الظل للنباتات التي لا تتحمل أشعة الشمس الكاملة.</p> <div> <h2><a href="https://www.seeds-gallery.shop/en/home/peruvian-giant-red-sacsa-kuski-corn-seeds.html" target="_blank" title="بذور الذرة الحمراء العملاقة كيسكا كوسكي في بيرو ، يمكنك شراء هنا" rel="noreferrer noopener">بذور الذرة الحمراء العملاقة كيسكا كوسكي في بيرو ، يمكنك شراء هنا</a></h2> </div> </body> </html>
P 40 5S NS
Worlds Largest Giant Corn Seeds Cuzco
Golden Bamboo Seeds - fish pole bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea) 1.95 - 10

Golden Bamboo Seeds - fish...

السعر 1.95 € (SKU: B 7)
,
5/ 5
<h2><span style="font-size:14pt;"><strong>Golden Bamboo Seeds - fish pole bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea)</strong></span></h2> <h2><span style="color:#d0121a;font-size:14pt;"><strong>Price for Package of 5 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>One of the most common bamboos in the United States, and for a good reason: although usually not very tall, it is one of the strongest and most useful. Growing rigidly upright, this bamboo is one of the best for hedges and for planting next to driveways and walkways.</p> <p><span> </span>It often has a series of distorted internodes at the base of the cane, sometimes called "Tortoise Shell" internodes, that are quite ornamental and make this plant useful for craft work. Culm color of the species type is green. Like other Phyllostachys, when exposed to strong direct sunlight, the canes will fade to yellow with age. Phyllostachys aurea can be an aggressive spreader in hot climates, where care must be used in its placement.</p> <p>zones 7-10</p> <p><strong><em>WIKIPEDIA:</em></strong></p> <p>Phyllostachys aurea is a bamboo species of the 'running bamboo' type, belonging to the diverse Bambuseae tribe. It is native to Fujian and Zhejiang in China. It is commonly known by the names fishpole bamboo, golden bamboo, monk's belly bamboo, and fairyland bamboo (Australia).</p> <p><strong>Cultivation</strong></p> <p>P. aurea is cultivated as an ornamental plant for gardens. In the United States, it is considered an invasive species that crowds out native species and is difficult to remove. It is also the most commonly cultivated bamboo in the United States. It is a cold-hardy bamboo, performing well in USDA zones 6 to 10, (Connecticut to Florida).[2] It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.</p> <p><strong>Uses</strong></p> <p>P. aurea's lush foliage makes it desirable for ornamental purposes and privacy hedges, and its characteristic 'knotty' compressed lower internodes render it desirable among collectors.[2] It is well-suited to the making of bamboo pipes.</p> <p><strong>Identification and growth habit</strong></p> <p>The common forms of P. aurea are easily identified by their characteristic compressed internodes in the lower part of the canes which have a tortoise shell-like appearance. This internodal compression result in shorter heights (25 ft) and thicker cane diameters (relative to height) than many other Phyllostachys species.</p> <p>The canes turn yellow in full or partial sun, and deepen into a gold-orange color as the plant matures. Branching and foliage tend to start lower to the ground than many other Phyllostachys species, but some prefer to cut off lower branches to show off the interesting 'tortoise shell' lower part of the canes (see photo).</p>
B 7
Golden Bamboo Seeds - fish pole bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea) 1.95 - 10

Bästsäljare produkt
Persian lime Seeds – limoo, Tahiti lime  - 3

بذور الليمون الفارسي

السعر 1.95 € (SKU: V 119)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>بذور الليمون الفارسي</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>ثمن عبوة من 2 بذور.</strong></span></h2> <p>يُعرف الجير الفارسي (الحمضيات × اللاتيفوليا) أو الليموزين أيضًا باسم تاهيتي الجير أو بيرز الجير (سمي على اسم جون تي بيرز ، الذي طور هذا الصنف الخالي من البذور حوالي عام 1895 في مشتلته في بورترفيل ، كاليفورنيا) ، وهو فاكهة حمضيات مرتبطة بالمعيار. جير.</p> <p>لها رائحة عطرة وحارة بشكل فريد. يبلغ قطر الثمرة حوالي 6 سم ، وغالبًا ما يكون لها نهايات حلمة قليلاً ، وعادة ما تباع وهي خضراء ، على الرغم من أنها صفراء عندما تصل إلى النضج الكامل. كما أنه متاح على نطاق واسع وهو جاف ، حيث يستخدم غالبًا بهذه الطريقة في الطبخ الفارسي. إنه أكبر حجما ، وذو بشرة أكثر سمكا ، مع عطريات حمضيات أقل كثافة من الجير الرئيسي (Citrus aurantifolia).</p> <p>تتمثل مزايا الجير الفارسي في الزراعة التجارية مقارنةً بالجير الرئيسي في الحجم الأكبر ، وعدم وجود البذور ، والصلابة ، وعدم وجود الأشواك على الشجيرات ، وإطالة مدة صلاحية الفاكهة. فهي أقل حمضية من الليمون الحامض الرئيسي ولا تحتوي على المرارة التي تضفي على نكهة الليمون الرئيسية الفريدة.</p> <p>يتم تسويق الليمون الفارسي بشكل أساسي في ستة أحجام ، تُعرف بـ 110 و 150 و 175 و 200 و 230 و 250. ما إن نمت في المقام الأول في فلوريدا في الولايات المتحدة ، فقد برزت بعد أن تم القضاء على بساتين الجير الرئيسية هناك بسبب إعصار في عام 1926 ، وفقًا لجمعية بومولوجيكال الأمريكية ، بعد ذلك ، دمر إعصار أندرو بساتين الجير الفارسية في عام 1992.</p> <p>تتم زراعة أعداد كبيرة من الليمون الحامض الفارسي ومعالجته وتصديره كل عام بشكل أساسي من المكسيك إلى الأسواق الأمريكية والأوروبية والآسيوية. يتم التعامل مع واردات الولايات المتحدة من الجير الفارسي من المكسيك في الغالب من خلال ماكالين ، تكساس.</p> <p>ينشأ الليمون الفارسي من الشرق الأقصى ونمت لأول مرة على نطاق واسع في بلاد فارس (إيران الآن) وجنوب العراق.</p> <p>w Iran) and southern Iraq.</p> </body> </html>
V 119
Persian lime Seeds – limoo, Tahiti lime  - 3

Carolina Reaper Seeds Red or Yellow Worlds Hottest 2.45 - 1

100 بذور كارولينا ريبر

السعر 5.50 € (SKU: C 97 (0,47g))
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2 dir="rtl"><strong>100 بذور كارولينا ريبر</strong></h2> <h2 dir="rtl"><span style="color: #ff0000;">ثمن عبوة من 100 (0,47g) بذرة.</span></h2> <p dir="rtl">كما ترون من صورنا ، أن البذور هي من نباتاتنا الخاصة (المزروعة عضويا) وأنت تعرف ما ستحصل عليه من البذور التي تشتريها منا ...</p> <p dir="rtl">كارولاينا ريبر، المسمى اصلاً "HP22BNH7"، هو نوع<span> </span>فلفل حار<span> </span>من فصيلة<span> </span><i>كابسيكوم تشيننس</i>. يتأصل من قرية<span> </span>روك هيل<span> </span>في ولاية<span> </span>كارولاينا الجنوبية، في بيت زجاجي لتربية النباتات، على يد شخص اسمه ايد كاري، الذي يدير شركة بكربت للفلفل الواقع في قرية<span> </span>فورت ميل، في ولاية<span> </span>كارولاينا الجنوبية. وقد حاز على لقب الفلفل الأشد حرارة في العالم من قبل<span> </span>غينيس للأرقام القياسية<span> </span>منذ 7 اغسطس 2013.<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference">[1]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference">[2]</sup><span> </span>وينتسب هذا الفلفل إلى تربية فلفل من نوع<span> </span>غوست بيبر<span> </span>(حامل لقب الفلفل الأشد حرارة سابقاً) مع فلفل من نوع<span> </span>هابانيرو احمر.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference">[3]</sup><span> </span>ويصل معدل شدة حرارة هذا الفلفل إلى 1,539،300 درجة على مقياس<span> </span>سكوفيل، وفي بعض الأحيان قد يصل إلى ما يفوق 2,200،000 درجة على مقياس<span> </span>سكوفيل..</p> <p dir="rtl">ومنذ وقت قصير، جرى جدل حول مدى اختلاف كارولاينا ريبر من فلفل<span> </span>ترينيداد 7 بود بريمو، مزيج آخر من الفلفل الكاريبي، والذي يشبهه في الشكل ومن حيث نسبة الحرارة.</p> <p dir="rtl">يوجد هناك مقاطع فيديو على قناة<span> </span>يوتوب<span> </span>يظهر فيها أشخاص يجرون تحدي تناول هذا الفلفل الحار.<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference">[4]</sup><span> </span>في أثناء معرض نيويورك للصلصة الحارة السنوي الثاني، عرض ايد كاري بشهادة من<span> </span>غينيس للأرقام القياسية<span> </span>واجرية مسابقة تناول ثلاثة حبات كارولاينا ريبر في أسرع وقت، والذي فاز بها شخص اسمه رسل تود الذي استطاع بإجراء التحدي في 12,23 ثانية.</p> </body> </html>
C 97 (0,47g)
Carolina Reaper Seeds Red or Yellow Worlds Hottest 2.45 - 1
  • تخفيضات!
"DUKE" Highbush Blueberry Seeds (Vaccinium Corymbosum)

DUKE العنب البري

السعر 1.95 € (SKU: V 194 D)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>(Vaccinium Corymbosum) DUKE العنب البري </strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>سعر العبوة 10 أو 50 بذرة.</strong></span></h2> <p>العنب البري الدوق هو الرائد المبكر في النضج (يبدأ التوت في النضج في أوائل يونيو). وهي معروفة بإنتاجيتها العالية (يمكن أن ينتج نبات دوق أكثر من 9 كجم من الفاكهة ذات الحجم الموحد ذات الجودة الموحدة. يبدو أن نكهة ديوك المعتدلة تتحسن مع التخزين البارد.</p> <p>يمكن أن يمثل الحفاظ على قوة نبات العنب البري الدوق تحديًا على مدى فترة طويلة من الزمن. يجب على المزارعين اختيار موقع ينمو بجودة عالية واستخدام الممارسات الثقافية الجيدة باستمرار.</p> <p>يعتبر Duke blueberry أحد المرشحين الرئيسيين لمبيعات الحصاد الميكانيكي والطازجة والمعالجة.</p> </body> </html>
V 194 D
"DUKE" Highbush Blueberry Seeds (Vaccinium Corymbosum)

Bästsäljare produkt
Bourbon Vanilla Seeds (Vanilla planifolia)

Bourbon Vanilla Seeds...

السعر 3.50 € (SKU: MHS 104)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><span style="font-size: 14pt;"><strong>Bourbon Vanilla Seeds (Vanilla planifolia)</strong></span></h2> <h2><span style="color: #f80202; font-size: 14pt;"><strong>Price for Package of 50 or 100 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><span>Vanilla planifolia is a species of vanilla orchid. It is native to Mexico and Central America, and is one of the primary sources for vanilla flavouring, due to its high vanillin content. Common names are flat-leaved vanilla, Tahitian vanilla,[citation needed] and West Indian vanilla (also used for the Pompona vanilla, V. pompona). Often, it is simply referred to as "the vanilla". It was first scientifically named in 1808.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla planifolia is found in Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and northeastern South America. It prefers hot, wet, tropical climates. </span></p> <p><span>It is cultivated and harvested primarily in Veracruz, Mexico and in Madagascar.</span></p> <p><span>Like all members of the genus Vanilla, V. planifolia is a vine. It uses its fleshy roots to support itself as it grows.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Flowers</span></strong></p> <p><span>Flowers are greenish-yellow, with a diameter of 5 cm (2 in). They last only a day, and must be pollinated manually, during the morning, if fruit is desired. The plants are self-fertile, and pollination simply requires a transfer of the pollen from the anther to the stigma. If pollination does not occur, the flower is dropped the next day. In the wild, there is less than 1% chance that the flowers will be pollinated, so in order to receive a steady flow of fruit, the flowers must be hand-pollinated when grown on farms.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Fruit</span></strong></p> <p><span>Fruit is produced only on mature plants, which are generally over 3 m (10 ft) long. The fruits are 15-23 cm (6-9 in) long pods (often incorrectly called beans). Outwardly they resemble small bananas. They mature after about five months, at which point they are harvested and cured. Curing ferments and dries the pods while minimizing the loss of essential oils. Vanilla extract is obtained from this portion of the plant.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia). The word vanilla, derived from vainilla, the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina (vaina itself meaning sheath or pod), is translated simply as "little pod". Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people cultivated the vine of the vanilla orchid, called tlilxochitl by the Aztecs. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s.</span></p> <p><span>Pollination is required to set the vanilla fruit from which the flavoring is derived. In 1837, Belgian botanist Charles François Antoine Morren discovered this fact and pioneered a method of artificially pollinating the plant.[3] The method proved financially unworkable and was not deployed commercially.[4] In 1841, Edmond Albius, a slave who lived on the French island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean, discovered at the age of 12 that the plant could be hand-pollinated. Hand-pollination allowed global cultivation of the plant.</span></p> <p><span>Three major species of vanilla currently are grown globally, all of which derive from a species originally found in Mesoamerica, including parts of modern-day Mexico.[6] They are V. planifolia (syn. V. fragrans), grown on Madagascar, Réunion, and other tropical areas along the Indian Ocean; V. tahitensis, grown in the South Pacific; and V. pompona, found in the West Indies, and Central and South America.[7] The majority of the world's vanilla is the V. planifolia species, more commonly known as Bourbon vanilla (after the former name of Réunion, Île Bourbon) or Madagascar vanilla, which is produced in Madagascar and neighboring islands in the southwestern Indian Ocean, and in Indonesia.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla is the second-most expensive spice after saffron.  Despite the expense, vanilla is highly valued for its flavor.  As a result, vanilla is widely used in both commercial and domestic baking, perfume manufacture, and aromatherapy.</span></p> <p><strong><span>History</span></strong></p> <p><span>According to popular belief, the Totonac people, who inhabit the east coast of Mexico in the present-day state of Veracruz, were the first to cultivate vanilla. According to Totonac mythology, the tropical orchid was born when Princess Xanat, forbidden by her father from marrying a mortal, fled to the forest with her lover. The lovers were captured and beheaded. Where their blood touched the ground, the vine of the tropical orchid grew.[4] In the 15th century, Aztecs invading from the central highlands of Mexico conquered the Totonacs, and soon developed a taste for the vanilla pods. They named the fruit tlilxochitl, or "black flower", after the matured fruit, which shrivels and turns black shortly after it is picked. Subjugated by the Aztecs, the Totonacs paid tribute by sending vanilla fruit to the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan.</span></p> <p><span>Until the mid-19th century, Mexico was the chief producer of vanilla. In 1819, French entrepreneurs shipped vanilla fruits to the islands of Réunion and Mauritius in hopes of producing vanilla there. After Edmond Albius discovered how to pollinate the flowers quickly by hand, the pods began to thrive. Soon, the tropical orchids were sent from Réunion to the Comoros Islands, Seychelles, and Madagascar, along with instructions for pollinating them. By 1898, Madagascar, Réunion, and the Comoros Islands produced 200 metric tons of vanilla beans, about 80% of world production. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, Indonesia is currently responsible for the vast majority of the world's Bourbon vanilla production and 58% of the world total vanilla fruit production.</span></p> <p><span>The market price of vanilla rose dramatically in the late 1970s after a tropical cyclone ravaged key croplands. Prices remained high through the early 1980s despite the introduction of Indonesian vanilla. In the mid-1980s, the cartel that had controlled vanilla prices and distribution since its creation in 1930 disbanded. Prices dropped 70% over the next few years, to nearly US$20 per kilogram; prices rose sharply again after tropical cyclone Hudah struck Madagascar in April 2000. The cyclone, political instability, and poor weather in the third year drove vanilla prices to an astonishing US$500/kg in 2004, bringing new countries into the vanilla industry. A good crop, coupled with decreased demand caused by the production of imitation vanilla, pushed the market price down to the $40/kg range in the middle of 2005. By 2010, prices were down to $20/kg. Cyclone Enawo caused in similar spike to $500/kg in 2017.</span></p> <p><span>Madagascar (especially the fertile Sava region) accounts for much of the global production of vanilla. Mexico, once the leading producer of natural vanilla with an annual yield of 500 tons of cured beans, produced only 10 tons in 2006. An estimated 95% of "vanilla" products are artificially flavored with vanillin derived from lignin instead of vanilla fruits.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Etymology</span></strong></p> <p><span>Vanilla was completely unknown in the Old World before Cortés. Spanish explorers arriving on the Gulf Coast of Mexico in the early 16th century gave vanilla its current name. Spanish and Portuguese sailors and explorers brought vanilla into Africa and Asia later that century. They called it vainilla, or "little pod". The word vanilla entered the English language in 1754, when the botanist Philip Miller wrote about the genus in his Gardener’s Dictionary. Vainilla is from the diminutive of vaina, from the Latin vagina (sheath) to describe the shape of the pods.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Vanilla orchid</span></strong></p> <p><span>The main species harvested for vanilla is V. planifolia. Although it is native to Mexico, it is now widely grown throughout the tropics. Indonesia and Madagascar are the world's largest producers. Additional sources include V. pompona and V. tahitiensis (grown in Niue and Tahiti), although the vanillin content of these species is much less than V. planifolia.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla grows as a vine, climbing up an existing tree (also called a tutor), pole, or other support. It can be grown in a wood (on trees), in a plantation (on trees or poles), or in a "shader", in increasing orders of productivity. Its growth environment is referred to as its terroir, and includes not only the adjacent plants, but also the climate, geography, and local geology. Left alone, it will grow as high as possible on the support, with few flowers. Every year, growers fold the higher parts of the plant downward so the plant stays at heights accessible by a standing human. This also greatly stimulates flowering.</span></p> <p><span>The distinctively flavored compounds are found in the fruit, which results from the pollination of the flower. These seed pods are roughly a third of an inch by six inches, and brownish red to black when ripe. Inside of these pods is an oily liquid full of tiny seeds.[22] One flower produces one fruit. V. planifolia flowers are hermaphroditic: they carry both male (anther) and female (stigma) organs. However, self-pollination is blocked by a membrane which separates those organs. The flowers can be naturally pollinated by bees of genus Melipona (abeja de monte or mountain bee), by bee genus Eulaema, or by hummingbirds. The Melipona bee provided Mexico with a 300-year-long advantage on vanilla production from the time it was first discovered by Europeans. The first vanilla orchid to flower in Europe was in the London collection of the Honourable Charles Greville in 1806. Cuttings from that plant went to Netherlands and Paris, from which the French first transplanted the vines to their overseas colonies. The vines grew, but would not fruit outside Mexico. Growers tried to bring this bee into other growing locales, to no avail. The only way to produce fruits without the bees is artificial pollination. Today, even in Mexico, hand pollination is used extensively.</span></p> <p><span>In 1836, botanist Charles François Antoine Morren was drinking coffee on a patio in Papantla (in Veracruz, Mexico) and noticed black bees flying around the vanilla flowers next to his table. He watched their actions closely as they would land and work their way under a flap inside the flower, transferring pollen in the process. Within hours, the flowers closed and several days later, Morren noticed vanilla pods beginning to form. Morren immediately began experimenting with hand pollination. A few years later in 1841, a simple and efficient artificial hand-pollination method was developed by a 12-year-old slave named Edmond Albius on Réunion, a method still used today. Using a beveled sliver of bamboo, an agricultural worker lifts the membrane separating the anther and the stigma, then, using the thumb, transfers the pollinia from the anther to the stigma. The flower, self-pollinated, will then produce a fruit. The vanilla flower lasts about one day, sometimes less, so growers have to inspect their plantations every day for open flowers, a labor-intensive task.</span></p> <p><span>The fruit, a seed capsule, if left on the plant, ripens and opens at the end; as it dries, the phenolic compounds crystallize, giving the fruits a diamond-dusted appearance, which the French call givre (hoarfrost). It then releases the distinctive vanilla smell. The fruit contains tiny, black seeds. In dishes prepared with whole natural vanilla, these seeds are recognizable as black specks. Both the pod and the seeds are used in cooking.</span></p> <p><span>Like other orchids' seeds, vanilla seeds will not germinate without the presence of certain mycorrhizal fungi. Instead, growers reproduce the plant by cutting: they remove sections of the vine with six or more leaf nodes, a root opposite each leaf. The two lower leaves are removed, and this area is buried in loose soil at the base of a support. The remaining upper roots cling to the support, and often grow down into the soil. Growth is rapid under good conditions.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Cultivars</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span>Bourbon vanilla</span></strong><span> or Bourbon-Madagascar vanilla, produced from V. planifolia plants introduced from the Americas, is from Indian Ocean islands such as Madagascar, the Comoros, and Réunion, formerly the Île Bourbon. It is also used to describe the distinctive vanilla flavor derived from V. planifolia grown successfully in tropical countries such as India.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Mexican vanilla</span></strong><span>, made from the native V. planifolia,[26] is produced in much less quantity and marketed as the vanilla from the land of its origin. Vanilla sold in tourist markets around Mexico is sometimes not actual vanilla extract, but is mixed with an extract of the tonka bean, which contains the toxin coumarin. Tonka bean extract smells and tastes like vanilla, but coumarin has been shown to cause liver damage in lab animals and has been banned in food in the US by the Food and Drug Administration since 1954.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Tahitian vanilla</span></strong><span> is from French Polynesia, made with V. tahitiensis. Genetic analysis shows this species is possibly a cultivar from a hybrid of V. planifolia and V. odorata. The species was introduced by French Admiral François Alphonse Hamelin to French Polynesia from the Philippines, where it was introduced from Guatemala by the Manila Galleon trade.</span></p> <p><strong><span>West Indian vanilla</span></strong><span> is made from V. pompona grown in the Caribbean and Central and South America.</span></p> <p><span>The term French vanilla is often used to designate particular preparations with a strong vanilla aroma, containing vanilla grains and sometimes also containing eggs (especially egg yolks). The appellation originates from the French style of making vanilla ice cream with a custard base, using vanilla pods, cream, and egg yolks. Inclusion of vanilla varietals from any of the former French dependencies or overseas France may be a part of the flavoring. Alternatively, French vanilla is taken to refer to a vanilla-custard flavor.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Chemistry</span></strong></p> <p><span>Vanilla essence occurs in two forms. Real seedpod extract is a complex mixture of several hundred different compounds, including vanillin, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, furfural, hexanoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, eugenol, methyl cinnamate, and isobutyric acid.[citation needed] Synthetic essence consists of a solution of synthetic vanillin in ethanol. The chemical compound vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is a major contributor to the characteristic flavor and aroma of real vanilla and is the main flavor component of cured vanilla beans.[30] Vanillin was first isolated from vanilla pods by Gobley in 1858. By 1874, it had been obtained from glycosides of pine tree sap, temporarily causing a depression in the natural vanilla industry. Vanillin can be easily synthesized from various raw materials, but the majority of food-grade (&gt; 99% pure) vanillin is made from guaiacol.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Pollination</span></strong></p> <p><span>Flowering normally occurs every spring, and without pollination, the blossom wilts and falls, and no vanilla bean can grow. Each flower must be hand-pollinated within 12 hours of opening. In the wild, very few natural pollinators exist, with most pollination thought to be carried out by the shiny green Euglossa viridissima, some Eulaema spp. and other species of the euglossine or orchid bees, Euglossini, though direct evidence is lacking. Closely related Vanilla species are known to be pollinated by the euglossine bees.[40] The previously suggested pollination by stingless bees of the genus Melipona is thought to be improbable, as they are too small to be effective and have never been observed carrying Vanilla pollen or pollinating other orchids, though they do visit the flowers.[41] These pollinators do not exist outside the orchid's home range, and even within that range, vanilla orchids have only a 1% chance of successful pollination. As a result, all vanilla grown today is pollinated by hand. A small splinter of wood or a grass stem is used to lift the rostellum or move the flap upward, so the overhanging anther can be pressed against the stigma and self-pollinate the vine. Generally, one flower per raceme opens per day, so the raceme may be in flower for over 20 days. A healthy vine should produce about 50 to 100 beans per year, but growers are careful to pollinate only five or six flowers from the 20 on each raceme. The first flowers that open per vine should be pollinated, so the beans are similar in age. These agronomic practices facilitate harvest and increases bean quality. The fruits require five to six weeks to develop, but around six months to mature. Over-pollination results in diseases and inferior bean quality.[35] A vine remains productive between 12 and 14 years.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Harvest</span></strong></p> <p><span>Harvesting vanilla fruits is as labor-intensive as pollinating the blossoms. Immature, dark green pods are not harvested. Pale yellow discoloration that commences at the distal end of the fruits is not a good indication of the maturity of pods. Each fruit ripens at its own time, requiring a daily harvest. "Current methods for determining the maturity of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) beans are unreliable. Yellowing at the blossom end, the current index, occurs before beans accumulate maximum glucovanillin concentrations. Beans left on the vine until they turn brown have higher glucovanillin concentrations but may split and have low quality. Judging bean maturity is difficult as they reach full size soon after pollination. Glucovanillin accumulates from 20 weeks, maximum about 40 weeks after pollination. Mature green beans have 20% dry matter but less than 2% glucovanillin."[46] The accumulation of dry matter and glucovanillin are highly correlated.To ensure the finest flavor from every fruit, each individual pod must be picked by hand just as it begins to split on the end. Overmatured fruits are likely to split, causing a reduction in market value. Its commercial value is fixed based on the length and appearance of the pod.</span></p> <p><span>If the fruit is more than 15 cm (5.9 in) in length, it is categorized as first-quality. The largest fruits greater than 16 cm and up to as much as 21 cm are usually reserved for the gourmet vanilla market, for sale to top chefs and restaurants. If the fruits are between 10 and 15 cm long, pods are under the second-quality category, and fruits less than 10 cm in length are under the third-quality category. Each fruit contains thousands of tiny black vanilla seeds. Vanilla fruit yield depends on the care and management given to the hanging and fruiting vines. Any practice directed to stimulate aerial root production has a direct effect on vine productivity. A five-year-old vine can produce between 1.5 and 3 kg (3.3 and 6.6 lb) pods, and this production can increase up to 6 kg (13 lb) after a few years. The harvested green fruit can be commercialized as such or cured to get a better market price.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Culinary uses</span></strong></p> <p><span>The four main commercial preparations of natural vanilla are:</span></p> <p><span>Whole pod</span></p> <p><span>Powder (ground pods, kept pure or blended with sugar, starch, or other ingredients)</span></p> <p><span>Extract (in alcoholic or occasionally glycerol solution; both pure and imitation forms of vanilla contain at least 35% alcohol)</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla sugar, a packaged mix of sugar and vanilla extract</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla flavoring in food may be achieved by adding vanilla extract or by cooking vanilla pods in the liquid preparation. A stronger aroma may be attained if the pods are split in two, exposing more of a pod's surface area to the liquid. In this case, the pods' seeds are mixed into the preparation. Natural vanilla gives a brown or yellow color to preparations, depending on the concentration. Good-quality vanilla has a strong, aromatic flavor, but food with small amounts of low-quality vanilla or artificial vanilla-like flavorings are far more common, since true vanilla is much more expensive.</span></p> <p><span>Regarded as the world's most popular aroma and flavor, vanilla is a widely used aroma and flavor compound for foods, beverages and cosmetics, as indicated by its popularity as an ice cream flavor.[64] Although vanilla is a prized flavoring agent on its own, it is also used to enhance the flavor of other substances, to which its own flavor is often complementary, such as chocolate, custard, caramel, coffee, and others. Vanilla is a common ingredient in Western sweet baked goods, such as cookies and cakes.</span></p> <p><span>The food industry uses methyl and ethyl vanillin as less-expensive substitutes for real vanilla. Ethyl vanillin is more expensive, but has a stronger note. Cook's Illustrated ran several taste tests pitting vanilla against vanillin in baked goods and other applications, and to the consternation of the magazine editors, tasters could not differentiate the flavor of vanillin from vanilla; however, for the case of vanilla ice cream, natural vanilla won out.[66] A more recent and thorough test by the same group produced a more interesting variety of results; namely, high-quality artificial vanilla flavoring is best for cookies, while high-quality real vanilla is slightly better for cakes and significantly better for unheated or lightly heated foods. The liquid extracted from vanilla pods was once believed to have medical properties, helping with various stomach ailments.</span></p> </body> </html>
MHS 104
Bourbon Vanilla Seeds (Vanilla planifolia)
Giant strawberry seeds

Giant strawberry seeds

السعر 2.00 € (SKU: V 1 GS)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Giant strawberry seeds</strong></h2> <h2><strong><span style="color: #ff0000;">Price for Package of 10 seeds.</span><em><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><br /></span></em></strong></h2> <p>Strawberries, Fragaria ananassa L. Maximus, are quite easy to grow! They are perennial, winter hardy, and will thrive in full sunshine, as long as the soil is fertile and well-drained. Healthy plants will produce an abundance of berries for years! Strawberries are as big as apples! This standard "GIANT" type will provide you with the largest crop! These everbearing Giants will produce throughout the summer for Best desserts and snacks!</p> <p>Strawberries need light to germinate and their seeds shouldn't be covered. But practice has shown that uncovered strawberry seeds dry out very quickly during germination. I, therefore, recommend covering the seed very lightly with sieved seeding soil. After sowing and moistening, you can also place a glass pane on the sowing tray.</p> <p>Seeds need at least 60 days of stratification.</p> </body> </html>
V 1 GS
Giant strawberry seeds
Climbing Strawberry seeds "Mount Everest" (Fragaria x ananassa)

Climbing Strawberry seeds...

السعر 2.50 € (SKU: V 1 CS)
,
5/ 5
<div id="idTab1" class="rte"> <h2><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><em><strong>Climbing Strawberry seeds "Mount Everest"</strong></em></span></h2> <h3><strong><span style="color:#ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of<strong> 10 </strong>seeds.</strong></span><em><br /></em></strong></h3> <p>A unique climbing strawberry! This fast, strong growing variety will produce runners up to 1,5m in length that make a real talking point when trained up a trellis or obelisk climbing frame, or cascading from window boxes and hanging baskets. Better still, Strawberry 'Mount Everest' is an ever-bearering variety that produces a delicious crop of medium sized, sweet, juicy fruits from June right through to September! Height: 1,5m. Spread: 30cm.</p> <p>Estimated time to cropping once planted: 4-8 months.<br />Estimated time to best yields: 4-8 months.</p> </div>
V 1 CS
Climbing Strawberry seeds "Mount Everest" (Fragaria x ananassa)
Exotic Rare Black Strawberry Seeds

Black Strawberry Seeds -...

السعر 2.25 € (SKU: V 1)
,
5/ 5
<h2>Black Strawberry Seeds - Exotic Rare</h2> <h2><span style="color:#ff0000;">Price for Package of 10 seeds.</span></h2> <p><strong style="color:#ff0000;font-size:18px;"></strong>A lovely Black Strawberry that is fully hardy. Perfect for small spaces or containers, it will produce an abundance of small sweet fruit, with a hint of pineapple.</p> <p>Heavy cropping and easy to grow.</p> <p>Perennial herb densely clustered with straighter branches.15-25cm in height. Cymose anthotaxy with juicy flesh. Require loosing and weeding at intervals on the loose fertile soil with ample organic fertilizers. Favor to warm and need moisture to live through the winter.</p> <div> <div> <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="1"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" width="100%" valign="top"> <h3 align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Instructions</strong></span></h3> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Propagation:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">Seeds</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Pretreat:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">0</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Stratification:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">0</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">all year round</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Depth:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">Needs Light to germinate! Just sprinkle on the surface of the substrate + gently press</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Mix:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">Coir or sowing mix + sand or perlite</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Germination temperature:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">20-25°C</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Location:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">bright + keep constantly moist not wet</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Germination Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">1 - 8 weeks</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Watering:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">Water regularly during the growing season</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><br /><span style="color:#008000;"><em>Copyright © 2012 Seeds Gallery - Saatgut Galerie - Galerija semena. </em><em>All Rights Reserved.</em></span></p> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p> </p> </div> </div>
V 1
Exotic Rare Black Strawberry Seeds
Madake, Giant Timber Bamboo Seeds  - 3

Madake, Giant Timber Bamboo...

السعر 1.95 € (SKU: B 6)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Madake, Giant Timber Bamboo Seeds (Phyllostachys bambusoides)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 5 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>Phyllostachys bambusoides, commonly called madake, giant timber bamboo or Japanese timber bamboo, is a bamboo species in the genus Phyllostachys.</p> <p>Madake is typically known for being the most common type of bamboo used in the making of shakuhachi flutes and is utilized in numerous Japanese, as well as Chinese, arts, and crafts.</p> <p>Phyllostachys bambusoides can reach a height of 15–22 m and a diameter of 10–15 cm. The culms are dark green, quite thick and very straight. The leaves are dark green. New stalks emerge in late spring and grow quite rapidly, up to 1 meter each day. The flowering interval of this species is very long, about 120 years. This strong plant is in Asia one of the preferred bamboos for building and in the manufacture of furniture.</p> <p>This species is native to China, but it is commonly grown worldwide, especially in Japan.</p> </body> </html>
B 6
Madake, Giant Timber Bamboo Seeds  - 3

Bästsäljare produkt
Giant Sunflower Seeds - Giant Russian Mammoth 1.85 - 1

بذور عباد الشمس العملاقة -...

السعر 1.85 € (SKU: P 388)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>بذور عباد الشمس العملاقة - الماموث الروسي العملاق</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>ثمن عبوة 10 أو 100 - 9 جم بذور.</strong></span></h2> <p>This popular and easy to grow Giant Russian Mammoth Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Organic Heirloom Variety.</p> <p>These plants make beautiful flowers that produce tasty, edible seeds. Stalks can grow to 8-12 feet (2.1-3.7 meters) with Giant flowers. Will tolerate poorer quality soils.</p> <p dir="rtl" class="">Sow seed after danger of frost in an area that receives full sun. Sow seed 8 inches apart and about 1 inch deep. Thin seedlings when they are 3 inches tall so that the final spacing is 15 inches apart. They bloom during summer.</p>
P 388 (1 g)
Giant Sunflower Seeds - Giant Russian Mammoth 1.85 - 1
German Extra Hardy Garlic cloves 2.95 - 3

German Extra Hardy Garlic...

السعر 2.95 € (SKU: P 416 GEH)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>German Extra Hardy Garlic cloves</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for 10 Garlic cloves</strong></span></h2> <p>German Extra Hardy, is also known as German White, Northern White and German Stiffneck is a large, beautiful and well-formed porcelain garlic. These are all the same garlic but grown in different places under different names. Its flavor is very strong and robust and sticks around for a long time.</p> <p>The average weight of garlic cloves 5-6 g.</p> <p>From a grower's perspective, it is a tall dark green plant and is a very good survivor, usually grows healthy and appears to be somewhat resistant to many of the diseases that can affect garlic. It originally came from Germany but grows well in all but the most southerly states, where it is marginal.</p> <p>Being a Porcelain, German Extra Hardy stores a long time at cool room temp for around 9-10 months or longer.</p> </body> </html>
P 416 GEH
German Extra Hardy Garlic cloves 2.95 - 3
Cassava, Yuca, Macaxeira, Mandioca, Aipim Seeds 3 - 6

Cassava, Yuca, Macaxeira,...

السعر 3.00 € (SKU: P 445)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Cassava, Yuca, Macaxeira, Mandioca, Aipim Seeds (Manihot esculenta)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 3 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><i><b>Manihot esculenta</b></i>,<span> </span>commonly called<span> </span><b>cassava</b><span> </span>(<span class="nowrap"><span class="IPA nopopups noexcerpt">/<span><span title="'k' in 'kind'">k</span><span title="/ə/: 'a' in 'about'">ə</span><span title="/ˈ/: primary stress follows">ˈ</span><span title="'s' in 'sigh'">s</span><span title="/ɑː/: 'a' in 'father'">ɑː</span><span title="'v' in 'vie'">v</span><span title="/ə/: 'a' in 'about'">ə</span></span>/</span></span>),<span> </span><b>manioc</b>,<span> </span><b>yuca</b>,<span> </span><b>macaxeira</b>,<span> </span><b>mandioca</b><span> </span>and<span> </span><b>aipim</b>, is a woody<span> </span>shrub<span> </span>native to South America of the<span> </span>spurge<span> </span>family,<span> </span>Euphorbiaceae. Although a perennial plant, cassava is extensively cultivated as an annual<span> </span>crop<span> </span>in<span> </span>tropical<span> </span>and<span> </span>subtropical<span> </span>regions for its edible<span> </span>starchy<span> </span>tuberous root, a major source of<span> </span>carbohydrates. Though it is often called<span> </span><i><b>yuca</b></i><span> </span>in Latin American Spanish and in the United States, it is not related to<span> </span>yucca, a shrub in the family<span> </span>Asparagaceae. Cassava is predominantly consumed in boiled form, but substantial quantities are used to extract cassava starch, called<span> </span>tapioca, which is used for food, animal feed, and industrial purposes. The Brazilian farinha, and the related<span> </span><i>garri</i><span> </span>of West Africa, is an edible coarse flour obtained by grating cassava roots, pressing moisture off the obtained grated pulp, and finally drying it (and roasting in the case of farinha).</p> <p>Cassava is the third-largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics, after<span> </span>rice<span> </span>and<span> </span>maize.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference">[3]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference">[4]</sup><span> </span>Cassava is a major<span> </span>staple food<span> </span>in the developing world, providing a basic diet for over half a billion people.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference">[5]</sup><span> </span>It is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils. Nigeria is the world's largest producer of cassava, while Thailand is the largest exporter of cassava starch.</p> <p>Cassava is classified as either sweet or bitter. Like other roots and tubers, both bitter and sweet varieties of cassava contain<span> </span>antinutritional<span> </span>factors and toxins, with the bitter varieties containing much larger amounts.<sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-0" class="reference">[6]</sup><span> </span>It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual<span> </span>cyanide<span> </span>to cause acute<span> </span>cyanide intoxication,<sup id="cite_ref-promedmail-4799579_7-0" class="reference">[7]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference">[8]</sup><span> </span>goiters, and even<span> </span>ataxia, partial paralysis, or death. The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource (a "food security<span> </span>crop") in times of famine or food insecurity in some places.<sup id="cite_ref-promedmail-4799579_7-1" class="reference">[7]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-1" class="reference">[6]</sup><span> </span>Farmers often prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests, animals, and thieves.<sup id="cite_ref-leisa_9-0" class="reference"></sup></p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Description">Description</span></h2> <p>The cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1 mm thick, rough and brown on the outside. Commercial<span> </span>cultivars<span> </span>can be 5 to 10 cm (2.0 to 3.9 in) in diameter at the top, and around 15 to 30 cm (5.9 to 11.8 in) long. A woody vascular bundle runs along the root's<span> </span>axis. The flesh can be chalk-white or yellowish. Cassava roots are very rich in<span> </span>starch<span> </span>and contain small amounts of calcium (16 mg/100 g), phosphorus (27 mg/100 g), and vitamin C (20.6 mg/100 g).<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference">[10]</sup><span> </span>However, they are poor in<span> </span>protein<span> </span>and other<span> </span>nutrients. In contrast, cassava leaves are a good source of protein (rich in lysine), but deficient in the<span> </span>amino acid<span> </span>methionine<span> </span>and possibly<span> </span>tryptophan.<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference">[11]</sup></p> <div class="thumb tmulti tleft"> <div class="thumbinner"> <div class="trow"> <div class="theader">Details of cassava plants</div> </div> <div class="trow"> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/Manihot_esculenta_dsc07325.jpg/135px-Manihot_esculenta_dsc07325.jpg" width="135" height="101" /></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Unprocessed roots</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/Cassava1_%283945716612%29.jpg/152px-Cassava1_%283945716612%29.jpg" width="152" height="101" /></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Leaf</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Cassava2_%283945624614%29.jpg/152px-Cassava2_%283945624614%29.jpg" width="152" height="101" /></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Leaf detail</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Cassava_buds_%284733912948%29.jpg/67px-Cassava_buds_%284733912948%29.jpg" width="67" height="101" /></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Picked buds</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/Manihot_esculenta_MHNT.BOT.2004.0.508.jpg/146px-Manihot_esculenta_MHNT.BOT.2004.0.508.jpg" width="146" height="101" /></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Seeds</div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span></h2> <div class="thumb tleft"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Albert_Eckhout_-_Mandioca.jpg/220px-Albert_Eckhout_-_Mandioca.jpg" width="220" height="221" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> 17th c. painting by<span> </span>Albert Eckhout<span> </span>in<span> </span>Dutch Brazil</div> </div> </div> <p>Wild populations of<span> </span><i>M. esculenta</i><span> </span>subspecies<span> </span><i>flabellifolia</i>, shown to be the progenitor of domesticated cassava, are centered in west-central Brazil, where it was likely first domesticated no more than 10,000 years<span> </span>BP.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference">[12]</sup><span> </span>Forms of the modern domesticated species can also be found growing in the wild in the south of Brazil. By 4,600 BC, manioc (cassava) pollen appears in the<span> </span>Gulf of Mexico<span> </span>lowlands, at the<span> </span>San Andrés<span> </span>archaeological site.<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference">[13]</sup><span> </span>The oldest direct evidence of cassava cultivation comes from a 1,400-year-old<span> </span>Maya<span> </span>site,<span> </span>Joya de Cerén, in<span> </span>El Salvador.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference">[14]</sup><span> </span>With its high food potential, it had become a<span> </span>staple food<span> </span>of the native populations of northern South America, southern Mesoamerica, and the Caribbean by the time of European contact in 1492. Cassava was a staple food of<span> </span>pre-Columbian<span> </span>peoples in the Americas and is often portrayed in<span> </span>indigenous art. The<span> </span>Moche<span> </span>people often depicted yuca in their ceramics.<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference">[15]</sup></p> <p>Spaniards in their early occupation of Caribbean islands did not want to eat cassava or maize, which they considered insubstantial, dangerous, and not nutritious. They much preferred foods from Spain, specifically wheat bread, olive oil, red wine, and meat, and considered maize and cassava damaging to Europeans.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference">[16]</sup><span> </span>The cultivation and consumption of cassava was nonetheless continued in both Portuguese and Spanish America. Mass production of cassava bread became the first Cuban industry established by the Spanish,<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference">[17]</sup>Ships departing to Europe from Cuban ports such as<span> </span>Havana,<span> </span>Santiago,<span> </span>Bayamo, and<span> </span>Baracoa<span> </span>carried goods to Spain, but sailors needed to be provisioned for the voyage. The Spanish also needed to replenish their boats with dried meat, water, fruit, and large amounts of cassava bread.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference">[18]</sup><span> </span>Sailors complained that it caused them digestive problems.<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference">[19]</sup><span> </span>Tropical Cuban weather was not suitable for wheat planting and cassava would not go stale as quickly as regular bread.</p> <p>Cassava was introduced to Africa by Portuguese traders from Brazil in the 16th century. Around the same period, it was also introduced to Asia through<span> </span>Columbian Exchange<span> </span>by Portuguese and Spanish traders, planted in their colonies in Goa, Malacca, Eastern Indonesia, Timor and the Philippines.<span> </span>Maize<span> </span>and cassava are now important staple foods, replacing native African crops in places such as Tanzania.<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference">[20]</sup><span> </span>Cassava has also become an important staple in Asia, extensively cultivated in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam.<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference">[21]</sup><span> </span>Cassava is sometimes described as the "bread of the tropics"<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference">[22]</sup><span> </span>but should not be confused with the tropical and equatorial<span> </span>bread tree<span> </span><i>(Encephalartos)</i>, the<span> </span>breadfruit<span> </span><i>(Artocarpus altilis)</i><span> </span>or the<span> </span>African breadfruit<span> </span><i>(Treculia africana)</i>.</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Production">Production</span></h2> <p>In 2016, global production of cassava root was 277 million<span> </span>tonnes, with<span> </span>Nigeria<span> </span>as the world's largest producer having 21% of the world total (table). Other major growers were<span> </span>Thailand,<span> </span>Brazil, and<span> </span>Indonesia.<sup id="cite_ref-faostat16_23-0" class="reference">[23]</sup></p> <table class="wikitable"> <tbody> <tr> <th colspan="2">Cassava production – 2016</th> </tr> <tr> <th>Country</th> <th><small>Production (millions of<span> </span>tonnes)</small></th> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/79/Flag_of_Nigeria.svg/23px-Flag_of_Nigeria.svg.png" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Nigeria</center></td> <td><center>57.1</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Flag_of_Thailand.svg/23px-Flag_of_Thailand.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Thailand</center></td> <td><center>31.1</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg/22px-Flag_of_Brazil.svg.png" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Brazil</center></td> <td><center>21.1</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Flag_of_Indonesia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Indonesia.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Indonesia</center></td> <td><center>20.7</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo.svg/20px-Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo.svg.png" width="20" height="15" class="thumbborder" /> </span>Democratic Republic of the Congo</center></td> <td><center>14.7</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><b>World</b></center></td> <td><center><b>277.1</b></center></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"><center><small>Source:<span> </span>FAOSTAT<span> </span>of the<span> </span>United Nations<sup id="cite_ref-faostat16_23-1" class="reference">[23]</sup></small></center></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Cassava is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, can be successfully grown on marginal soils, and gives reasonable yields where many other crops do not grow well. Cassava is well adapted within latitudes 30° north and south of the equator, at elevations between sea level and 2,000 m (6,600 ft) above sea level, in equatorial temperatures, with rainfalls from 50 mm (2.0 in) to 5 m (16 ft) annually, and to poor soils with a pH ranging from acidic to alkaline. These conditions are common in certain parts of Africa and South America.</p> <p>Cassava is a highly-productive crop when considering food calories produced per unit land area, per unit of time. Significantly higher than other staple crops, cassava can produce food calories at rates exceeding 250,000 kcal/hectare/day, as compared with 176,000 for rice, 110,000 for wheat and 200,000 for maize (corn).</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Economic_importance">Economic importance</span></h2> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also:<span> </span>Tapioca § Production</div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3e/Manihot_esculenta_-_cross_section_2.jpg/220px-Manihot_esculenta_-_cross_section_2.jpg" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> A cassava tuber in cross-section</div> </div> </div> <p>Cassava,<span> </span>yams<span> </span>(<i>Dioscorea</i><span> </span>spp.), and<span> </span>sweet potatoes<span> </span>(<i>Ipomoea batatas</i>) are important sources of food in the tropics. The cassava plant gives the third-highest yield of<span> </span>carbohydrates<span> </span>per cultivated area among crop plants, after<span> </span>sugarcane<span> </span>and<span> </span>sugar beets.<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference">[24]</sup><span> </span>Cassava plays a particularly important role in agriculture in developing countries, especially in<span> </span>sub-Saharan Africa, because it does well on poor soils and with low rainfall, and because it is a perennial that can be harvested as required. Its wide harvesting window allows it to act as a famine reserve and is invaluable in managing labor schedules. It offers flexibility to resource-poor farmers because it serves as either a subsistence or a cash crop.<sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference">[25]</sup></p> <p>Worldwide, 800 million people depend on cassava as their primary food staple.<sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference">[26]</sup><span> </span>No continent depends as much on root and tuber crops in feeding its population as does Africa. In the humid and sub-humid areas of tropical Africa, it is either a primary staple food or a secondary costaple. In<span> </span>Ghana, for example, cassava and yams occupy an important position in the agricultural economy and contribute about 46 percent of the agricultural gross domestic product. Cassava accounts for a daily caloric intake of 30 percent in<span> </span>Ghanaand is grown by nearly every farming family. The importance of cassava to many Africans is epitomised in the<span> </span>Ewe<span> </span>(a language spoken in Ghana,<span> </span>Togo<span> </span>and<span> </span>Benin) name for the plant,<span> </span><i>agbeli</i>, meaning "there is life".</p> <p>In<span> </span>Tamil Nadu, India, there are many cassava processing factories alongside<span> </span>National Highway 68<span> </span>between<span> </span>Thalaivasal<span> </span>and<span> </span>Attur. Cassava is widely cultivated and eaten as a staple food in<span> </span>Andhra Pradesh<span> </span>and in<span> </span>Kerala. In<span> </span>Assam<span> </span>it is an important source of carbohydrates especially for natives of hilly areas.</p> <p>In the subtropical region of southern China, cassava is the fifth-largest crop in term of production, after<span> </span>rice,<span> </span>sweet potato,<span> </span>sugar cane, and<span> </span>maize. China is also the largest export market for cassava produced in Vietnam and Thailand. Over 60 percent of cassava production in China is concentrated in a single province,<span> </span>Guangxi, averaging over seven million tonnes annually.</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Uses">Uses</span></h2> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also:<span> </span>Tapioca § Uses</div> <table class="box-More_citations_needed_section plainlinks metadata ambox ambox-content ambox-Refimprove"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="mbox-image"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/50px-Question_book-new.svg.png" width="50" height="39" /></div> </td> <td class="mbox-text"> <div class="mbox-text-span">This section<span> </span><b>needs additional citations for<span> </span>verification</b>.<span class="hide-when-compact"><span> </span>Please help<span> </span>improve this article<span> </span>by<span> </span>adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.<br /><small><span class="plainlinks"><i>Find sources:</i> "Cassava" – news <b>·</b><span> </span>newspapers <b>·</b><span> </span>books <b>·</b><span> </span>scholar <b>·</b><span> </span>JSTOR</span></small></span><span> </span><small class="date-container"><i>(<span class="date">August 2017</span>)</i></small><small class="hide-when-compact"><i><span> </span>(Learn how and when to remove this template message)</i></small></div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Cambodia16_lo_%284039995158%29.jpg/220px-Cambodia16_lo_%284039995158%29.jpg" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Processing cassava starch into cassava noodles,<span> </span>Kampong Cham</div> </div> </div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Alcoholic_beverages">Alcoholic beverages</span></h3> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article:<span> </span>Alcoholic beverage § Beverages by type</div> <p>Alcoholic beverages<span> </span>made from cassava include<span> </span>cauim<span> </span>and<span> </span>tiquira<span> </span>(Brazil),<span> </span>kasiri<span> </span>(Guyana, Suriname), impala (Mozambique), masato (Peruvian<span> </span>Amazonia chicha),<span> </span>parakari<span> </span>or kari (Guyana),<span> </span>nihamanchi<span> </span>(South America) also known as nijimanche (Ecuador and Peru), ö döi (chicha de yuca, Ngäbe-Bugle, Panama), sakurá (Brazil, Suriname), and tarul ko jaarh (Darjeeling, Sikkim, India).</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Culinary">Culinary</span></h3> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article:<span> </span>Cassava-based dishes</div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Cassava_heavy_cake.jpg/220px-Cassava_heavy_cake.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Cassava heavy cake</div> </div> </div> <p>Cassava-based dishes<span> </span>are widely consumed wherever the plant is cultivated; some have regional, national, or ethnic importance.<sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference">[27]</sup><span> </span>Cassava must be cooked properly to detoxify it before it is eaten.</p> <p>Cassava can be cooked in many ways. The root of the sweet variety has a delicate flavor and can replace potatoes. It is used in<span> </span>cholent<span> </span>in some households.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (December 2018)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span> </span>It can be made into a flour that is used in breads, cakes and cookies. In Brazil, detoxified manioc is ground and cooked to a dry, often hard or crunchy meal known as<span> </span><i>farofa</i><span> </span>used as a condiment, toasted in butter, or eaten alone as a side dish.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Nutritional_profile">Nutritional profile</span></h3> <table class="infobox nowrap"><caption>Cassava, raw</caption> <tbody> <tr> <th colspan="2">Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)</th> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Energy</th> <td>160 kcal (670 kJ)</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Carbohydrates</b></div> </th> <td> <div>38.1 g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Sugars</th> <td>1.7 g</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Dietary fiber</th> <td>1.8 g</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Fat</b></div> </th> <td> <div>0.3 g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Protein</b></div> </th> <td> <div>1.4 g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Vitamins</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b><span><abbr title="Percentage of Daily Value"><b>%DV</b></abbr><sup>†</sup></span></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Thiamine<span> </span><span>(B1)</span></th> <td> <div>8%</div> 0.087 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Riboflavin<span> </span><span>(B2)</span></th> <td> <div>4%</div> 0.048 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Niacin<span> </span><span>(B3)</span></th> <td> <div>6%</div> 0.854 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Vitamin B<span>6</span></th> <td> <div>7%</div> 0.088 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Folate<span> </span><span>(B9)</span></th> <td> <div>7%</div> 27 μg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Vitamin C</th> <td> <div>25%</div> 20.6 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Minerals</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b><span><abbr title="Percentage of Daily Value"><b>%DV</b></abbr><sup>†</sup></span></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Calcium</th> <td> <div>2%</div> 16 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Iron</th> <td> <div>2%</div> 0.27 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Magnesium</th> <td> <div>6%</div> 21 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Phosphorus</th> <td> <div>4%</div> 27 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Potassium</th> <td> <div>6%</div> 271 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Sodium</th> <td> <div>1%</div> 14 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Zinc</th> <td> <div>4%</div> 0.34 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Other constituents</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Water</th> <td>60 g</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"><hr /> <div class="wrap">Full Link to USDA Database entry</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"> <div class="plainlist"> <ul> <li>Units</li> <li>μg =<span> </span>micrograms • mg =<span> </span>milligrams</li> <li>IU =<span> </span>International units</li> </ul> </div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" class="wrap"><sup>†</sup>Percentages are roughly approximated using<span> </span>US recommendations<span> </span>for adults.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Raw cassava is 60% water, 38%<span> </span>carbohydrates, 1%<span> </span>protein, and has negligible<span> </span>fat<span> </span>(table).<sup id="cite_ref-fao_28-0" class="reference">[28]</sup><span> </span>In a 100 gram amount, raw cassava provides 160<span> </span>calories<span> </span>and contains 25% of the<span> </span>Daily Value<span> </span>(DV) for<span> </span>vitamin C, but otherwise has no<span> </span>micronutrients<span> </span>in significant content (no values above 10% DV; table). Cooked cassava starch has a<span> </span>digestibility<span> </span>of over 75%.<sup id="cite_ref-fao_28-1" class="reference">[28]</sup></p> <p>Cassava, like other foods, also has<span> </span>antinutritional<span> </span>and toxic factors. Of particular concern are the<span> </span>cyanogenic glucosides<span> </span>of cassava (linamarin<span> </span>and<span> </span>lotaustralin). On hydrolysis, these release<span> </span>hydrocyanic acid (HCN).<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2017)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span> </span>The presence of cyanide in cassava is of concern for human and for animal consumption. The concentration of these antinutritional and unsafe glycosides varies considerably between varieties and also with climatic and cultural conditions. Selection of cassava species to be grown, therefore, is quite important. Once harvested, bitter cassava must be treated and prepared properly prior to human or animal consumption, while sweet cassava can be used after simply boiling.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Comparison_with_other_major_staple_foods">Comparison with other major staple foods</span></h3> <p>A<span> </span>comparative table<span> </span>shows that<span> </span>cassava is a good energy source. In its prepared forms in which its toxic or unpleasant components have been reduced to acceptable levels, it contains an extremely high proportion of starch. Compared to most staples however, cassava accordingly is a poorer dietary source of protein and most other essential nutrients. Though an important staple, its main value is as a component of a balanced diet.</p> <p>Comparisons between the nutrient content of cassava and other major<span> </span>staple foods<span> </span>when raw,<span> </span>as shown in the table, must be interpreted with caution because most staples are not edible in such forms and many are indigestible, even dangerously poisonous or otherwise harmful.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2017)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span> </span>For consumption, each must be prepared and cooked as appropriate. Suitably cooked or otherwise prepared, the nutritional and antinutritional contents of each of these staples is widely different from that of raw form and depends on the methods of preparation such as soaking, fermentation, sprouting, boiling, or baking.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Biofuel">Biofuel</span></h3> <p>In many countries, significant research has begun to evaluate the use of cassava as an<span> </span>ethanol<span> </span>biofuel<span> </span>feedstock. Under the Development Plan for Renewable Energy in the<span> </span>Eleventh Five-Year Plan<span> </span>in the<span> </span>People's Republic of China, the target is to increase the production of ethanol fuel from nongrain feedstock to two million tonnes, and that of biodiesel to 200 thousand tonnes by 2010. This is equivalent to the replacement of 10 million tonnes of petroleum. As a result, cassava (tapioca) chips have gradually become a major source of ethanol production.<sup id="cite_ref-29" class="reference">[29]</sup><span> </span>On 22 December 2007, the largest cassava<span> </span>ethanol fuel<span> </span>production facility was completed in<span> </span>Beihai, with annual output of 200 thousand tons, which would need an average of 1.5 million tons of cassava. In November 2008, China-based Hainan Yedao Group invested US$51.5 million in a new<span> </span>biofuel<span> </span>facility that is expected to produce 33 million US gallons (120,000 m<sup>3</sup>) a year of bioethanol from cassava plants.<sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference"></sup></p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Animal_feed">Animal feed</span></h3> <div class="thumb tmulti tright"> <div class="thumbinner"> <div class="trow"> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e3/Cassava_being_grated.jpg/101px-Cassava_being_grated.jpg" width="101" height="131" /></div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bd/Close-up_of_grated_cassava.jpg/175px-Close-up_of_grated_cassava.jpg" width="175" height="131" /></div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/84/Cassava_drying_on_a_road.jpg/175px-Cassava_drying_on_a_road.jpg" width="175" height="131" /></div> </div> </div> <div class="trow"> <div class="thumbcaption">Tubers being grated; a close-up of the product; drying on road to be used for pig and chicken feed</div> </div> </div> </div> <p>Cassava tubers and hay are used worldwide as animal feed. Cassava hay is harvested at a young growth stage (three to four months) when it reaches about 30 to 45 cm (12 to 18 in) above ground; it is then sun-dried for one to two days until its final dry matter content approaches 85 percent. Cassava hay contains high protein (20–27 percent<span> </span>crude protein) and condensed<span> </span>tannins<span> </span>(1.5–4 percent CP). It is valued as a good roughage source for<span> </span>ruminants<span> </span>such as cattle.<sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference">[31]</sup></p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Laundry_starch">Laundry starch</span></h3> <p>Manioc is also used in a number of commercially available laundry products, especially as starch for shirts and other garments. Using manioc starch diluted in water and spraying it over fabrics before ironing helps stiffen collars.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Medicinal_use">Medicinal use</span></h3> <p>According to the<span> </span>American Cancer Society, cassava is<span> </span>ineffective<span> </span>as an anti-cancer agent: "there is no convincing scientific evidence that cassava or tapioca is effective in preventing or treating cancer".<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference">[32]</sup></p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Food_use">Food use</span></h2> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1e/A_woman_washes_cassava_in_rural_DRC_%287609952020%29.jpg/220px-A_woman_washes_cassava_in_rural_DRC_%287609952020%29.jpg" width="220" height="330" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> A woman washes cassava in a river</div> </div> </div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Potential_toxicity">Potential toxicity</span></h3> <p>Cassava roots, peels and leaves should not be consumed raw because they contain two<span> </span>cyanogenic glucosides,<span> </span>linamarin<span> </span>and<span> </span>lotaustralin. These are decomposed by<span> </span>linamarase, a naturally occurring<span> </span>enzyme<span> </span>in cassava, liberating<span> </span>hydrogen cyanide<span> </span>(HCN).<sup id="cite_ref-cereda_33-0" class="reference">[33]</sup><span> </span>Cassava varieties are often categorized as either sweet or bitter, signifying the absence or presence of toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides, respectively. The so-called sweet (actually not bitter) cultivars can produce as little as 20 milligrams of<span> </span>cyanide<span> </span>(CN) per kilogram of fresh roots, whereas bitter ones may produce more than 50 times as much (1 g/kg). Cassavas grown during<span> </span>drought<span> </span>are especially high in these toxins.<sup id="cite_ref-34" class="reference">[34]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-35" class="reference">[35]</sup><span> </span>A dose of 25 mg of pure cassava cyanogenic glucoside, which contains 2.5 mg of cyanide, is sufficient to kill a rat.<sup id="cite_ref-36" class="reference">[36]</sup><span> </span>Excess cyanide residue from improper preparation is known to cause acute cyanide intoxication, and goiters, and has been linked to ataxia (a neurological disorder affecting the ability to walk, also known as<span> </span><i>konzo</i>).<sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-2" class="reference">[6]</sup><span> </span>It has also been linked to tropical calcific<span> </span>pancreatitis<span> </span>in humans, leading to chronic pancreatitis.<sup id="cite_ref-37" class="reference">[37]</sup></p> <p>Symptoms of acute cyanide intoxication appear four or more hours after ingesting raw or poorly processed cassava: vertigo, vomiting, and collapse. In some cases, death may result within one or two hours. It can be treated easily with an injection of<span> </span>thiosulfate<span> </span>(which makes sulfur available for the patient's body to detoxify by converting the poisonous cyanide into thiocyanate).<sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-3" class="reference">[6]</sup></p> <p>"Chronic, low-level cyanide exposure is associated with the development of<span> </span>goiter<span> </span>and with tropical ataxic neuropathy, a nerve-damaging disorder that renders a person unsteady and uncoordinated. Severe cyanide poisoning, particularly during famines, is associated with outbreaks of a debilitating, irreversible paralytic disorder called<span> </span>konzo<span> </span>and, in some cases, death. The incidence of konzo and<span> </span>tropical ataxic neuropathy<span> </span>can be as high as three percent in some areas."<sup id="cite_ref-38" class="reference">[38]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-39" class="reference">[39]</sup></p> <p>During the<span> </span>shortages in Venezuela<span> </span>in the late-2010s, dozens of deaths were reported due to Venezuelans resorting to eating bitter cassava in order to curb starvation.<sup id="cite_ref-41" class="reference"></sup></p> <p>Societies that traditionally eat cassava generally understand that some processing (soaking, cooking, fermentation, etc.) is necessary to avoid getting sick. Brief soaking (four hours) of cassava is not sufficient, but soaking for 18–24 hours can remove up to half the level of cyanide. Drying may not be sufficient, either.<sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-4" class="reference">[6]</sup></p> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bd/PeeledCassava.jpg/220px-PeeledCassava.jpg" width="220" height="185" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Cassava root, peeled and soaking</div> </div> </div> <p>For some smaller-rooted, sweet varieties, cooking is sufficient to eliminate all toxicity. The cyanide is carried away in the processing water and the amounts produced in domestic consumption are too small to have environmental impact.<sup id="cite_ref-cereda_33-1" class="reference">[33]</sup><span> </span>The larger-rooted, bitter varieties used for production of flour or starch must be processed to remove the cyanogenic glucosides. The large roots are peeled and then ground into flour, which is then soaked in water, squeezed dry several times, and toasted. The starch grains that flow with the water during the soaking process are also used in cooking.<sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference">[42]</sup><span> </span>The flour is used throughout<span> </span>South America<span> </span>and the<span> </span>Caribbean. Industrial production of cassava flour, even at the cottage level, may generate enough cyanide and cyanogenic glycosides in the effluents to have a severe environmental impact.<sup id="cite_ref-cereda_33-2" class="reference">[33]</sup></p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Food_preparation">Food preparation</span></h3> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d2/Cassava_bread.jpg/220px-Cassava_bread.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Cassava bread</div> </div> </div> <p>A safe processing method known as the "wetting method" is to mix the cassava flour with water into a thick paste and then let it stand in the shade for five hours in a thin layer spread over a basket.<sup id="cite_ref-fca_43-0" class="reference">[43]</sup><span> </span>In that time, about 83% of the cyanogenic<span> </span>glycosides<span> </span>are broken down by the<span> </span>linamarase; the resulting hydrogen cyanide escapes to the atmosphere, making the flour safe for consumption the same evening.<sup id="cite_ref-fca_43-1" class="reference">[43]</sup></p> <p>The traditional method used in West Africa is to peel the roots and put them into water for three days to ferment. The roots then are dried or cooked. In Nigeria and several other west African countries, including Ghana, Cameroon, Benin, Togo, Ivory Coast, and Burkina Faso, they are usually grated and lightly fried in palm oil to preserve them. The result is a foodstuff called<span> </span><i>gari</i>. Fermentation is also used in other places such as Indonesia (see<span> </span>Tapai). The fermentation process also reduces the level of<span> </span>antinutrients, making the cassava a more nutritious food.<sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference">[44]</sup><span> </span>The reliance on cassava as a food source and the resulting exposure to the<span> </span>goitrogenic<span> </span>effects of<span> </span>thiocyanate<span> </span>has been responsible for the endemic<span> </span>goiters<span> </span>seen in the<span> </span>Akoko<span> </span>area of southwestern<span> </span>Nigeria.<sup id="cite_ref-pmid10497657_45-0" class="reference">[45]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-46" class="reference">[46]</sup></p> <p>A project called "BioCassava Plus" uses<span> </span>bioengineering<span> </span>to grow cassava with lower<span> </span>cyanogenic glycosides<span> </span>combined with<span> </span>fortification<span> </span>of<span> </span>vitamin A,<span> </span>iron<span> </span>and<span> </span>protein<span> </span>to improve the nutrition of people in<span> </span>sub-Saharan Africa.<sup id="cite_ref-47" class="reference">[47]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference">[48]</sup></p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Farming">Farming</span></h2> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Harvesting">Harvesting</span></h3> <p>Cassava is harvested by hand by raising the lower part of the stem and pulling the roots out of the ground, then removing them from the base of the plant. The upper parts of the stems with the leaves are plucked off before harvest. Cassava is propagated by cutting the stem into sections of approximately 15 cm, these being planted prior to the wet season.<sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference">[49]</sup></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d7/Cassava_stakes1_%284627297822%29.jpg/80px-Cassava_stakes1_%284627297822%29.jpg" width="80" height="120" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava stakes</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Cassava_grafting7_%284425027331%29.jpg/80px-Cassava_grafting7_%284425027331%29.jpg" width="80" height="120" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava<span> </span>grafting</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Postharvest_handling_and_storage">Postharvest handling and storage</span></h3> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/NP_Cassava_Processing_7_%285867707684%29.jpg/120px-NP_Cassava_Processing_7_%285867707684%29.jpg" width="120" height="80" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch processing</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1d/NP_Cassava_Starch_Processing_%285867152719%29.jpg/120px-NP_Cassava_Starch_Processing_%285867152719%29.jpg" width="120" height="80" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch flour processing</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/61/Vietnam_cassava_processing3_lo_%284070319057%29.jpg/80px-Vietnam_cassava_processing3_lo_%284070319057%29.jpg" width="80" height="120" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch wet-processing</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/Cassava_starch_processing_in_Colombia%27s_southwestern_Cauca_department.jpg/120px-Cassava_starch_processing_in_Colombia%27s_southwestern_Cauca_department.jpg" width="120" height="79" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/07/Secando_casabe.JPG/120px-Secando_casabe.JPG" width="120" height="90" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Spreading<span> </span><i>Casabe burrero</i><span> </span>(cassava bread) to dry, Venezuela</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dc/Vietnam_cassava_processing24lo_%284070342389%29.jpg/120px-Vietnam_cassava_processing24lo_%284070342389%29.jpg" width="120" height="80" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch being prepared for packaging</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/Vietnam_cassava_processing20_lo_%284071074448%29.jpg/80px-Vietnam_cassava_processing20_lo_%284071074448%29.jpg" width="80" height="120" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Cassava starch packaged and ready for shipping</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><span> </span></p> <ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional"> <li class="gallerybox"> <div> <div class="thumb"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e5/Frozen_cassava_leaves.jpg/120px-Frozen_cassava_leaves.jpg" width="120" height="90" /></div> </div> <div class="gallerytext"> <p>Frozen cassava leaves in a Los Angeles market</p> </div> </div> </li> </ul> <p>Cassava undergoes post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) once the tubers are separated from the main plant. The tubers, when damaged, normally respond with a healing mechanism. However, the same mechanism, which involves<span> </span>coumaric acids, starts about 15 minutes after damage, and fails to switch off in harvested tubers. It continues until the entire tuber is oxidized and blackened within two to three days after harvest, rendering it unpalatable and useless. PPD is related to the accumulation of<span> </span>reactive oxygen species<span> </span>(ROS) initiated by cyanide release during mechanical harvesting. Cassava shelf life may be increased up to three weeks by overexpressing a cyanide insensitive alternative oxidase, which suppressed ROS by 10-fold.<sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference">[50]</sup><span> </span>PPD is one of the main obstacles preventing farmers from exporting cassavas abroad and generating income. Fresh cassava can be preserved like potato, using<span> </span>thiabendazole<span> </span>or bleach as a fungicide, then wrapping in plastic, coating in wax or freezing.<sup id="cite_ref-51" class="reference">[51]</sup></p> <p>While alternative methods for PPD control have been proposed, such as preventing ROS effects by use of plastic bags during storage and transport or coating the roots with wax, and freezing roots, such strategies have proved to be economically or technically impractical, leading to<span> </span>breeding<span> </span>of cassava varieties more tolerant to PPD and with improved durability after harvest.<sup id="cite_ref-gmr_52-0" class="reference">[52]</sup><span> </span>Plant breeding has resulted in different strategies for cassava tolerance to PPD.<sup id="cite_ref-gmr_52-1" class="reference">[52]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-cs_53-0" class="reference">[53]</sup><span> </span>One was induced by<span> </span>mutagenic<span> </span>levels of<span> </span>gamma rays, which putatively silenced one of the genes involved in PPD genesis, while another was a group of high-carotene<span> </span>clones in which the<span> </span>antioxidant<span> </span>properties of<span> </span>carotenoids<span> </span>are postulated to protect the roots from PPD.<sup id="cite_ref-cs_53-1" class="reference">[53]</sup></p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Pests">Pests</span></h3> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article:<span> </span>List of cassava diseases</div> <p>A major cause of losses during cassava storage is infestation by insects.<sup id="cite_ref-jis_54-0" class="reference">[54]</sup><span> </span>A wide range of species that feed directly on dried cassava chips have been reported as a major factor in spoiling stored cassava, with losses between 19% and 30% of the harvested produce.<sup id="cite_ref-jis_54-1" class="reference">[54]</sup><span> </span>In<span> </span>Africa, a previous issue was the cassava mealybug (<i>Phenacoccus manihoti</i>) and cassava green mite (<i>Mononychellus tanajoa</i>). These pests can cause up to 80 percent crop loss, which is extremely detrimental to the production of<span> </span>subsistence<span> </span>farmers. These pests were rampant in the 1970s and 1980s but were brought under control following the establishment of the "Biological Control Centre for Africa" of the<span> </span>International Institute of Tropical Agriculture<span> </span>(IITA) under the leadership of<span> </span>Hans Rudolf Herren.<sup id="cite_ref-55" class="reference">[55]</sup><span> </span>The Centre investigated<span> </span>biological control<span> </span>for cassava pests; two<span> </span>South American<span> </span>natural enemies<span> </span><i>Apoanagyrus lopezi</i><span> </span>(a<span> </span>parasitoid<span> </span>wasp) and<span> </span><i>Typhlodromalus<span> </span>aripo</i><span> </span>(a predatory mite) were found to effectively control the cassava mealybug and the cassava green mite, respectively.</p> <p>The<span> </span>African cassava mosaic virus<span> </span>causes the leaves of the cassava plant to wither, limiting the growth of the root.<sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference">[56]</sup><span> </span>An outbreak of the virus in Africa in the 1920s led to a major famine.<sup id="cite_ref-NYT_May_2010_57-0" class="reference">[57]</sup><span> </span>The virus is spread by the<span> </span>whitefly<span> </span>and by the transplanting of diseased plants into new fields. Sometime in the late-1980s, a mutation occurred in Uganda that made the virus even more harmful, causing the complete loss of leaves. This mutated virus spread at a rate of 50 mi (80 km) per year, and as of 2005 was found throughout<span> </span>Uganda,<span> </span>Rwanda,<span> </span>Burundi, the<span> </span>Democratic Republic of the Congo<span> </span>and the<span> </span>Republic of the Congo.<sup id="cite_ref-58" class="reference">[58]</sup></p> <p>Cassava brown streak virus disease<span> </span>has been identified as a major threat to cultivation worldwide.<sup id="cite_ref-NYT_May_2010_57-1" class="reference">[57]</sup></p> <p>A wide range of plant parasitic nematodes have been reported associated with cassava worldwide. These include<span> </span><i>Pratylenchus brachyurus</i>,<span> </span><i>Rotylenchulus reniformis</i>,<span> </span><i>Helicotylenchus</i><span> </span>spp.,<span> </span><i>Scutellonema</i><span> </span>spp. and<span> </span><i>Meloidogyne</i><span> </span>spp., of which<span> </span><i>Meloidogyne incognita</i><span> </span>and<span> </span><i>Meloidogyne javanica</i><span> </span>are the most widely reported and economically important.<sup id="cite_ref-59" class="reference">[59]</sup><span> </span><i>Meloidogyne</i><span> </span>spp. feeding produces physically damaging galls with eggs inside them. Galls later merge as the females grow and enlarge, and they interfere with water and nutrient supply.<sup id="cite_ref-Gapasin_60-0" class="reference">[60]</sup><span> </span>Cassava roots become tough with age and restrict the movement of the juveniles and the egg release. It is therefore possible that extensive galling can be observed even at low densities following infection.<sup id="cite_ref-Coyne_61-0" class="reference">[61]</sup><span> </span>Other pest and diseases can gain entry through the physical damage caused by gall formation, leading to rots. They have not been shown to cause direct damage to the enlarged storage roots, but plants can have reduced height if there was loss of enlarged root weight.<sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference">[62]</sup></p> <p>Research on nematode pests of cassava is still in the early stages; results on the response of cassava is, therefore, not consistent, ranging from negligible to seriously damaging.<sup id="cite_ref-63" class="reference">[63]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-64" class="reference">[64]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-Gapasin_60-1" class="reference">[60]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-65" class="reference">[65]</sup><span> </span>Since nematodes have such a seemingly erratic distribution in cassava agricultural fields, it is not easy to clearly define the level of direct damage attributed to nematodes and thereafter quantify the success of a chosen management method.<sup id="cite_ref-Coyne_61-1" class="reference">[61]</sup></p> <p>The use of nematicides has been found to result in lower numbers of galls per feeder root compared to a control, coupled with a lower number of rots in the storage roots.<sup id="cite_ref-66" class="reference">[66]</sup><span> </span>The organophosphorus nematicide<span> </span>femaniphos, when used, did not affect crop growth and yield parameter variables measured at harvest. Nematicide use in cassava is neither practical nor sustainable; the use of tolerant and resistant cultivars is the most practical and sustainable management method.</p> <h2><strong><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassava" target="_blank" title="Source WIKIPEDIA Cassava" rel="noreferrer noopener">Source WIKIPEDIA Cassava</a></strong></h2> </body> </html>
P 445
Cassava, Yuca, Macaxeira, Mandioca, Aipim Seeds 3 - 6

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Mar Azul tomato seeds 1.75 - 1

بذور طماطم مار ازول

السعر 1.95 € (SKU: P 158 MA)
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5/ 5
<h2 dir="rtl"><strong>بذور طماطم مار ازول</strong></h2> <h2 dir="rtl"><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>ثمن عبوة من 10 أو 20 بذرة.</strong></span></h2> <strong>هذا العام ، كما هو الحال في كل عام ، نزرع نباتات طماطم مار أزول جديدة. الصور من هذا العام 2021 ولن نغيرها كل عام.</strong><br><br><strong>من المثير للاهتمام أن صنف طماطم مار أزول قوي للغاية وينمو بسرعة. حتى الآن ، لم نشهد نوعًا من الطماطم ينمو أسرع من صنف Mar Azul. يتطور الجذر بسرعة كبيرة ، ومن المثير للاهتمام أن تحصل النباتات على براعم جانبية بالفعل في حاويات.</strong><br><br>طماطم مار أزول هي نوع جديد من الطماطم تم الحصول عليها بتقنيات طبيعية تمامًا. يرجع لون الطماطم المزرق إلى التركيز العالي للأنثوسيانين ، وهي أصباغ نباتية طبيعية توفر فوائد صحية كبيرة.<br><br>يجب أن نشير أيضًا إلى النكهة والرائحة والأحاسيس اللذيذة التي تثيرها الطماطم في الفم.<br><br>لونه بنفسجي مزرق مع داخل أحمر كثيف ولامع عندما ينضج تمامًا.<br><br>هذه طماطم مضلعة الكتف ذات ملمس ناعم ومقرمش قليل الحموضة.<br><br>صحة<br><br>خضعت طماطم مار أزول لدراسات غذائية صارمة لتحديد خصائصها الوظيفية والصحية. قدم قسم علوم وتكنولوجيا الأغذية في جامعة غرناطة نتائج التحليل الكيميائي الفيزيائي ، المصادق على محتوى الطماطم من فيتامين C و B6.<br><br>ممتاز لجميع أنواع الاستخدام!
P 158 MA 10 S
Mar Azul tomato seeds 1.75 - 1
Dragon Fruit Rare Exotic Seeds Health Fragrant 2.35 - 6

Dragon Fruit Rare Exotic...

السعر 2.35 € (SKU: V 12 W)
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5/ 5
<h2><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><em><strong>Dragon Fruit Rare Exotic Seeds Health Fragrant</strong></em></span></h2> <h3><span style="color:#ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of<strong> 20or 100 </strong>seeds.</strong></span></h3> <div>DRAGON FRUIT.   Truly one of God's wonders!</div> <div>Pitaya Fruit, Pitahaya Fruit or commonly known as the Dragon fruit is among the most nutritious and wonderful exotic fruits. It is a favorite to many, particularly people of Asian origin. It features a mouth watering light sweet taste, an intense shape and color, not forgetting its outstanding flowers. In addition to being tasty and refreshing, this beautiful fruit boasts of a lot of water and other vital minerals with varied nutritional ingredients.</div> <div>Round, often red colored fruit with prominent scales. The thin rind encloses the large mass of sweetly flavored white or red pulp and small black seeds. Dragon fruits have fleshy stems reaching from a few inches up to 20ft long (in mature plants).  Flowers are ornate and beautiful, and many related species are propagated as ornamentals. Pitahaya plants can have up to 4-6 fruiting cycles per year.</div> <div>Family: Cactaceae family</div> <div>Origin: Mexico and South America</div> <div>Dragon fruit plant is a night flowering vine-like cactus, the beautiful yellowish flower is about 1 foot long and 9 inches wide, bell shaped and very fragrant, they open during the early evening and wilt by daybreak. The fruit is oblong and has unique appearance because of its bright pink to red, green tipped overlapping scales rind. The edible portion is white or red, with hundreds of tiny black seeds. Its taste is sweet and juicy similar to that of pear, kiwi and watermelon. Dragon fruit is now grown commercially in Asia in places like Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.</div> <div>Health Benefits:</div> <div>Dragon fruit help to lower blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes.</div> <div>Dragon fruit prevent formation of cancer causing free radicals.</div> <div>Dragon fruit helps moisturize and smoothen skin and decrease bad cholesterol level.</div> <div>Dragon fruit helps improve appetite.</div> <div>Dragon fruit can enhance the body metabolism because of its protein content.</div> <div>Dragon fruit helps improve digestion and reduce fat.</div> <div>Dragon fruit helps maintain the health of the eyes.</div> <div>Dragon fruit helps strengthen the bones and teeth.</div> <div>Dragon fruit helps in tissue development.</div> <div>Dragon fruit promotes healing of cuts and bruise.</div> <div>Dragon fruit helps improve memory.</div> <div> <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="1"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" width="100%" valign="top"> <p><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Instructions</strong></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Propagation:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Seeds / Cuttings</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Pretreat:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">0</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Stratification:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">0</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">all year round</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Depth:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Light germinator! Just sprinkle on the surface of the substrate + gently press</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Mix:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Coir or sowing mix + sand or perlite</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Germination temperature:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color:#008000;"> about 25-28 ° C</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Location:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">bright + keep constantly moist not wet</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Germination Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color:#008000;"> 2-4 Weeks</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Watering:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span style="color:#008000;">Water regularly during the growing season</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span style="color:#008000;"><strong> </strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><br /><span style="color:#008000;">Copyright © 2012 Seeds Gallery - Saatgut Galerie - Galerija semena. All Rights Reserved.</span></p> </td> </tr></tbody></table></div>
V 12 W
Dragon Fruit Rare Exotic Seeds Health Fragrant 2.35 - 6

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