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Bourbon Vanilla Seeds (Vanilla planifolia)

Bourbon Vanilla Seeds...

Prijs € 3,50 (SKU: MHS 104)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><span style="font-size: 14pt;"><strong>Bourbon Vanilla Seeds (Vanilla planifolia)</strong></span></h2> <h2><span style="color: #f80202; font-size: 14pt;"><strong>Price for Package of 50 or 100 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><span>Vanilla planifolia is a species of vanilla orchid. It is native to Mexico and Central America, and is one of the primary sources for vanilla flavouring, due to its high vanillin content. Common names are flat-leaved vanilla, Tahitian vanilla,[citation needed] and West Indian vanilla (also used for the Pompona vanilla, V. pompona). Often, it is simply referred to as "the vanilla". It was first scientifically named in 1808.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla planifolia is found in Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and northeastern South America. It prefers hot, wet, tropical climates. </span></p> <p><span>It is cultivated and harvested primarily in Veracruz, Mexico and in Madagascar.</span></p> <p><span>Like all members of the genus Vanilla, V. planifolia is a vine. It uses its fleshy roots to support itself as it grows.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Flowers</span></strong></p> <p><span>Flowers are greenish-yellow, with a diameter of 5 cm (2 in). They last only a day, and must be pollinated manually, during the morning, if fruit is desired. The plants are self-fertile, and pollination simply requires a transfer of the pollen from the anther to the stigma. If pollination does not occur, the flower is dropped the next day. In the wild, there is less than 1% chance that the flowers will be pollinated, so in order to receive a steady flow of fruit, the flowers must be hand-pollinated when grown on farms.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Fruit</span></strong></p> <p><span>Fruit is produced only on mature plants, which are generally over 3 m (10 ft) long. The fruits are 15-23 cm (6-9 in) long pods (often incorrectly called beans). Outwardly they resemble small bananas. They mature after about five months, at which point they are harvested and cured. Curing ferments and dries the pods while minimizing the loss of essential oils. Vanilla extract is obtained from this portion of the plant.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia). The word vanilla, derived from vainilla, the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina (vaina itself meaning sheath or pod), is translated simply as "little pod". Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people cultivated the vine of the vanilla orchid, called tlilxochitl by the Aztecs. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s.</span></p> <p><span>Pollination is required to set the vanilla fruit from which the flavoring is derived. In 1837, Belgian botanist Charles François Antoine Morren discovered this fact and pioneered a method of artificially pollinating the plant.[3] The method proved financially unworkable and was not deployed commercially.[4] In 1841, Edmond Albius, a slave who lived on the French island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean, discovered at the age of 12 that the plant could be hand-pollinated. Hand-pollination allowed global cultivation of the plant.</span></p> <p><span>Three major species of vanilla currently are grown globally, all of which derive from a species originally found in Mesoamerica, including parts of modern-day Mexico.[6] They are V. planifolia (syn. V. fragrans), grown on Madagascar, Réunion, and other tropical areas along the Indian Ocean; V. tahitensis, grown in the South Pacific; and V. pompona, found in the West Indies, and Central and South America.[7] The majority of the world's vanilla is the V. planifolia species, more commonly known as Bourbon vanilla (after the former name of Réunion, Île Bourbon) or Madagascar vanilla, which is produced in Madagascar and neighboring islands in the southwestern Indian Ocean, and in Indonesia.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla is the second-most expensive spice after saffron.  Despite the expense, vanilla is highly valued for its flavor.  As a result, vanilla is widely used in both commercial and domestic baking, perfume manufacture, and aromatherapy.</span></p> <p><strong><span>History</span></strong></p> <p><span>According to popular belief, the Totonac people, who inhabit the east coast of Mexico in the present-day state of Veracruz, were the first to cultivate vanilla. According to Totonac mythology, the tropical orchid was born when Princess Xanat, forbidden by her father from marrying a mortal, fled to the forest with her lover. The lovers were captured and beheaded. Where their blood touched the ground, the vine of the tropical orchid grew.[4] In the 15th century, Aztecs invading from the central highlands of Mexico conquered the Totonacs, and soon developed a taste for the vanilla pods. They named the fruit tlilxochitl, or "black flower", after the matured fruit, which shrivels and turns black shortly after it is picked. Subjugated by the Aztecs, the Totonacs paid tribute by sending vanilla fruit to the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan.</span></p> <p><span>Until the mid-19th century, Mexico was the chief producer of vanilla. In 1819, French entrepreneurs shipped vanilla fruits to the islands of Réunion and Mauritius in hopes of producing vanilla there. After Edmond Albius discovered how to pollinate the flowers quickly by hand, the pods began to thrive. Soon, the tropical orchids were sent from Réunion to the Comoros Islands, Seychelles, and Madagascar, along with instructions for pollinating them. By 1898, Madagascar, Réunion, and the Comoros Islands produced 200 metric tons of vanilla beans, about 80% of world production. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, Indonesia is currently responsible for the vast majority of the world's Bourbon vanilla production and 58% of the world total vanilla fruit production.</span></p> <p><span>The market price of vanilla rose dramatically in the late 1970s after a tropical cyclone ravaged key croplands. Prices remained high through the early 1980s despite the introduction of Indonesian vanilla. In the mid-1980s, the cartel that had controlled vanilla prices and distribution since its creation in 1930 disbanded. Prices dropped 70% over the next few years, to nearly US$20 per kilogram; prices rose sharply again after tropical cyclone Hudah struck Madagascar in April 2000. The cyclone, political instability, and poor weather in the third year drove vanilla prices to an astonishing US$500/kg in 2004, bringing new countries into the vanilla industry. A good crop, coupled with decreased demand caused by the production of imitation vanilla, pushed the market price down to the $40/kg range in the middle of 2005. By 2010, prices were down to $20/kg. Cyclone Enawo caused in similar spike to $500/kg in 2017.</span></p> <p><span>Madagascar (especially the fertile Sava region) accounts for much of the global production of vanilla. Mexico, once the leading producer of natural vanilla with an annual yield of 500 tons of cured beans, produced only 10 tons in 2006. An estimated 95% of "vanilla" products are artificially flavored with vanillin derived from lignin instead of vanilla fruits.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Etymology</span></strong></p> <p><span>Vanilla was completely unknown in the Old World before Cortés. Spanish explorers arriving on the Gulf Coast of Mexico in the early 16th century gave vanilla its current name. Spanish and Portuguese sailors and explorers brought vanilla into Africa and Asia later that century. They called it vainilla, or "little pod". The word vanilla entered the English language in 1754, when the botanist Philip Miller wrote about the genus in his Gardener’s Dictionary. Vainilla is from the diminutive of vaina, from the Latin vagina (sheath) to describe the shape of the pods.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Vanilla orchid</span></strong></p> <p><span>The main species harvested for vanilla is V. planifolia. Although it is native to Mexico, it is now widely grown throughout the tropics. Indonesia and Madagascar are the world's largest producers. Additional sources include V. pompona and V. tahitiensis (grown in Niue and Tahiti), although the vanillin content of these species is much less than V. planifolia.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla grows as a vine, climbing up an existing tree (also called a tutor), pole, or other support. It can be grown in a wood (on trees), in a plantation (on trees or poles), or in a "shader", in increasing orders of productivity. Its growth environment is referred to as its terroir, and includes not only the adjacent plants, but also the climate, geography, and local geology. Left alone, it will grow as high as possible on the support, with few flowers. Every year, growers fold the higher parts of the plant downward so the plant stays at heights accessible by a standing human. This also greatly stimulates flowering.</span></p> <p><span>The distinctively flavored compounds are found in the fruit, which results from the pollination of the flower. These seed pods are roughly a third of an inch by six inches, and brownish red to black when ripe. Inside of these pods is an oily liquid full of tiny seeds.[22] One flower produces one fruit. V. planifolia flowers are hermaphroditic: they carry both male (anther) and female (stigma) organs. However, self-pollination is blocked by a membrane which separates those organs. The flowers can be naturally pollinated by bees of genus Melipona (abeja de monte or mountain bee), by bee genus Eulaema, or by hummingbirds. The Melipona bee provided Mexico with a 300-year-long advantage on vanilla production from the time it was first discovered by Europeans. The first vanilla orchid to flower in Europe was in the London collection of the Honourable Charles Greville in 1806. Cuttings from that plant went to Netherlands and Paris, from which the French first transplanted the vines to their overseas colonies. The vines grew, but would not fruit outside Mexico. Growers tried to bring this bee into other growing locales, to no avail. The only way to produce fruits without the bees is artificial pollination. Today, even in Mexico, hand pollination is used extensively.</span></p> <p><span>In 1836, botanist Charles François Antoine Morren was drinking coffee on a patio in Papantla (in Veracruz, Mexico) and noticed black bees flying around the vanilla flowers next to his table. He watched their actions closely as they would land and work their way under a flap inside the flower, transferring pollen in the process. Within hours, the flowers closed and several days later, Morren noticed vanilla pods beginning to form. Morren immediately began experimenting with hand pollination. A few years later in 1841, a simple and efficient artificial hand-pollination method was developed by a 12-year-old slave named Edmond Albius on Réunion, a method still used today. Using a beveled sliver of bamboo, an agricultural worker lifts the membrane separating the anther and the stigma, then, using the thumb, transfers the pollinia from the anther to the stigma. The flower, self-pollinated, will then produce a fruit. The vanilla flower lasts about one day, sometimes less, so growers have to inspect their plantations every day for open flowers, a labor-intensive task.</span></p> <p><span>The fruit, a seed capsule, if left on the plant, ripens and opens at the end; as it dries, the phenolic compounds crystallize, giving the fruits a diamond-dusted appearance, which the French call givre (hoarfrost). It then releases the distinctive vanilla smell. The fruit contains tiny, black seeds. In dishes prepared with whole natural vanilla, these seeds are recognizable as black specks. Both the pod and the seeds are used in cooking.</span></p> <p><span>Like other orchids' seeds, vanilla seeds will not germinate without the presence of certain mycorrhizal fungi. Instead, growers reproduce the plant by cutting: they remove sections of the vine with six or more leaf nodes, a root opposite each leaf. The two lower leaves are removed, and this area is buried in loose soil at the base of a support. The remaining upper roots cling to the support, and often grow down into the soil. Growth is rapid under good conditions.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Cultivars</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span>Bourbon vanilla</span></strong><span> or Bourbon-Madagascar vanilla, produced from V. planifolia plants introduced from the Americas, is from Indian Ocean islands such as Madagascar, the Comoros, and Réunion, formerly the Île Bourbon. It is also used to describe the distinctive vanilla flavor derived from V. planifolia grown successfully in tropical countries such as India.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Mexican vanilla</span></strong><span>, made from the native V. planifolia,[26] is produced in much less quantity and marketed as the vanilla from the land of its origin. Vanilla sold in tourist markets around Mexico is sometimes not actual vanilla extract, but is mixed with an extract of the tonka bean, which contains the toxin coumarin. Tonka bean extract smells and tastes like vanilla, but coumarin has been shown to cause liver damage in lab animals and has been banned in food in the US by the Food and Drug Administration since 1954.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Tahitian vanilla</span></strong><span> is from French Polynesia, made with V. tahitiensis. Genetic analysis shows this species is possibly a cultivar from a hybrid of V. planifolia and V. odorata. The species was introduced by French Admiral François Alphonse Hamelin to French Polynesia from the Philippines, where it was introduced from Guatemala by the Manila Galleon trade.</span></p> <p><strong><span>West Indian vanilla</span></strong><span> is made from V. pompona grown in the Caribbean and Central and South America.</span></p> <p><span>The term French vanilla is often used to designate particular preparations with a strong vanilla aroma, containing vanilla grains and sometimes also containing eggs (especially egg yolks). The appellation originates from the French style of making vanilla ice cream with a custard base, using vanilla pods, cream, and egg yolks. Inclusion of vanilla varietals from any of the former French dependencies or overseas France may be a part of the flavoring. Alternatively, French vanilla is taken to refer to a vanilla-custard flavor.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Chemistry</span></strong></p> <p><span>Vanilla essence occurs in two forms. Real seedpod extract is a complex mixture of several hundred different compounds, including vanillin, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, furfural, hexanoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, eugenol, methyl cinnamate, and isobutyric acid.[citation needed] Synthetic essence consists of a solution of synthetic vanillin in ethanol. The chemical compound vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is a major contributor to the characteristic flavor and aroma of real vanilla and is the main flavor component of cured vanilla beans.[30] Vanillin was first isolated from vanilla pods by Gobley in 1858. By 1874, it had been obtained from glycosides of pine tree sap, temporarily causing a depression in the natural vanilla industry. Vanillin can be easily synthesized from various raw materials, but the majority of food-grade (&gt; 99% pure) vanillin is made from guaiacol.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Pollination</span></strong></p> <p><span>Flowering normally occurs every spring, and without pollination, the blossom wilts and falls, and no vanilla bean can grow. Each flower must be hand-pollinated within 12 hours of opening. In the wild, very few natural pollinators exist, with most pollination thought to be carried out by the shiny green Euglossa viridissima, some Eulaema spp. and other species of the euglossine or orchid bees, Euglossini, though direct evidence is lacking. Closely related Vanilla species are known to be pollinated by the euglossine bees.[40] The previously suggested pollination by stingless bees of the genus Melipona is thought to be improbable, as they are too small to be effective and have never been observed carrying Vanilla pollen or pollinating other orchids, though they do visit the flowers.[41] These pollinators do not exist outside the orchid's home range, and even within that range, vanilla orchids have only a 1% chance of successful pollination. As a result, all vanilla grown today is pollinated by hand. A small splinter of wood or a grass stem is used to lift the rostellum or move the flap upward, so the overhanging anther can be pressed against the stigma and self-pollinate the vine. Generally, one flower per raceme opens per day, so the raceme may be in flower for over 20 days. A healthy vine should produce about 50 to 100 beans per year, but growers are careful to pollinate only five or six flowers from the 20 on each raceme. The first flowers that open per vine should be pollinated, so the beans are similar in age. These agronomic practices facilitate harvest and increases bean quality. The fruits require five to six weeks to develop, but around six months to mature. Over-pollination results in diseases and inferior bean quality.[35] A vine remains productive between 12 and 14 years.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Harvest</span></strong></p> <p><span>Harvesting vanilla fruits is as labor-intensive as pollinating the blossoms. Immature, dark green pods are not harvested. Pale yellow discoloration that commences at the distal end of the fruits is not a good indication of the maturity of pods. Each fruit ripens at its own time, requiring a daily harvest. "Current methods for determining the maturity of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) beans are unreliable. Yellowing at the blossom end, the current index, occurs before beans accumulate maximum glucovanillin concentrations. Beans left on the vine until they turn brown have higher glucovanillin concentrations but may split and have low quality. Judging bean maturity is difficult as they reach full size soon after pollination. Glucovanillin accumulates from 20 weeks, maximum about 40 weeks after pollination. Mature green beans have 20% dry matter but less than 2% glucovanillin."[46] The accumulation of dry matter and glucovanillin are highly correlated.To ensure the finest flavor from every fruit, each individual pod must be picked by hand just as it begins to split on the end. Overmatured fruits are likely to split, causing a reduction in market value. Its commercial value is fixed based on the length and appearance of the pod.</span></p> <p><span>If the fruit is more than 15 cm (5.9 in) in length, it is categorized as first-quality. The largest fruits greater than 16 cm and up to as much as 21 cm are usually reserved for the gourmet vanilla market, for sale to top chefs and restaurants. If the fruits are between 10 and 15 cm long, pods are under the second-quality category, and fruits less than 10 cm in length are under the third-quality category. Each fruit contains thousands of tiny black vanilla seeds. Vanilla fruit yield depends on the care and management given to the hanging and fruiting vines. Any practice directed to stimulate aerial root production has a direct effect on vine productivity. A five-year-old vine can produce between 1.5 and 3 kg (3.3 and 6.6 lb) pods, and this production can increase up to 6 kg (13 lb) after a few years. The harvested green fruit can be commercialized as such or cured to get a better market price.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Culinary uses</span></strong></p> <p><span>The four main commercial preparations of natural vanilla are:</span></p> <p><span>Whole pod</span></p> <p><span>Powder (ground pods, kept pure or blended with sugar, starch, or other ingredients)</span></p> <p><span>Extract (in alcoholic or occasionally glycerol solution; both pure and imitation forms of vanilla contain at least 35% alcohol)</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla sugar, a packaged mix of sugar and vanilla extract</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla flavoring in food may be achieved by adding vanilla extract or by cooking vanilla pods in the liquid preparation. A stronger aroma may be attained if the pods are split in two, exposing more of a pod's surface area to the liquid. In this case, the pods' seeds are mixed into the preparation. Natural vanilla gives a brown or yellow color to preparations, depending on the concentration. Good-quality vanilla has a strong, aromatic flavor, but food with small amounts of low-quality vanilla or artificial vanilla-like flavorings are far more common, since true vanilla is much more expensive.</span></p> <p><span>Regarded as the world's most popular aroma and flavor, vanilla is a widely used aroma and flavor compound for foods, beverages and cosmetics, as indicated by its popularity as an ice cream flavor.[64] Although vanilla is a prized flavoring agent on its own, it is also used to enhance the flavor of other substances, to which its own flavor is often complementary, such as chocolate, custard, caramel, coffee, and others. Vanilla is a common ingredient in Western sweet baked goods, such as cookies and cakes.</span></p> <p><span>The food industry uses methyl and ethyl vanillin as less-expensive substitutes for real vanilla. Ethyl vanillin is more expensive, but has a stronger note. Cook's Illustrated ran several taste tests pitting vanilla against vanillin in baked goods and other applications, and to the consternation of the magazine editors, tasters could not differentiate the flavor of vanillin from vanilla; however, for the case of vanilla ice cream, natural vanilla won out.[66] A more recent and thorough test by the same group produced a more interesting variety of results; namely, high-quality artificial vanilla flavoring is best for cookies, while high-quality real vanilla is slightly better for cakes and significantly better for unheated or lightly heated foods. The liquid extracted from vanilla pods was once believed to have medical properties, helping with various stomach ailments.</span></p> </body> </html>
MHS 104
Bourbon Vanilla Seeds (Vanilla planifolia)

Variety from Peru

Deze plant heeft gigantische vruchten
Worlds Largest Giant Corn Seeds Cuzco

Worlds Largest Giant Corn...

Prijs € 2,25 (SKU: P 40)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Worlds Largest Giant Corn Seeds Cuzco</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 5 or 10 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Native to Peru and Ecuador Peruvian Giant Corn - also known as Choclo is a hideously large variety of corn.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">The stalks reach up to 5 - 5,50 meters in height, a runt in a litter of this cultivar would tower over standard varieties at a whopping 4 metars.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">In standard varieties of corn the average weight runs from 25 - 35 grams per 100 kernels In Peruvian Giant Corn the weight per 100 kernels runs from 90 - 95 grams per 100 kernels - that's nearly 3 times the size and yield.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">It is a late maturing corn and is estimated to need 120 - 150 days to mature. They are not an easy crop to produce, it requires determination and vigilance to grow.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">One would think being indigenous to the Andes mountainous they would be adapted to windy conditions, but this is not the case. They evolved in the Peruvian Urrabamba Valley and vicinity which is sheltered and has relatively mild weather.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Peruvian Giant Corn aka Choclo </span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">They do not withstand strong winds and need persistent staking, at 4 - 5,50 metars in height that's a chore and a half.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">The plants produce numerous relatively short cobs with gigundous kernels.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">The taste is comparable to standard sweet corn. It is not overly sweet - mild to blandly sweet with a creamy texture would be the best description. Peruvians usually boil them. In Ecuador and Bolivia they dry them first then burst or "pop" them in oil - somewhat like popcorn. We gringos can enjoy them the same as any other corn.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Corn Should be planted in blocks as opposed to rows and should not be planted near other varieties of Corn [See - Isolating Sweet Corn.] Cross pollination tends to produce poor tasting starchy corn. Sugar Pearl, as per some suppliers does not need to be isolated as other varieties do - this is just fine for the Sugar Pearl, but not necessarily the other variety.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Peruvian Giant Corn can be seeded directly into the soil, or it can also be started indoors and later transplanted. If starting indoors be sure you have a larger than standard container as it could easily outgrow the container before transplant time. Whichever you choose, Plant it in blocks, at least four rows wide, for proper pollination and well-filled ears</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Sowing depth Aprox.: 5 cm</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Germination: 6 to 8 days</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Maturity: at 120 - 150 days.</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Color: White - Pale Yellow</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Seed Spacing: 30-35 cm apart.</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Row spacing: 100 cm</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">USDA Hardiness Zones: 3- 9</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Plant Size: 400 - 550 cm</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Corn cob Size: 17-20 cm Long</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Full Sun</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Above Average Yields per Sq. Footage - Anticipate 3 or more ears per Stalk.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Corn has shallow roots, and uses a lot of nitrogen as well as trace elements. To help your crop get off to the best start possible, prepare the soil first with a nitrogen-rich fertilizer. Well rotted manure or compost is also helpful.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Plant in the northern side of the garden as corn stalks will deny sunlight to the rest of your garden crops ,you also might want to grow some where it will provide shade to plants that can not tolerate full sunlight.</span></p> <div> <h2><a href="https://www.seeds-gallery.shop/en/home/peruvian-giant-red-sacsa-kuski-corn-seeds.html" target="_blank" title="Peruvian Giant Red Sacsa Kuski Corn Seeds, you can buy HERE" rel="noreferrer noopener"><strong>Peruvian Giant Red Sacsa Kuski Corn Seeds, you can buy HERE</strong></a></h2> </div> </body> </html>
P 40 5S NS
Worlds Largest Giant Corn Seeds Cuzco

Persian lime Seeds – limoo, Tahiti lime  - 3

Perzische limoenzaden...

Prijs € 1,95 (SKU: V 119)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Perzische limoenzaden (Citrus latifolia)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Prijs voor pakket met 2 zaden.</strong></span></h2> <p>Perzische limoen (Citrus × latifolia) of limoo is ook bekend als Tahiti-limoen of Bearss-limoen (genoemd naar John T. Bearss, die deze pitloze variëteit rond 1895 ontwikkelde in zijn kwekerij in Porterville, Californië), is een citrusvrucht die verwant is aan de standaard limoen.</p> <p>Het heeft een uniek geurig, kruidig ​​aroma. De vrucht heeft een diameter van ongeveer 6 cm, vaak met licht uitsteeksels, en wordt meestal groen verkocht, hoewel hij vergeelt als hij volledig rijp is. Het is ook algemeen verkrijgbaar gedroogd, zoals het vaak op deze manier wordt gebruikt in de Perzische keuken. Het is groter, dikkere huid, met minder intense citrusaromaten dan de sleutellimoen (Citrus aurantifolia).</p> <p>De voordelen van de Perzische limoen in de commerciële landbouw in vergelijking met de Key-limoen zijn het grotere formaat, het ontbreken van zaden, winterhardheid, het ontbreken van doornen aan de struiken en een langere houdbaarheid van het fruit. Ze zijn minder zuur dan de belangrijkste limoenen en hebben niet de bitterheid die de unieke smaak van de key lime geeft.</p> <p>Perzische limoenen worden voornamelijk in zes maten op de markt gebracht, bekend als 110s, 150's, 175's, 200's, 230's en 250's. Ooit voornamelijk gekweekt in Florida in de VS, kreeg het bekendheid nadat Key Lime-boomgaarden daar werden weggevaagd door een orkaan in 1926, volgens de American Pomological Society, vervolgens werden Perzische limoenboomgaarden zelf verwoest door de orkaan Andrew in 1992.</p> <p>Jaarlijks worden grote aantallen Perzische limes verbouwd, verwerkt en geëxporteerd, voornamelijk vanuit Mexico naar de Amerikaanse, Europese en Aziatische markten. De invoer van Amerikaanse Perzische limoen uit Mexico wordt grotendeels afgehandeld via McAllen, Texas.</p> <p>Perzische limes komen oorspronkelijk uit het Verre Oosten en werden voor het eerst op grote schaal geteeld in Perzië (nu Iran) en Zuid-Irak.<br />pakket</p> <p>southern Iraq.</p> </body> </html>
V 119
Persian lime Seeds – limoo, Tahiti lime  - 3
Golden Bamboo Seeds - fish pole bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea) 1.95 - 10

Golden Bamboo Seeds - fish...

Prijs € 1,95 (SKU: B 7)
,
5/ 5
<h2><span style="font-size: 14pt;" class=""><strong>Golden Bamboo Seeds - fish pole bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea)</strong></span></h2> <h2><span style="color: #d0121a; font-size: 14pt;"><strong>Price for Package of&nbsp;5 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>One of the most common bamboos in the United States, and for a good reason: although usually not very tall, it is one of the strongest and most useful. Growing rigidly upright, this bamboo is one of the best for hedges and for planting next to driveways and walkways.</p> <p><span>&nbsp;</span>It often has a series of distorted internodes at the base of the cane, sometimes called "Tortoise Shell" internodes, that are quite ornamental and make this plant useful for craft work. Culm color of the species type is green. Like other Phyllostachys, when exposed to strong direct sunlight, the canes will fade to yellow with age. Phyllostachys aurea can be an aggressive spreader in hot climates, where care must be used in its placement.</p> <p>zones 7-10</p> <p><strong><em>WIKIPEDIA:</em></strong></p> <p>Phyllostachys aurea is a bamboo species of the 'running bamboo' type, belonging to the diverse Bambuseae tribe. It is native to Fujian and Zhejiang in China. It is commonly known by the names fishpole bamboo, golden bamboo, monk's belly bamboo, and fairyland bamboo (Australia).</p> <p><strong>Cultivation</strong></p> <p>P. aurea is cultivated as an ornamental plant for gardens. In the United States, it is considered an invasive species that crowds out native species and is difficult to remove. It is also the most commonly cultivated bamboo in the United States. It is a cold-hardy bamboo, performing well in USDA zones 6 to 10, (Connecticut to Florida).[2] It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.</p> <p><strong>Uses</strong></p> <p>P. aurea's lush foliage makes it desirable for ornamental purposes and privacy hedges, and its characteristic 'knotty' compressed lower internodes render it desirable among collectors.[2] It is well-suited to the making of bamboo pipes.</p> <p><strong>Identification and growth habit</strong></p> <p>The common forms of P. aurea are easily identified by their characteristic compressed internodes in the lower part of the canes which have a tortoise shell-like appearance. This internodal compression result in shorter heights (25 ft) and thicker cane diameters (relative to height) than many other Phyllostachys species.</p> <p>The canes turn yellow in full or partial sun, and deepen into a gold-orange color as the plant matures. Branching and foliage tend to start lower to the ground than many other Phyllostachys species, but some prefer to cut off lower branches to show off the interesting 'tortoise shell' lower part of the canes (see photo).</p><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
B 7
Golden Bamboo Seeds - fish pole bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea) 1.95 - 10
Madake, Giant Timber Bamboo Seeds  - 3

Madake, Giant Timber Bamboo...

Prijs € 1,95 (SKU: B 6)
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5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Madake, Giant Timber Bamboo Seeds (Phyllostachys bambusoides)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 5 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>Phyllostachys bambusoides, commonly called madake, giant timber bamboo or Japanese timber bamboo, is a bamboo species in the genus Phyllostachys.</p> <p>Madake is typically known for being the most common type of bamboo used in the making of shakuhachi flutes and is utilized in numerous Japanese, as well as Chinese, arts, and crafts.</p> <p>Phyllostachys bambusoides can reach a height of 15–22 m and a diameter of 10–15 cm. The culms are dark green, quite thick and very straight. The leaves are dark green. New stalks emerge in late spring and grow quite rapidly, up to 1 meter each day. The flowering interval of this species is very long, about 120 years. This strong plant is in Asia one of the preferred bamboos for building and in the manufacture of furniture.</p> <p>This species is native to China, but it is commonly grown worldwide, especially in Japan.</p> </body> </html>
B 6
Madake, Giant Timber Bamboo Seeds  - 3
Cacao Tree Seeds (Theobroma cacao)

Cacao Tree Seeds (Theobroma...

Prijs € 4,00 (SKU: V 86)
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5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Cacao Tree Seeds (Theobroma cacao)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 2 seeds.<br /></strong></span></h2> <p><strong>As you can see from our pictures, our cocoa variety is larger than all others.</strong></p> <p>Theobroma cacao also cacao tree and cocoa tree, is a small (4–8 m (13–26 ft) tall) evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae, native to the deep tropical region of America. Its seeds are used to make cocoa powder and chocolate.</p> <p><strong>Description</strong></p> <p>Leaves are alternate, entire, unlobed, 10–40 cm (3.9–16 in) long and 5–20 cm (2.0–7.9 in) broad. The flowers are produced in clusters directly on the trunk and older branches; this is known as cauliflory. The flowers are small, 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) diameter, with pink calyx. While many of the world's flowers are pollinated by bees (Hymenoptera) or butterflies/moths (Lepidoptera), cacao flowers are pollinated by tiny flies, Forcipomyia midges in the order Diptera.[2] The fruit, called a cacao pod, is ovoid, 15–30 cm (5.9–12 in) long and 8–10 cm (3.1–3.9 in) wide, ripening yellow to orange, and weighs about 500 g (1.1 lb) when ripe. The pod contains 20 to 60 seeds, usually called "beans", embedded in a white pulp. The seeds are the main ingredient of chocolate, while the pulp is used in some countries to prepare a refreshing juice. Each seed contains a significant amount of fat (40–50%) as cocoa butter. Their most noted active constituent is theobromine, a compound similar to caffeine.</p> <p><strong>Taxonomy and nomenclature</strong></p> <p>Cacao (Theobroma cacao) belongs to the genus Theobroma classified under the subfamily Sterculioidea of the mallow family Malvaceae. Cacao is one of 22 species of Theobroma.</p> <p>The generic name is derived from the Greek for "food of the gods"; from θεος (theos), meaning "god," and βρῶμα (broma), meaning "food".</p> <p>The specific name cacao is derived from the native name of the plant in indigenous Mesoamerican languages. The cacao was known as kakaw in Tzeltal, K’iche’ and Classic Maya; kagaw in Sayula Popoluca; and cacahuatl[dubious – discuss] in Nahuatl.</p> <p>The cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum, is a closely related species also grown in Brazil. Like the cacao, it is also the source for a kind of chocolate known as cupulate or cupuaçu chocolate.</p> <p>The cupuaçu is considered of high potential by the food and cosmetics industries.</p> <p><strong>Distribution and domestication</strong></p> <p>T. cacao is widely distributed from southeastern Mexico to the Amazon basin. There were originally two hypotheses about its domestication; one said that there were two foci for domestication, one in the Lacandon area of Mexico and another in lowland South America. More recent studies of patterns of DNA diversity, however, suggest that this is not the case. Motomayor et al.[4] sampled 1241 trees and classified them into 10 distinct genetic clusters. This study also identified areas, for example around Iquitos in modern Peru, where representatives of several genetic clusters originated. This result suggests that this is where T. cacao was originally domesticated, probably for the pulp that surrounds the beans, which is eaten as a snack and fermented into a mildly alcoholic beverage.[5] Using the DNA sequences obtained by Motomayor et al. and comparing them with data derived from climate models and the known conditions suitable for cacao, Thomas et al. have further refined the view of domestication, linking the area of greatest cacao genetic diversity to a bean-shaped area that encompasses the border between Brazil and Peru and the southern part of the Colombian-Brazilian border.[6] Climate models indicate that at the peak of the last ice age 21,000 years ago, when habitat suitable for cacao was at its most reduced, this area was still suitable, and so provided a refugium for the species. Thomas et al. speculate that from there people took cacao to Mexico, where selection for the beans took place.</p> <p>Cacao trees grow well as understory plants in humid forest ecosystems. This is equally true of abandoned cultivated trees, making it difficult to distinguish truly wild trees from those whose parents may originally have been cultivated.</p> <p><strong>History of cultivation</strong></p> <p>Cultivation, use, and cultural elaboration of cacao were early and extensive in Mesoamerica. Ceramic vessels with residues from the preparation of cacao beverages have been found at archaeological sites dating back to the Early Formative (1900-900 BC) period. For example, one such vessel found at an Olmec archaeological site on the Gulf Coast of Veracruz, Mexico dates cacao's preparation by pre-Olmec peoples as early as 1750 BC. On the Pacific coast of Chiapas, Mexico, a Mokaya archaeological site provides evidence of cacao beverages dating even earlier, to 1900 BC. The initial domestication was probably related to the making of a fermented, thus alcoholic beverage.</p> <p>Several mixtures of cacao are described in ancient texts, for ceremonial or medicinal, as well as culinary, purposes. Some mixtures included maize, chili, vanilla (Vanilla planifolia), and honey. Archaeological evidence for use of cacao, while relatively sparse, has come from the recovery of whole cacao beans at Uaxactun, Guatemala and from the preservation of wood fragments of the cacao tree at Belize sites including Cuello and Pulltrouser Swamp. In addition, analysis of residues from ceramic vessels has found traces of theobromine and caffeine in early formative vessels from Puerto Escondido, Honduras (1100-900 BC) and in middle formative vessels from Colha, Belize (600-400 BC) using similar techniques to those used to extract chocolate residues from four classic period (circa 400 AD) vessels from a tomb at the archaeological site of Rio Azul. As cacao is the only known commodity from Mesoamerica containing both of these alkaloid compounds, it seems likely these vessels were used as containers for cacao drinks. In addition, cacao is named in a hieroglyphic text on one of the Rio Azul vessels. Cacao was also believed to be ground by the Aztecs and mixed with tobacco for smoking purposes</p> <table style="width: 712px;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2" valign="top" style="width: 708px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>growing instructions</strong></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Vermehrung:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">Seeds</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Pretreatment:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">soak seeds for 2-3 hours in warm water.</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Stratification:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">0</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">all year</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing depth:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">See picture 6</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing substrate:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">Use high-quality, sterile potting soil</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing temperature:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">+25 - +28°C</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Sowing Location:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">bright + keep constantly moist, not wet</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Germination time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">2-4 weeks.</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Note:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">direct Sow onto bed in May.</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Watering:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;">Water regularly during the growing period</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap" style="width: 172px;"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #008000;"><strong> </strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top" style="width: 534px;"> <p align="center"><br /><span style="color: #008000;"> <em>Copyright © 2012 Seeds Gallery - Saatgut Galerie - Galerija semena. </em><em>All Rights Reserved.</em></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </body> </html>
V 86
Cacao Tree Seeds (Theobroma cacao)
"DUKE" Highbush Blueberry Seeds (Vaccinium Corymbosum)

DUKE Blueberry Seeds...

Prijs € 1,95 (SKU: V 194 D)
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5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>DUKE Northern highbush Blueberry Seeds (Vaccinium Corymbosum)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 50 (0,015g) seeds. </strong></span></h2> <p>Duke blueberries are the leading early-ripening (berries begin ripening in early June) blueberry variety. It is known for its high yields (one Duke plant can produce over 9 kg (20 lbs) of uniform-sized, quality fruits. Duke’s mild flavor seems to improve with cold storage.</p> <p>Maintaining the plant vigor of Duke blueberries can be a challenge over a long period of time. Growers must choose a quality growing site and continually employ good cultural practices.</p> <p>The Duke blueberry is one of the leading candidates for mechanical harvest, fresh, and process sales.</p> <p><strong>History</strong></p> <p>Many wild species of Vaccinium are thought to have been cultivated by Native Americans for thousands of years, with intentional crop burnings in northeastern areas being apparent from archeological evidence.[9] V. corymbosum, being one of the species likely used by these peoples, was later studied and domesticated in 1908 by Frederick Vernon Coville.</p> <p><strong>Uses</strong></p> <p>In natural habitats it is a food source for native and migrating birds, bears, and small mammals.</p> <p>The berries were collected and used in Native American cuisine in areas where Vaccinium corymbosum grew as a native plant.</p> <p><strong>Cultivation</strong></p> <p>Vaccinium corymbosum is the most common commercially grown blueberry in present-day North America. It is also cultivated as an ornamental plant for home and wildlife gardens and natural landscaping projects.</p> <h2><em><span style="color: #000000;"><strong>Germination instructions</strong></span></em></h2> <p>Northern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium Corymbosum) – Soak the seeds in a small container of hand hot water and leave to cool for 24 hours. Then sow the seeds on the surface of free-draining, damp, lime-free seed compost and only just cover with compost. 90 days cold stratification at approx 3C° is now required, which can be achieved by either, covering and placing outside in a cold shaded area, or by sealing the pot in a plastic bag and place in a refrigerator. Then move indoors or to a propagator at a minimum temperature of 21C°, until after germination. When large enough to handle, transplant individual seedlings into 9cm pots of ericaceous compost and grow on. Protect from frost. Plant outdoors from June onwards, after hardening off.</p> </body> </html>
V 194 D
"DUKE" Highbush Blueberry Seeds (Vaccinium Corymbosum)

Deze plant heeft gigantische vruchten
Giant strawberry seeds

Gigantische aardbeienzaden

Prijs € 2,85 (SKU: V 1 GS)
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5/ 5
<h2><strong>Gigantische aardbeienzaden</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #f80000;"><strong>Prijs voor Pakket van 100 (0,06g) zaden.</strong></span></h2> <p>Aardbeien, Fragaria ananassa L. Maximus, zijn vrij eenvoudig te kweken! Ze zijn meerjarig, winterhard en zullen in de volle zon gedijen, zolang de grond vruchtbaar en goed gedraineerd is. Gezonde planten zullen jarenlang een overvloed aan bessen produceren! Aardbeien zijn zo groot als appels! Dit standaard type "GIANT" zorgt voor de grootste oogst! Deze doordragende Reuzen zullen de hele zomer produceren voor de Beste desserts en snacks!<br><br>Aardbeien hebben licht nodig om te ontkiemen en hun zaden mogen niet bedekt zijn. Maar de praktijk heeft uitgewezen dat onbedekte aardbeienzaden tijdens het ontkiemen zeer snel uitdrogen. Ik raad daarom aan om het zaad heel licht af te dekken met gezeefde zaaigrond. Na het zaaien en bevochtigen kunt u ook een ruit op de zaaibak plaatsen.<br><br>Zaden hebben minimaal 60 dagen stratificatie nodig</p><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
V 1 GS (0,06G)
Giant strawberry seeds

This plant is resistant to winter and frost.

Variety from Japan
Yuzu Seeds Japanese citrus fruit -20°C (Citrus junos) 4.15 - 1

Yuzu zaden -20°C (Citrus...

Prijs € 4,15 (SKU: V 118 Y)
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5/ 5
<h2><strong>Yuzu zaden -20°C (Citrus junos)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Prijs voor een pakket van 2 of 4 zaden.</strong></span></h2> <p><b>Yuzu</b><span>&nbsp;</span>(Koreaans:유자,hiragana:<span>&nbsp;</span>ゆず,kanji: 柚子) (<i>Citrus ×junos</i>) is een<span>&nbsp;</span>citrusvrucht<span>&nbsp;</span>uit het<span>&nbsp;</span>Verre Oosten, die met name voorkomt in<span>&nbsp;</span>China,<span>&nbsp;</span>Korea<span>&nbsp;</span>en<span>&nbsp;</span>Japan. Het is een<span>&nbsp;</span>hybride, waarschijnlijk van<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Citrus ichangensis</i><span>&nbsp;</span>×<span>&nbsp;</span><i>Citrus reticulata</i><span>&nbsp;</span>var.<span>&nbsp;</span><i>austera</i>.</p> <p>Yuzu is een kleine onregelmatige<span>&nbsp;</span>vrucht, die qua smaak enigszins lijkt op een<span>&nbsp;</span>citroen, maar ook de smaak van ander<span>&nbsp;</span>citrusfruit<span>&nbsp;</span>in zich heeft. De smaak van yuzu is minder hard en scherp dan van een<span>&nbsp;</span>Europese<span>&nbsp;</span>citroen.</p> <p>The fruit looks somewhat like a small grapefruit with uneven skin and can be either yellow or green depending on the degree of ripeness. It is hardy to <strong>-20C.</strong></p> <p>Yuzu limes are small to medium in size, averaging 5-10 centimeters in diameter, and are round, oblate, to slightly lopsided in shape. The peel is thick, pebbly, rough, pocked with many prominent oil glands and pores, and matures from dark green to golden yellow. Underneath the peel, the yellow flesh is minimal, divided into 9-10 segments by white membranes, contains some juice, and is filled with many large, inedible cream-colored seeds. Yuzu limes are highly aromatic, and the rind is rich in essential oils that are released when the fruit’s surface is scratched or cut. The juice and zest also have a unique, acidic blend of sour, tart, and spicy flavors with notes of lime, grapefruit, mandarin. <br><br></p> <h2>Seasons/Availability</h2> <p><br>Yuzu limes are available in the winter through the early spring. <br><br></p> <h2>Current Facts</h2> <p><br>Yuzu limes, botanically classified as Citrus junos, are slow-growing citrus that are found on an evergreen tree or shrub that can reach over five meters in height and belongs to the Rutaceae family. Believed to be a hybrid between the satsuma mandarin and the ichang papeda, Yuzu limes are not botanically a lime but have earned the title since they are often prepared and used similarly. Yuzu limes are mainly cultivated in China, Japan, and Korea and are favored for their tart and spicy juice and zest. They are also valued for their strong fragrance and in Japan, it is one of the most popular scents to be used for cosmetics, candles, cleaning supplies, and bath products. While popular in Asia, Yuzu limes are still relatively unknown in the Western world, but they have been gaining awareness through famous chefs praising and using its unique flavor. <br><br></p> <h2>Nutritional Value</h2> <p><br>Yuzu limes are an excellent source of potassium and vitamin C. They also contain flavonoids, vitamin P which can help absorb other nutrients and increase circulation, and nomilin, which can help aid the body in relaxation. <br><br></p> <h2>Applications</h2> <p><br>Yuzu limes are best suited for both raw and cooked applications and are used for their juice and zest. When juiced, Yuzu limes can be mixed into sauces, vinegar, dressings, and marinades, or they can be shaken into cocktails, flavored water, and tea. Yuzu lime peels can also be used to flavor salted butter for seafood dishes, zested over salad or sashimi, used to flavor ponzu sauce, or ground into powdered form and sprinkled over dishes as a concentrated flavor. In addition to savory dishes, Yuzu lime juice and zest can be baked into tarts or pies, mixed into sorbets, or used in custard. Yuzu limes pair well with coriander, mint, eggs, sashimi, scallops, grilled fish, snow crab, poultry, steak, pork, pepper, black sesame seeds, cumin, lime, raspberry, pomegranate, and cherries. The fruits will keep two weeks when stored in the refrigerator. <br><br></p> <h2>Ethnic/Cultural Info</h2> <p><br>In Japan, the Yuzu lime is one of the most popular fragrances and is most well-known for its use in the winter solstice bath. Each year during the winter solstice, public bathhouses will slice the fruit in half and float them in hot water, creating an aromatic experience. This bathing practice dates back to the 18th century and soaking in Yuzu water is believed to help prevent sicknesses such as flu and colds, and the essential oils and vitamin C are believed to help soften the skin and relieve pain. In addition to bathing, the Yuzu fragrance is also utilized in Yuzu tama or Yuzu egg production. On the island of Shikoku, Japan, farmers feed their hens a mixture of Yuzu peel, sesame seeds, corn, and kale to naturally create an egg that has the flavor and scent of the Yuzu lime. These eggs are sold at a premium price and are traditionally used for tamago kake gohan, which is cooked rice with a raw egg mixed in. <br><br></p> <h2>Geography/History</h2> <p><br>The origins of Yuzu limes are somewhat disputed among scientists, but the majority of scientists conclude that the fruit’s origins are within the upper regions of the Yangtze River in China and have been growing since ancient times. Yuzu limes were then introduced to Japan in 710 CE where they became increasingly popular for their light scent. In 1914, Frank Meyer, the man who discovered the Meyer lemon, visited China and brought seeds from the Yuzu fruit back to the United States. Included in his description of the fruit, he noted that he sourced the seeds from the Hubei Provence along the upper slopes of the Yangtze River at an astonishing elevation of 4,000 feet. The temperatures dip below freezing in that area, and there are no other citrus varieties that grow near the region. Today Yuzu limes are predominately available at local markets in Asia, but there are also a few farms in the United States that commercially cultivate the fruit and sell at farmers markets and specialty grocers</p><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
V 118 Y 2-S
Yuzu Seeds Japanese citrus fruit -20°C (Citrus junos) 4.15 - 1
Climbing Strawberry seeds "Mount Everest" (Fragaria x ananassa)

Climbing Strawberry seeds...

Prijs € 2,50 (SKU: V 1 CS)
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5/ 5
<div id="idTab1" class="rte"> <h2><span style="text-decoration: underline;" class=""><em><strong>Climbing Strawberry seeds "Mount Everest"</strong></em></span></h2> <h3><strong><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of<strong>&nbsp;10&nbsp;</strong>seeds.</strong></span><em><br></em></strong></h3> <p>A unique climbing strawberry! This fast, strong growing variety will produce runners up to 1,5m in length that make a real talking point when trained up a trellis or obelisk climbing frame, or cascading from window boxes and hanging baskets. Better still, Strawberry 'Mount Everest' is an ever-bearering variety that produces a delicious crop of medium sized, sweet, juicy fruits from June right through to September! Height: 1,5m. Spread: 30cm.</p> <p>Estimated time to cropping once planted: 4-8 months.<br>Estimated time to best yields: 4-8 months.</p> </div><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
V 1 CS
Climbing Strawberry seeds "Mount Everest" (Fragaria x ananassa)
German Extra Hardy Garlic cloves 2.95 - 3

German Extra Hardy Garlic...

Prijs € 2,95 (SKU: P 416 GEH)
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5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>German Extra Hardy Garlic cloves</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for 10 Garlic cloves</strong></span></h2> <p>German Extra Hardy, is also known as German White, Northern White and German Stiffneck is a large, beautiful and well-formed porcelain garlic. These are all the same garlic but grown in different places under different names. Its flavor is very strong and robust and sticks around for a long time.</p> <p>The average weight of garlic cloves 5-6 g.</p> <p>From a grower's perspective, it is a tall dark green plant and is a very good survivor, usually grows healthy and appears to be somewhat resistant to many of the diseases that can affect garlic. It originally came from Germany but grows well in all but the most southerly states, where it is marginal.</p> <p>Being a Porcelain, German Extra Hardy stores a long time at cool room temp for around 9-10 months or longer.</p> </body> </html>
P 416 GEH
German Extra Hardy Garlic cloves 2.95 - 3
Exotic Rare Black Strawberry Seeds

Black Strawberry Seeds -...

Prijs € 2,25 (SKU: V 1)
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5/ 5
<h2>Black Strawberry Seeds - Exotic Rare</h2> <h2><span style="color:#ff0000;">Price for Package of 10 seeds.</span></h2> <p><strong style="color:#ff0000;font-size:18px;"></strong>A lovely Black Strawberry that is fully hardy. Perfect for small spaces or containers, it will produce an abundance of small sweet fruit, with a hint of pineapple.</p> <p>Heavy cropping and easy to grow.</p> <p>Perennial herb densely clustered with straighter branches.15-25cm in height. Cymose anthotaxy with juicy flesh. Require loosing and weeding at intervals on the loose fertile soil with ample organic fertilizers. Favor to warm and need moisture to live through the winter.</p> <div> <div> <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="1"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" width="100%" valign="top"> <h3 align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Instructions</strong></span></h3> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Propagation:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">Seeds</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Pretreat:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">0</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Stratification:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">0</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">all year round</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Depth:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">Needs Light to germinate! Just sprinkle on the surface of the substrate + gently press</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Mix:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">Coir or sowing mix + sand or perlite</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Germination temperature:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">20-25°C</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Location:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">bright + keep constantly moist not wet</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Germination Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">1 - 8 weeks</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Watering:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">Water regularly during the growing season</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><br /><span style="color:#008000;"><em>Copyright © 2012 Seeds Gallery - Saatgut Galerie - Galerija semena. </em><em>All Rights Reserved.</em></span></p> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p> </p> </div> </div>
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Exotic Rare Black Strawberry Seeds

Deze plant heeft gigantische vruchten
Giant Blackberry Seeds (Rubus fruticosus) 1.85 - 3

Giant Blackberry Seeds...

Prijs € 1,85 (SKU: V 126)
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5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <div id="idTab1" class="rte"> <h2><strong>Giant Blackberry Seeds (Rubus fruticosus)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 10 or 20 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><strong>This variety produces extremely large fruits weighing 10 grams per fruit.</strong></p> <p>Triple Crown Blackberry Seeds . The healthful benefits are many , rich in vitamin C , vitamin K , B vitamin , Omega-3 , Manganese .  Antioxidant strength at top of more than 1000 antioxidant foods consumed in the U.S.</p> <p><strong>Wikipedia:</strong></p> <p>The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by many species in the Rubus genus in the Rosaceae family, hybrids among these species within the Rubus subgenus, and hybrids between the Rubus and Idaeobatus subgenera. What distinguishes the blackberry from its raspberry relatives is whether or not the torus (receptacle or stem) 'picks-with' (i.e. stays with) the fruit. When picking a blackberry fruit, the torus does stay with the fruit. With a raspberry, the torus remains on the plant, leaving a hollow core in the raspberry fruit. The term 'bramble', a word meaning any impenetrable scrub, has traditionally been applied specifically to the blackberry or its products,[1] though in the United States it applies to all members of the Rubus genus. In the western US, the term caneberry is used to refer to blackberries and raspberries as a group rather than the term bramble.</p> <p>The usually black fruit is not a berry in the botanical sense of the word. Botanically it is termed an aggregate fruit, composed of small drupelets. It is a widespread and well-known group of over 375 species, many of which are closely related apomictic microspecies native throughout Europe, northwestern Africa, temperate western and central Asia and North and South America.</p> <p><strong>Growth and anatomical description</strong></p> <p>Blackberries are perennial plants which typically bear biennial stems ("canes") from the perennial root system.</p> <p>In its first year, a new stem, the primocane, grows vigorously to its full length of 3–6 m (in some cases, up to 9 m), arching or trailing along the ground and bearing large palmately compound leaves with five or seven leaflets; it does not produce any flowers. In its second year, the cane becomes a floricane and the stem does not grow longer, but the lateral buds break to produce flowering laterals (which have smaller leaves with three or five leaflets).[3] First- and second-year shoots usually have numerous short-curved, very sharp prickles that are often erroneously called thorns. These prickles can tear through denim with ease and make the plant very difficult to navigate around. Prickle-free cultivars have been developed. Recently the University of Arkansas has developed primocane fruiting blackberries that grow and flower on first-year growth much as the primocane-fruiting (also called fall bearing or everbearing) red raspberries do.</p> <p>Unmanaged mature plants form a tangle of dense arching stems, the branches rooting from the node tip on many species when they reach the ground. Vigorous and growing rapidly in woods, scrub, hillsides, and hedgerows, blackberry shrubs tolerate poor soils, readily colonizing wasteland, ditches, and vacant lots.</p> <p>The flowers are produced in late spring and early summer on short racemes on the tips of the flowering laterals.[3] Each flower is about 2–3 cm in diameter with five white or pale pink petals.[3]</p> <p>The drupelets only develop around ovules that are fertilized by the male gamete from a pollen grain. The most likely cause of undeveloped ovules is inadequate pollinator visits.[5] Even a small change in conditions, such as a rainy day or a day too hot for bees to work after early morning, can reduce the number of bee visits to the flower, thus reducing the quality of the fruit. Incomplete drupelet development can also be a symptom of exhausted reserves in the plant's roots or infection with a virus such as Raspberry bushy dwarf virus.</p> <p>In botanical terminology, the fruit is not a berry but an aggregate fruit of numerous drupelets.</p> <p><strong>Ecology</strong></p> <p>Blackberry leaves are food for certain caterpillars; some grazing mammals, especially deer, are also very fond of the leaves. Caterpillars of the concealer moth Alabonia geoffrella have been found feeding inside dead blackberry shoots. When mature, the berries are eaten and their seeds dispersed by several mammals, such as the red fox and the Eurasian badger, as well as by small birds.</p> <p>Blackberries grow wild throughout all parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland. They are an important element in the ecology of those countries. Harvesting the berries is a popular pastime in these countries. However, it is also considered an invasive weed, sending down its strong suckering roots amongst garden hedges and shrubs. In some parts of the world, such as in Australia, Chile, New Zealand, and the Pacific Northwest of North America, some blackberry species, particularly Rubus armeniacus (syn. R. procerus, 'Himalaya') and Rubus laciniatus ('Evergreen'), are naturalised and considered an invasive species and a serious weed.</p> <p>The blackberry tends to be red during its unripe ("green") phase, leading to an old expression that "blackberries are red when they're green".</p> <p>In various parts of the United States, wild blackberries are sometimes called "Black-caps", a term more commonly used for black raspberries, Rubus occidentalis.</p> <p>As there is forensic evidence from the Iron Age Haraldskær Woman that she consumed blackberries some 2500 years ago, it is reasonable to conclude that blackberries have been eaten by humans over thousands of years.</p> <p><strong><em>Uses</em></strong></p> <p><strong>Food</strong></p> <p>The soft fruit is popular for use in desserts, jams, seedless jelly, and sometimes wine. It is often mixed with apples for pies and crumbles. Blackberries are also used to produce candy.</p> <p>Good nectar producers, blackberry shrubs bearing flowers yield a medium to dark, fruity honey.</p> <p><strong>Phytochemical research</strong></p> <p>Blackberries contain numerous phytochemicals including polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, salicylic acid, ellagic acid, and fiber.[7][8] Anthocyanins in blackberries are responsible for their rich dark color.</p> <p>Phytochemical components of blackberries, salicylic acid and ellagic acid have been associated in preliminary research with toxicity to cancer cells,[9][10] including breast cancer cells.</p> <p>Blackberries rank highly among fruits for in vitro antioxidant strength, particularly because of their dense content of polyphenolic compounds, such as ellagic acid, tannins, ellagitannins, quercetin, gallic acid, anthocyanins, and cyanidins.[12][13] One report placed blackberry at the top of more than 1000 antioxidant foods consumed in the United States.</p> <p><strong>Nutrients</strong></p> <p>Blackberries are notable for their high nutritional contents of dietary fiber, vitamin C, vitamin K, and the essential mineral manganese.</p> <p>Blackberries have both soluble and insoluble fiber.[15] One cup of blackberries (144 g) has an average of 7.6 g of fibre and contains half the daily recommended dose of vitamin C.[8] Dietary fiber is important in maintaining a healthy digestive system, as it supports regular bowel movements.</p> <p><strong>Nutrient content of seeds</strong></p> <p>Blackberries contain numerous large seeds that are not always preferred by consumers. The seeds contain oil rich in omega-3 (alpha-linolenic acid) and -6 fats (linoleic acid) as well as protein, dietary fiber, carotenoids, ellagitannins and ellagic acid.</p> <p><strong><em>Cultivation</em></strong></p> <p><strong>Commercial cultivation</strong></p> <p>Worldwide, Mexico is the leading producer of blackberries, with nearly the entire crop being produced for export into the off-season fresh markets in North America and Europe. The Mexican market is almost entirely from the cultivar 'Tupy' (often spelled 'Tupi', but the EMBRAPA program in Brazil from which it was released prefers the 'Tupy' spelling.). In the US, Oregon is the leading commercial blackberry producer, producing 42.6 million pounds on 6,180 acres (25.0 km2), in 1995[17] and 56.1 million pounds on 7,000 acres (28 km2) in 2009.</p> <p>Numerous cultivars have been selected for commercial and amateur cultivation in Europe[2] and the United States.[19] Since the many species form hybrids easily, there are numerous cultivars with more than one species in their ancestry.</p> <p>'Marion' (marketed as "marionberry") is an important cultivar that was selected from seedlings from a cross between 'Chehalem' and 'Olallie' (commonly called "olallieberry") berries.[20] 'Olallie' in turn is a cross between loganberry and youngberry. 'Marion', 'Chehalem' and 'Olallie' are just three of many trailing blackberry cultivars developed by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) blackberry breeding program at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon.</p> <p>The most recent cultivars released from this program are the prickle-free cultivars 'Black Diamond', 'Black Pearl', and 'Nightfall' as well as the very early-ripening 'Obsidian' and 'Metolius'. 'Black Diamond' is now the leading cultivar being planted in the Pacific Northwest. Some of the other cultivars from this program are 'Newberry', 'Waldo', 'Siskiyou', 'Black Butte', 'Kotata', 'Pacific', and 'Cascade'.</p> <p>Trailing blackberries are vigorous and crown forming, require a trellis for support, and are less cold hardy than the erect or semi-erect blackberries. In addition to the United States's Pacific Northwest, these types do well in similar climates such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Chile, and the Mediterranean countries.</p> <p>Semi-erect, prickle-free blackberries were first developed at the John Innes Centre in Norwich, UK, and subsequently by the USDA-ARS in Beltsville, Maryland. These are crown forming and very vigorous and need a trellis for support. Cultivars include 'Black Satin' 'Chester Thornless', 'Dirksen Thornless', 'Hull Thornless', 'Loch Ness', 'Loch Tay', 'Merton Thornless', 'Smoothstem', and 'Triple Crown'. Recently, the cultivar 'Cacanska Bestrna' (also called 'Cacak Thornless') has been developed in Serbia and has been planted on many thousands of hectares there.</p> <p>The University of Arkansas has developed cultivars of erect blackberries. These types are less vigorous than the semi-erect types and produce new canes from root initials (therefore they spread underground like raspberries). There are prickly and prickle-free cultivars from this program, including 'Navaho', 'Ouachita', 'Cherokee', 'Apache', 'Arapaho', and 'Kiowa'. They are also responsible for developing the primocane fruiting blackberries such as 'Prime-Jan' and 'Prime-Jim'.</p> <p>In raspberries, these types are called primocane fruiting, fall fruiting, or everbearing. 'Prime-Jim' and 'Prime-Jan' were released in 2004 by the University of Arkansas and are the first cultivars of primocane fruiting blackberry.[22] They grow much like the other erect cultivars described above, however the canes that emerge in the spring, will flower in mid-summer and fruit in late summer or fall. The fall crop has its highest quality when it ripens in cool mild climate such as in California or the Pacific Northwest.</p> <p>'Illini Hardy' a semi-erect prickly cultivar introduced by the University of Illinois is cane hardy in zone 5, where traditionally blackberry production has been problematic, since canes often failed to survive the winter.</p> <p>Blackberry production in Mexico has expanded enormously in the past decade. While once based on the cultivar 'Brazos', an old erect blackberry cultivar developed in Texas in 1959, the Mexican industry is now dominated by the Brazilian 'Tupy' released in the 1990s. 'Tupy' has the erect blackberry 'Comanche', and a "wild Uruguayan blackberry" as parents.[23] Since there are no native blackberries in Uruguay, the suspicion is that the widely grown 'Boysenberry' is the male parent. In order to produce these blackberries in regions of Mexico where there is no winter chilling to stimulate flower bud development, chemical defoliation and application of growth regulators are used to bring the plants into bloom.</p> <p><strong>Diseases and pests</strong></p> <p>As a result of blackberries belonging to the same genus as raspberries,[24] they share the same diseases including anthracnose which can cause the berry to have uneven ripening and sap flow may also be slowed.[25][26] They also share the same remedies including the Bordeaux mixture,[27] a combination of lime, water and Copper(II) sulfate.[28] The rows between blackberry plants must be free of weeds, blackberry suckers and grasses which may lead to pests or diseases.[29] Fruit growers are selective when planting blackberry bushes as wild blackberries may be infected[29] and gardeners are recommended to purchase only certified disease-free plants.</p> <p>The spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii is a serious pest of blackberries.[31] Unlike its vinegar fly relatives which are primarily attracted to rotting or fermented fruit, D. suzukii attacks fresh, ripe fruit by laying eggs under the soft skin. The larvae hatch and grow in the fruit, destroying the fruit's commercial value.</p> <p>Another pest is Amphorophora rubi, known as the Blackberry Aphid, which not only eats blackberries but raspberries as well.</p> <p> Byturus tomentosus (Raspberry beetle), Lampronia corticella (Raspberry Moth) and Anthonomus rubi (Strawberry blossom weevil) are also known to infest blackberries.</p> <p><strong>Folklore</strong></p> <p>Folklore in the United Kingdom is told that blackberries should not be picked after Old Michaelmas Day (11 October) as the devil has claimed them. There is some value behind this legend as wetter and cooler weather often allows the fruit to become infected by various molds such as Botryotinia which give the fruit an unpleasant look and may be toxic.</p> </div> </body> </html>
V 126
Giant Blackberry Seeds (Rubus fruticosus) 1.85 - 3

Variety from Turkey

This plant is resistant to winter and frost.
Pistachio Seeds (Pistacia vera) (Antep Pistachio)

Pistachio Seeds (Pistacia...

Prijs € 1,65 (SKU: V 187 T)
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5/ 5
<h2><strong>Pistachio Seeds (Pistacia vera) (Antep Pistachio)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 5, 20, 50, 100, 500 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>Gaziantep, informally called Antep, is a city in southeast Turkey and is among the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world. The Turkish word for pistachio is Antep Fistigi. The Gaziantep area with its fertile soil and arrid climate is the primary growing region for the Antep Pistachio.&nbsp; Many connoisseurs consider this nut to be one of the finest and best tasting nut in the world.</p> <p><strong>NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION:</strong></p> <p>Compared to other pistachio varieties including California grown</p> <p>GENUINE GAZIANTEP PISTACHIOS CONTAIN:</p> <p>50% less fat</p> <p>40% less carbohydrates</p> <p>200% more vitamin C</p> <p>70% more iron</p> <p>20% more calcium</p> <p>&nbsp;23% more magnesium</p> <h2>Wikipedia:</h2> <p>The pistachio (/pɪˈstɑːʃiˌoʊ, -ˈstæ-/,[1] Pistacia vera), a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East.[2] The tree produces seeds that are widely consumed as food.</p> <p>Pistacia vera often is confused with other species in the genus Pistacia that are also known as pistachio. These other species can be distinguished by their geographic distributions (in the wild) and their seeds which are much smaller and have a soft shell.</p> <p><strong>History</strong></p> <p>Archaeology shows that pistachio seeds were a common food as early as 6750 BC.[3] Pliny the Elder writes in his Natural History that pistacia, "well known among us", was one of the trees unique to Syria, and that the seed was introduced into Italy by the Roman Proconsul in Syria, Lucius Vitellius the Elder (in office in 35 AD) and into Hispania at the same time by Flaccus Pompeius.[4] The early sixth-century manuscript De observatione ciborum ("On the observance of foods") by Anthimus implies that pistacia remained well known in Europe in Late Antiquity. Archaeologists have found evidence from excavations at Jarmo in northeastern Iraq for the consumption of Atlantic pistachio.[3] The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were said to have contained pistachio trees during the reign of King Merodach-Baladan about 700 BC.</p> <p>The modern pistachio P. vera was first cultivated in Bronze Age Central Asia, where the earliest example is from Djarkutan, modern Uzbekistan.[5][6] It appears in Dioscurides as pistakia πιστάκια, recognizable as P. vera by its comparison to pine nuts.</p> <p>Additionally, remains of the Atlantic pistachio and pistachio seed along with nut-cracking tools were discovered by archaeologists at the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov site in Israel's Hula Valley, dated to 780,000 years ago.[8] More recently, the pistachio has been cultivated commercially in many parts of the English-speaking world, in Australia, and in New Mexico[9] and California, of the United States, where it was introduced in 1854 as a garden tree.[10] David Fairchild of the United States Department of Agriculture introduced hardier cultivars collected in China to California in 1904 and 1905, but it was not promoted as a commercial crop until 1929.[9][11] Walter T. Swingle’s pistachios from Syria had already fruited well at Niles by 1917.</p> <p>The earliest records of pistachio in English are around roughly year 1400, with the spellings "pistace" and "pistacia". The word pistachio comes from medieval Italian pistacchio, which is from classical Latin pistacium, which is from ancient Greek pistákion and pistákē, which is generally believed to be from Middle Persian, although unattested in Middle Persian. Later in Persian, the word is attested as pesteh. As mentioned, the tree came to the ancient Greeks from Western Asia.</p> <p><strong>Habitat</strong></p> <p>Pistachio is a desert plant, and is highly tolerant of saline soil. It has been reported to grow well when irrigated with water having 3,000–4,000 ppm of soluble salts.[9] Pistachio trees are fairly hardy in the right conditions, and can survive temperatures ranging between −10 °C (14 °F) in winter and 48 °C (118 °F) in summer. They need a sunny position and well-drained soil. Pistachio trees do poorly in conditions of high humidity, and are susceptible to root rot in winter if they get too much water and the soil is not sufficiently free-draining. Long, hot summers are required for proper ripening of the fruit. They have been known to thrive in warm, moist environments.</p> <p>The Jylgyndy Forest Reserve, a preserve protecting the native habitat of Pistacia vera groves, is located in the Nooken District of Jalal-Abad Province of Kyrgyzstan.</p> <p><strong>Characteristics</strong></p> <p>The bush grows up to 10 m (33 ft) tall. It has deciduous pinnate leaves 10–20 centimeters (4–8 inches) long. The plants are dioecious, with separate male and female trees. The flowers are apetalous and unisexual, and borne in panicles.</p> <p>The fruit is a drupe, containing an elongated seed, which is the edible portion. The seed, commonly thought of as a nut, is a culinary nut, not a botanical nut. The fruit has a hard, creamish exterior shell. The seed has a mauvish skin and light green flesh, with a distinctive flavor. When the fruit ripens, the shell changes from green to an autumnal yellow/red, and abruptly splits part way open (see photo). This is known as dehiscence, and happens with an audible pop. The splitting open is a trait that has been selected by humans.[14] Commercial cultivars vary in how consistently they split open.</p> <p>Each pistachio tree averages around 50 kilograms (110 lb) of seeds, or around 50,000, every two years.</p> <p>The shell of the pistachio is naturally a beige color, but it is sometimes dyed red or green in commercial pistachios. Originally, dye was applied by importers to hide stains on the shells caused when the seeds were picked by hand. Most pistachios are now picked by machine and the shells remain unstained, making dyeing unnecessary except to meet ingrained consumer expectations. Roasted pistachio seeds can be artificially turned red if they are marinated prior to roasting in a salt and strawberry marinade, or salt and citrus salts.</p> <p>Like other members of the Anacardiaceae family (which includes poison ivy, sumac, mango, and cashew), pistachios contain urushiol, an irritant that can cause allergic reactions.</p> <p><strong>Production and cultivation</strong></p> <p>Iran, the United States and Turkey are the major producers of pistachios, together accounting for 83% of the world production in 2013 (table).</p> <p><strong>Cultivation</strong></p> <p>The trees are planted in orchards, and take approximately seven to ten years to reach significant production. Production is alternate-bearing or biennial-bearing, meaning the harvest is heavier in alternate years. Peak production is reached around 20 years. Trees are usually pruned to size to make the harvest easier. One male tree produces enough pollen for eight to 12 drupe-bearing females. Harvesting in the United States and in Greece is often accomplished using equipment to shake the drupes off the tree. After hulling and drying, pistachios are sorted according to open-mouth and closed-mouth shells. Sun-drying has been found to be the best method of drying,[18] then they are roasted or processed by special machines to produce pistachio kernels.</p> <p>Pistachio trees are vulnerable to a wide variety of diseases. Among these is infection by the fungus Botryosphaeria, which causes panicle and shoot blight (symptoms include death of the flowers and young shoots), and can damage entire pistachio orchards.</p> <p>In Greece, the cultivated type of pistachios has an almost-white shell, sweet taste, a red-green kernel and a closed-mouth shell relative to the 'Kerman' variety. Most of the production in Greece comes from the island of Aegina, the region of Thessaly-Almyros and the regional units of West Attica, Corinthia and Phthiotis.</p> <p>In California, almost all female pistachio trees are the cultivar 'Kerman'. A scion from a mature female 'Kerman' is grafted onto a one-year-old rootstock.</p> <p>Bulk container shipments of pistachio kernels are prone to self-heating and spontaneous combustion because of their high fat and low water contents.</p> <p><strong>Consumption</strong></p> <p>The kernels are often eaten whole, either fresh or roasted and salted, and are also used in pistachio ice cream, kulfi, spumoni, historically in Neapolitan ice cream, pistachio butter,[21][22] pistachio paste[23] and confections such as baklava, pistachio chocolate,[24] pistachio halva,[25] pistachio lokum or biscotti and cold cuts such as mortadella. Americans make pistachio salad, which includes fresh pistachios or pistachio pudding, whipped cream, and canned fruit.</p> <p>China is the top pistachio consumer worldwide, with annual consumption of 80,000 tons, while the United States consumes 45,000 tons.</p> <p><strong>Nutritional information</strong></p> <p>Pistachios are a nutritionally dense food. In a 100 gram serving, pistachios provide 562 calories and are a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value or DV) of protein, dietary fiber, several dietary minerals and the B vitamins, thiamin and especially vitamin B6 at 131% DV (table).[28] Pistachios are a good source (10–19% DV) of calcium, riboflavin, vitamin B5, folate, vitamin E , and vitamin K (table).</p> <p>The fat profile of raw pistachios consists of saturated fats, monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats.[28][29] Saturated fatty acids include palmitic acid (10% of total) and stearic acid (2%).[29] Oleic acid is the most common monounsaturated fatty acid (51% of total fat)[29] and linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, is 31% of total fat.[28] Relative to other tree nuts, pistachios have a lower amount of fat and calories but higher amounts of potassium, vitamin K, γ-tocopherol, and certain phytochemicals such as carotenoids and phytosterols.</p> <p><strong>Research and health effects</strong></p> <p>In July 2003, the United States' Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first qualified health claim specific to seeds lowering the risk of heart disease: "Scientific evidence suggests but does not prove that eating 1.5 ounces (42.5 g) per day of most nuts, such as pistachios, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease".[31] Although pistachios contain many calories, epidemiologic studies have provided strong evidence that their consumption is not associated with weight gain or obesity.</p> <p>A 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials concluded that pistachio consumption in persons without diabetes mellitus appears to modestly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure.[32] Several mechanisms for pistachios' antihypertensive properties have been proposed. These mechanisms include pistachios' high levels of the amino acid arginine (a precursor of the blood vessel dilating compound nitric oxide); high levels of phytosterols and monounsaturated fatty acids; and improvement of endothelial cell function through multiple mechanisms including reductions in circulating levels of oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol and pro-inflammatory chemical signals.</p> <p><strong>Toxin and safety concerns</strong></p> <p>As with other tree seeds, aflatoxin is found in poorly harvested or processed pistachios. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic chemicals produced by molds such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The mold contamination may occur from soil, poor storage, and spread by pests. High levels of mold growth typically appear as gray to black filament-like growth. It is unsafe to eat mold-infected and aflatoxin-contaminated pistachios.[33] Aflatoxin contamination is a frequent risk, particularly in warmer and humid environments. Food contaminated with aflatoxins has been found as the cause of frequent outbreaks of acute illnesses in parts of the world. In some cases, such as Kenya, this has led to several deaths.</p> <p>Pistachio shells typically split naturally prior to harvest, with a hull covering the intact seeds. The hull protects the kernel from invasion by molds and insects, but this hull protection can be damaged in the orchard by poor orchard management practices, by birds, or after harvest, which makes it much easier for pistachios to be exposed to contamination. Some pistachios undergo so-called "early split", wherein both the hull and the shell split. Damage or early splits can lead to aflatoxin contamination.[35] In some cases, a harvest may be treated to keep contamination below strict food safety thresholds; in other cases, an entire batch of pistachios must be destroyed because of aflatoxin contamination. In September 1997, the European Union placed its first ban on pistachio imports from Iran due to high levels of aflatoxin. The ban was lifted in December 1997 after Iran introduced and improved food safety inspections and product quality.</p> <p>Pistachio shells may be helpful in cleaning up pollution created by mercury emissions.</p><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
V 187 T 5 S
Pistachio Seeds (Pistacia vera) (Antep Pistachio)

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Cassave, maniok zaden...

Cassave, maniok zaden...

Prijs € 4,95 (SKU: P 445)
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<div> <h2 class=""><strong>Cassave, maniok zaden (Manihot esculenta)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Prijs voor Pakket van 3 zaden.</strong></span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Cassave of maniok is de eetbare wortelknol van Manihot esculenta, een verhoutende, overblijvende heester.<br>Cassave wordt in Afrika en Zuid-Amerika veel gegeten. Oorspronkelijk komt hij uit Brazilië. Alle huidige geteelde planten zijn cultivars.</p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Geschiedenis">Geschiedenis</span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Cassave is van oorsprong een Zuid-Amerikaanse<span>&nbsp;</span>savanneplant. De plant kan groeien op zeer arme gronden (maar dan zijn de opbrengsten relatief laag) en is ook goed bestand tegen<span>&nbsp;</span>droge periodes<span>&nbsp;</span>(behalve kort na het planten van jong gewas). Ook is de plant goed bestand tegen<span>&nbsp;</span>sprinkhanenplagen.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">De cassave werd in Brazilië en Venezuela zeker al sinds<span>&nbsp;</span>3000 v.Chr.<span>&nbsp;</span>verbouwd, zoals blijkt uit archeologische vondsten van gereedschappen gebruikt voor het schrapen van de knollen.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Na de ontdekking van Amerika hebben de Portugezen de knol verspreid naar Afrika (vanaf ca. 1600) en<span>&nbsp;</span>Zuid-<span>&nbsp;</span>en<span>&nbsp;</span>Zuidoost-Azië.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Thans leven in de tropische ontwikkelingslanden enkele honderden miljoenen mensen voor een groot deel van de cassave. In 2002 bedroeg de wereldproductie 184 miljoen ton.</p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Gebruik">Gebruik</span></h2> <div class="thumb tleft" style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;"> <div class="thumbinner" style="font-size: 13.16px;"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Manihot_esculenta.jpg/200px-Manihot_esculenta.jpg" decoding="async" width="200" height="150" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Manihot_esculenta.jpg/300px-Manihot_esculenta.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Manihot_esculenta.jpg/400px-Manihot_esculenta.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2592" data-file-height="1944"> <div class="thumbcaption" style="font-size: 12.3704px;"> <div class="magnify"></div> Blad van cassave.</div> </div> </div> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Hoewel de plant veel<span>&nbsp;</span>zetmeel<span>&nbsp;</span>bevat en voedzaam is, bevat hij ook het giftige<span>&nbsp;</span>waterstofcyanide<span>&nbsp;</span>in de vorm van<span>&nbsp;</span>glycosiden, dat er bij soorten met hoge gehalten voor de consumptie eerst uit moet worden verwijderd. Het gehalte loopt uiteen van 20&nbsp;mg HCN/kilo verse knollen tot wel 1000&nbsp;mg/kilo. Soorten met hoge gehalten worden 'bittere cassave' genoemd, met lage 'zoete'. Het eten van rauwe bittere cassave is gevaarlijk, maar ook de zoete cassave kan beter worden gekookt. De ziekte<span>&nbsp;</span>konzo<span>&nbsp;</span>is in feite een vorm van chronische<span>&nbsp;</span>cyanidevergiftiging, veroorzaakt door het eten van cassave,<span>&nbsp;</span>tapioca<span>&nbsp;</span>of<span>&nbsp;</span>fufu<span>&nbsp;</span>waaruit het blauwzuur niet of onvoldoende is verwijderd. Dit kan leiden tot gebreksziekten door een tekort aan<span>&nbsp;</span>jodium.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">In landen als<span>&nbsp;</span>Benin,<span>&nbsp;</span>Congo,<span>&nbsp;</span>Angola<span>&nbsp;</span>en ook op<span>&nbsp;</span>Borneo<span>&nbsp;</span>wordt de cassave gebruikt om<span>&nbsp;</span>cassavepap<span>&nbsp;</span>van te maken. Dit voedzame en zetmeelrijke gerecht wordt gemaakt van gedroogde cassave.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Maniokbloem is<span>&nbsp;</span>glutenvrij<span>&nbsp;</span>en kan gebruikt worden om<span>&nbsp;</span>tarwebloem<span>&nbsp;</span>te vervangen. Het wordt daarom ook wel gebruikt door mensen met<span>&nbsp;</span>allergieën. Tapioca en fufu worden gemaakt van de zetmeelrijke bloem van de maniokwortel.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">In<span>&nbsp;</span>Congo<span>&nbsp;</span>worden ook de bladeren van de cassaveplant bereid als een soort<span>&nbsp;</span>spinazie, onder andere in het typische Congolese gerecht sakasaka. Een ander Congolees gerecht waarin maniokbladeren worden gebruikt, is<span>&nbsp;</span>Moambe.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">In<span>&nbsp;</span>Tanzania<span>&nbsp;</span>worden de bladeren gebruikt voor het gerecht kisamvu. In<span>&nbsp;</span>Madagaskar<span>&nbsp;</span>heet het basisgerecht<span>&nbsp;</span>ravitoto; meestal voegt men buikspek, pinda's en/of kokosmelk toe. In<span>&nbsp;</span>Suriname<span>&nbsp;</span>wordt uit cassave de drank<span>&nbsp;</span>kasiri<span>&nbsp;</span>gemaakt. In tegenstelling tot de knollen, die heel arm aan<span>&nbsp;</span>eiwit<span>&nbsp;</span>zijn, bevatten de bladeren veel eiwit.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">In Nederland zijn de wortelknollen van de cassave te koop in<span>&nbsp;</span>toko's en op de grotere markten.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Deze soort wordt in het Spaans<span>&nbsp;</span><i>yuca</i><span>&nbsp;</span>genoemd en wordt daarom soms verward met soorten uit het niet-verwante geslacht<span>&nbsp;</span>yucca.</p> <h2 style="color: #000000; font-size: 1.5em;"><span class="mw-headline" id="Oogst_en_bewerking">Oogst en bewerking</span></h2> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">In principe kan de cassavewortel het hele jaar door worden geoogst. In landen met constante regenval gebeurt dat ook, in landen met periodieke regens gebeurt het meestal in de droge perioden. Cassave is daarom een gewas dat voedselschaarste kan opvangen in perioden dat andere gewassen niet oogstbaar zijn.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">De wortels en knollen zijn rijk aan zetmeel en suiker, maar ook onderhevig aan snelle chemische verandering zodra ze los van de moederplant en boven de grond zijn. De oogst moet daarom zeer snel, maximaal binnen twee dagen, worden verwerkt; daarentegen kan men het oogsten gemakkelijk enige tijd uitstellen.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Men kapt de struik ongeveer 60 centimeter boven de grond af; bruikbare<span>&nbsp;</span>stekken<span>&nbsp;</span>worden bewaard (de beste manier om de plant te vermenigvuldigen). Dan wordt de struik, eventueel met behulp van een<span>&nbsp;</span>hak, uit de grond getrokken. Na het pellen van de schil worden de wortels geraspt en vervolgens rijkelijk uitgespoeld met water, deels om het zetmeel vrij te maken en deels om het giftige blauwzuur te verwijderen. De traditionele manier was om de vrouwen en kinderen bij het werk te betrekken; het raspsel werd op grote zeven gelegd die door de vrouwen gezamenlijk werden geschud. De overblijvende koek moet worden gedroogd en nogmaals verpulverd, waarna van het meel koeken, pap of<span>&nbsp;</span>chips<span>&nbsp;</span>worden bereid. In grote delen van Afrika, maar ook in tropisch Zuid-Amerika en Zuidoost-Azië is cassave een belangrijk product in het dagelijkse menu. Op de westerse consumptiemarkt ziet men ze vooral als borrelzoutjes of als<span>&nbsp;</span>kroepoek<span>&nbsp;</span>(cassavechips) als bijgerecht bij de oosterse maaltijd.</p> <p style="color: #202122; font-size: 14px;">Sinds de jaren 80 van de 20e eeuw zijn vorderingen gemaakt met mechanische verwerking, hoewel die erg afhankelijk zijn van de grootte van de bedrijven die cassave verbouwen. In veel tropische bedrijven is cassave nog steeds een bijproduct, waarbij de plant vooral als schaduwplant wordt gebruikt in bijvoorbeeld bananenplantages.</p> </div> <script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
P 445
Cassave, maniok zaden (Manihot esculenta)

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