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Persian lime Seeds – limoo, Tahiti lime  - 3

Tahiti Lime Seeds (Citrus...

Price €1.95 (SKU: V 119)
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5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Persian lime Seeds – limoo, Tahiti lime,  Bearss lime (Citrus latifolia)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 2 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>Persian lime (Citrus × latifolia) or limoo is also known as Tahiti lime or Bearss lime (named after John T. Bearss, who developed this seedless variety about 1895 in his nursery at Porterville, California), is a citrus fruit related to the standard lime. It has a uniquely fragrant, spicy aroma.</p> <p>The fruit is about 6 cm in diameter, often with slightly nippled ends, and is usually sold while green, although it yellows as it reaches full ripeness. It is also widely available dried, as it is often used this way in Persian cooking. It is larger, thicker-skinned, with less intense citrus aromatics than the key lime (Citrus aurantifolia).</p> <p>The advantages of the Persian lime in commercial agriculture compared to the Key lime are the larger size, absence of seeds, hardiness, absence of thorns on the bushes, and longer fruit shelf life.</p> <p><strong>They are less acidic than key limes and don't have the bitterness that lends to the key lime's unique flavor.</strong></p> <p>Persian limes are commercialized primarily in six sizes, known as 110s, 150's, 175's, 200's, 230's and 250's. Once grown primarily in Florida in the U.S, it rose to prominence after Key lime orchards were wiped out there by a hurricane in 1926, according to the American Pomological Society, subsequently, Persian lime orchards themselves were devastated by Hurricane Andrew in 1992. Large numbers of Persian limes are grown, processed, and exported every year primarily from Mexico[1] to the American, European and Asian markets. U.S. Persian lime imports from Mexico are handled mostly through McAllen, Texas.</p> <p>Persian limes originate from the Far East and were first grown on a large scale in Persia (now Iran) and southern Iraq.</p> </body> </html>
V 119
Persian lime Seeds – limoo, Tahiti lime  - 3

Variety from Peru

This plant has giant fruits
Worlds Largest Giant Corn Seeds Cuzco

Worlds Largest Giant Corn...

Price €2.25 (SKU: P 40)
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5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Worlds Largest Giant Corn Seeds Cuzco</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 5 or 10 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Native to Peru and Ecuador Peruvian Giant Corn - also known as Choclo is a hideously large variety of corn.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">The stalks reach up to 5 - 5,50 meters in height, a runt in a litter of this cultivar would tower over standard varieties at a whopping 4 metars.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">In standard varieties of corn the average weight runs from 25 - 35 grams per 100 kernels In Peruvian Giant Corn the weight per 100 kernels runs from 90 - 95 grams per 100 kernels - that's nearly 3 times the size and yield.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">It is a late maturing corn and is estimated to need 120 - 150 days to mature. They are not an easy crop to produce, it requires determination and vigilance to grow.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">One would think being indigenous to the Andes mountainous they would be adapted to windy conditions, but this is not the case. They evolved in the Peruvian Urrabamba Valley and vicinity which is sheltered and has relatively mild weather.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Peruvian Giant Corn aka Choclo </span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">They do not withstand strong winds and need persistent staking, at 4 - 5,50 metars in height that's a chore and a half.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">The plants produce numerous relatively short cobs with gigundous kernels.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">The taste is comparable to standard sweet corn. It is not overly sweet - mild to blandly sweet with a creamy texture would be the best description. Peruvians usually boil them. In Ecuador and Bolivia they dry them first then burst or "pop" them in oil - somewhat like popcorn. We gringos can enjoy them the same as any other corn.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Corn Should be planted in blocks as opposed to rows and should not be planted near other varieties of Corn [See - Isolating Sweet Corn.] Cross pollination tends to produce poor tasting starchy corn. Sugar Pearl, as per some suppliers does not need to be isolated as other varieties do - this is just fine for the Sugar Pearl, but not necessarily the other variety.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Peruvian Giant Corn can be seeded directly into the soil, or it can also be started indoors and later transplanted. If starting indoors be sure you have a larger than standard container as it could easily outgrow the container before transplant time. Whichever you choose, Plant it in blocks, at least four rows wide, for proper pollination and well-filled ears</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Sowing depth Aprox.: 5 cm</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Germination: 6 to 8 days</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Maturity: at 120 - 150 days.</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Color: White - Pale Yellow</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Seed Spacing: 30-35 cm apart.</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Row spacing: 100 cm</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">USDA Hardiness Zones: 3- 9</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Plant Size: 400 - 550 cm</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Corn cob Size: 17-20 cm Long</span><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Full Sun</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Above Average Yields per Sq. Footage - Anticipate 3 or more ears per Stalk.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Corn has shallow roots, and uses a lot of nitrogen as well as trace elements. To help your crop get off to the best start possible, prepare the soil first with a nitrogen-rich fertilizer. Well rotted manure or compost is also helpful.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: georgia, palatino, serif; color: #000000;">Plant in the northern side of the garden as corn stalks will deny sunlight to the rest of your garden crops ,you also might want to grow some where it will provide shade to plants that can not tolerate full sunlight.</span></p> <div> <h2><a href="https://www.seeds-gallery.shop/en/home/peruvian-giant-red-sacsa-kuski-corn-seeds.html" target="_blank" title="Peruvian Giant Red Sacsa Kuski Corn Seeds, you can buy HERE" rel="noreferrer noopener"><strong>Peruvian Giant Red Sacsa Kuski Corn Seeds, you can buy HERE</strong></a></h2> </div> </body> </html>
P 40 5S NS
Worlds Largest Giant Corn Seeds Cuzco
Golden Bamboo Seeds - fish pole bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea) 1.95 - 10

Golden Bamboo Seeds - fish...

Price €1.95 (SKU: B 7)
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5/ 5
<h2><span style="font-size:14pt;"><strong>Golden Bamboo Seeds - fish pole bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea)</strong></span></h2> <h2><span style="color:#d0121a;font-size:14pt;"><strong>Price for Package of 5 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>One of the most common bamboos in the United States, and for a good reason: although usually not very tall, it is one of the strongest and most useful. Growing rigidly upright, this bamboo is one of the best for hedges and for planting next to driveways and walkways.</p> <p><span> </span>It often has a series of distorted internodes at the base of the cane, sometimes called "Tortoise Shell" internodes, that are quite ornamental and make this plant useful for craft work. Culm color of the species type is green. Like other Phyllostachys, when exposed to strong direct sunlight, the canes will fade to yellow with age. Phyllostachys aurea can be an aggressive spreader in hot climates, where care must be used in its placement.</p> <p>zones 7-10</p> <p><strong><em>WIKIPEDIA:</em></strong></p> <p>Phyllostachys aurea is a bamboo species of the 'running bamboo' type, belonging to the diverse Bambuseae tribe. It is native to Fujian and Zhejiang in China. It is commonly known by the names fishpole bamboo, golden bamboo, monk's belly bamboo, and fairyland bamboo (Australia).</p> <p><strong>Cultivation</strong></p> <p>P. aurea is cultivated as an ornamental plant for gardens. In the United States, it is considered an invasive species that crowds out native species and is difficult to remove. It is also the most commonly cultivated bamboo in the United States. It is a cold-hardy bamboo, performing well in USDA zones 6 to 10, (Connecticut to Florida).[2] It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.</p> <p><strong>Uses</strong></p> <p>P. aurea's lush foliage makes it desirable for ornamental purposes and privacy hedges, and its characteristic 'knotty' compressed lower internodes render it desirable among collectors.[2] It is well-suited to the making of bamboo pipes.</p> <p><strong>Identification and growth habit</strong></p> <p>The common forms of P. aurea are easily identified by their characteristic compressed internodes in the lower part of the canes which have a tortoise shell-like appearance. This internodal compression result in shorter heights (25 ft) and thicker cane diameters (relative to height) than many other Phyllostachys species.</p> <p>The canes turn yellow in full or partial sun, and deepen into a gold-orange color as the plant matures. Branching and foliage tend to start lower to the ground than many other Phyllostachys species, but some prefer to cut off lower branches to show off the interesting 'tortoise shell' lower part of the canes (see photo).</p>
B 7
Golden Bamboo Seeds - fish pole bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea) 1.95 - 10
"DUKE" Highbush Blueberry Seeds (Vaccinium Corymbosum)

DUKE Blueberry Seeds...

Price €1.95 (SKU: V 194 D)
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5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>DUKE Northern highbush Blueberry Seeds (Vaccinium Corymbosum)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 50 (0,015g) seeds. </strong></span></h2> <p>Duke blueberries are the leading early-ripening (berries begin ripening in early June) blueberry variety. It is known for its high yields (one Duke plant can produce over 9 kg (20 lbs) of uniform-sized, quality fruits. Duke’s mild flavor seems to improve with cold storage.</p> <p>Maintaining the plant vigor of Duke blueberries can be a challenge over a long period of time. Growers must choose a quality growing site and continually employ good cultural practices.</p> <p>The Duke blueberry is one of the leading candidates for mechanical harvest, fresh, and process sales.</p> <p><strong>History</strong></p> <p>Many wild species of Vaccinium are thought to have been cultivated by Native Americans for thousands of years, with intentional crop burnings in northeastern areas being apparent from archeological evidence.[9] V. corymbosum, being one of the species likely used by these peoples, was later studied and domesticated in 1908 by Frederick Vernon Coville.</p> <p><strong>Uses</strong></p> <p>In natural habitats it is a food source for native and migrating birds, bears, and small mammals.</p> <p>The berries were collected and used in Native American cuisine in areas where Vaccinium corymbosum grew as a native plant.</p> <p><strong>Cultivation</strong></p> <p>Vaccinium corymbosum is the most common commercially grown blueberry in present-day North America. It is also cultivated as an ornamental plant for home and wildlife gardens and natural landscaping projects.</p> <h2><em><span style="color: #000000;"><strong>Germination instructions</strong></span></em></h2> <p>Northern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium Corymbosum) – Soak the seeds in a small container of hand hot water and leave to cool for 24 hours. Then sow the seeds on the surface of free-draining, damp, lime-free seed compost and only just cover with compost. 90 days cold stratification at approx 3C° is now required, which can be achieved by either, covering and placing outside in a cold shaded area, or by sealing the pot in a plastic bag and place in a refrigerator. Then move indoors or to a propagator at a minimum temperature of 21C°, until after germination. When large enough to handle, transplant individual seedlings into 9cm pots of ericaceous compost and grow on. Protect from frost. Plant outdoors from June onwards, after hardening off.</p> </body> </html>
V 194 D
"DUKE" Highbush Blueberry Seeds (Vaccinium Corymbosum)
Climbing Strawberry seeds "Mount Everest" (Fragaria x ananassa)

Climbing Strawberry seeds...

Price €2.50 (SKU: V 1 CS)
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5/ 5
<div id="idTab1" class="rte"> <h2><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><em><strong>Climbing Strawberry seeds "Mount Everest"</strong></em></span></h2> <h3><strong><span style="color:#ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of<strong> 10 </strong>seeds.</strong></span><em><br /></em></strong></h3> <p>A unique climbing strawberry! This fast, strong growing variety will produce runners up to 1,5m in length that make a real talking point when trained up a trellis or obelisk climbing frame, or cascading from window boxes and hanging baskets. Better still, Strawberry 'Mount Everest' is an ever-bearering variety that produces a delicious crop of medium sized, sweet, juicy fruits from June right through to September! Height: 1,5m. Spread: 30cm.</p> <p>Estimated time to cropping once planted: 4-8 months.<br />Estimated time to best yields: 4-8 months.</p> </div>
V 1 CS
Climbing Strawberry seeds "Mount Everest" (Fragaria x ananassa)
Bourbon Vanilla Seeds (Vanilla planifolia)

Bourbon Vanilla Seeds...

Price €3.50 (SKU: MHS 104)
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5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Bourbon Vanilla Seeds (Vanilla planifolia)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 50 or 100 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><span>Vanilla planifolia is a species of vanilla orchid. It is native to Mexico and Central America, and is one of the primary sources for vanilla flavouring, due to its high vanillin content. Common names are flat-leaved vanilla, Tahitian vanilla,[citation needed] and West Indian vanilla (also used for the Pompona vanilla, V. pompona). Often, it is simply referred to as "the vanilla". It was first scientifically named in 1808.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla planifolia is found in Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and northeastern South America. It prefers hot, wet, tropical climates. </span></p> <p><span>It is cultivated and harvested primarily in Veracruz, Mexico and in Madagascar.</span></p> <p><span>Like all members of the genus Vanilla, V. planifolia is a vine. It uses its fleshy roots to support itself as it grows.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Flowers</span></strong></p> <p><span>Flowers are greenish-yellow, with a diameter of 5 cm (2 in). They last only a day, and must be pollinated manually, during the morning, if fruit is desired. The plants are self-fertile, and pollination simply requires a transfer of the pollen from the anther to the stigma. If pollination does not occur, the flower is dropped the next day. In the wild, there is less than 1% chance that the flowers will be pollinated, so in order to receive a steady flow of fruit, the flowers must be hand-pollinated when grown on farms.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Fruit</span></strong></p> <p><span>Fruit is produced only on mature plants, which are generally over 3 m (10 ft) long. The fruits are 15-23 cm (6-9 in) long pods (often incorrectly called beans). Outwardly they resemble small bananas. They mature after about five months, at which point they are harvested and cured. Curing ferments and dries the pods while minimizing the loss of essential oils. Vanilla extract is obtained from this portion of the plant.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia). The word vanilla, derived from vainilla, the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina (vaina itself meaning sheath or pod), is translated simply as "little pod". Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people cultivated the vine of the vanilla orchid, called tlilxochitl by the Aztecs. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s.</span></p> <p><span>Pollination is required to set the vanilla fruit from which the flavoring is derived. In 1837, Belgian botanist Charles François Antoine Morren discovered this fact and pioneered a method of artificially pollinating the plant.[3] The method proved financially unworkable and was not deployed commercially.[4] In 1841, Edmond Albius, a slave who lived on the French island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean, discovered at the age of 12 that the plant could be hand-pollinated. Hand-pollination allowed global cultivation of the plant.</span></p> <p><span>Three major species of vanilla currently are grown globally, all of which derive from a species originally found in Mesoamerica, including parts of modern-day Mexico.[6] They are V. planifolia (syn. V. fragrans), grown on Madagascar, Réunion, and other tropical areas along the Indian Ocean; V. tahitensis, grown in the South Pacific; and V. pompona, found in the West Indies, and Central and South America.[7] The majority of the world's vanilla is the V. planifolia species, more commonly known as Bourbon vanilla (after the former name of Réunion, Île Bourbon) or Madagascar vanilla, which is produced in Madagascar and neighboring islands in the southwestern Indian Ocean, and in Indonesia.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla is the second-most expensive spice after saffron.  Despite the expense, vanilla is highly valued for its flavor.  As a result, vanilla is widely used in both commercial and domestic baking, perfume manufacture, and aromatherapy.</span></p> <p><strong><span>History</span></strong></p> <p><span>According to popular belief, the Totonac people, who inhabit the east coast of Mexico in the present-day state of Veracruz, were the first to cultivate vanilla. According to Totonac mythology, the tropical orchid was born when Princess Xanat, forbidden by her father from marrying a mortal, fled to the forest with her lover. The lovers were captured and beheaded. Where their blood touched the ground, the vine of the tropical orchid grew.[4] In the 15th century, Aztecs invading from the central highlands of Mexico conquered the Totonacs, and soon developed a taste for the vanilla pods. They named the fruit tlilxochitl, or "black flower", after the matured fruit, which shrivels and turns black shortly after it is picked. Subjugated by the Aztecs, the Totonacs paid tribute by sending vanilla fruit to the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan.</span></p> <p><span>Until the mid-19th century, Mexico was the chief producer of vanilla. In 1819, French entrepreneurs shipped vanilla fruits to the islands of Réunion and Mauritius in hopes of producing vanilla there. After Edmond Albius discovered how to pollinate the flowers quickly by hand, the pods began to thrive. Soon, the tropical orchids were sent from Réunion to the Comoros Islands, Seychelles, and Madagascar, along with instructions for pollinating them. By 1898, Madagascar, Réunion, and the Comoros Islands produced 200 metric tons of vanilla beans, about 80% of world production. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, Indonesia is currently responsible for the vast majority of the world's Bourbon vanilla production and 58% of the world total vanilla fruit production.</span></p> <p><span>The market price of vanilla rose dramatically in the late 1970s after a tropical cyclone ravaged key croplands. Prices remained high through the early 1980s despite the introduction of Indonesian vanilla. In the mid-1980s, the cartel that had controlled vanilla prices and distribution since its creation in 1930 disbanded. Prices dropped 70% over the next few years, to nearly US$20 per kilogram; prices rose sharply again after tropical cyclone Hudah struck Madagascar in April 2000. The cyclone, political instability, and poor weather in the third year drove vanilla prices to an astonishing US$500/kg in 2004, bringing new countries into the vanilla industry. A good crop, coupled with decreased demand caused by the production of imitation vanilla, pushed the market price down to the $40/kg range in the middle of 2005. By 2010, prices were down to $20/kg. Cyclone Enawo caused in similar spike to $500/kg in 2017.</span></p> <p><span>Madagascar (especially the fertile Sava region) accounts for much of the global production of vanilla. Mexico, once the leading producer of natural vanilla with an annual yield of 500 tons of cured beans, produced only 10 tons in 2006. An estimated 95% of "vanilla" products are artificially flavored with vanillin derived from lignin instead of vanilla fruits.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Etymology</span></strong></p> <p><span>Vanilla was completely unknown in the Old World before Cortés. Spanish explorers arriving on the Gulf Coast of Mexico in the early 16th century gave vanilla its current name. Spanish and Portuguese sailors and explorers brought vanilla into Africa and Asia later that century. They called it vainilla, or "little pod". The word vanilla entered the English language in 1754, when the botanist Philip Miller wrote about the genus in his Gardener’s Dictionary. Vainilla is from the diminutive of vaina, from the Latin vagina (sheath) to describe the shape of the pods.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Vanilla orchid</span></strong></p> <p><span>The main species harvested for vanilla is V. planifolia. Although it is native to Mexico, it is now widely grown throughout the tropics. Indonesia and Madagascar are the world's largest producers. Additional sources include V. pompona and V. tahitiensis (grown in Niue and Tahiti), although the vanillin content of these species is much less than V. planifolia.</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla grows as a vine, climbing up an existing tree (also called a tutor), pole, or other support. It can be grown in a wood (on trees), in a plantation (on trees or poles), or in a "shader", in increasing orders of productivity. Its growth environment is referred to as its terroir, and includes not only the adjacent plants, but also the climate, geography, and local geology. Left alone, it will grow as high as possible on the support, with few flowers. Every year, growers fold the higher parts of the plant downward so the plant stays at heights accessible by a standing human. This also greatly stimulates flowering.</span></p> <p><span>The distinctively flavored compounds are found in the fruit, which results from the pollination of the flower. These seed pods are roughly a third of an inch by six inches, and brownish red to black when ripe. Inside of these pods is an oily liquid full of tiny seeds.[22] One flower produces one fruit. V. planifolia flowers are hermaphroditic: they carry both male (anther) and female (stigma) organs. However, self-pollination is blocked by a membrane which separates those organs. The flowers can be naturally pollinated by bees of genus Melipona (abeja de monte or mountain bee), by bee genus Eulaema, or by hummingbirds. The Melipona bee provided Mexico with a 300-year-long advantage on vanilla production from the time it was first discovered by Europeans. The first vanilla orchid to flower in Europe was in the London collection of the Honourable Charles Greville in 1806. Cuttings from that plant went to Netherlands and Paris, from which the French first transplanted the vines to their overseas colonies. The vines grew, but would not fruit outside Mexico. Growers tried to bring this bee into other growing locales, to no avail. The only way to produce fruits without the bees is artificial pollination. Today, even in Mexico, hand pollination is used extensively.</span></p> <p><span>In 1836, botanist Charles François Antoine Morren was drinking coffee on a patio in Papantla (in Veracruz, Mexico) and noticed black bees flying around the vanilla flowers next to his table. He watched their actions closely as they would land and work their way under a flap inside the flower, transferring pollen in the process. Within hours, the flowers closed and several days later, Morren noticed vanilla pods beginning to form. Morren immediately began experimenting with hand pollination. A few years later in 1841, a simple and efficient artificial hand-pollination method was developed by a 12-year-old slave named Edmond Albius on Réunion, a method still used today. Using a beveled sliver of bamboo, an agricultural worker lifts the membrane separating the anther and the stigma, then, using the thumb, transfers the pollinia from the anther to the stigma. The flower, self-pollinated, will then produce a fruit. The vanilla flower lasts about one day, sometimes less, so growers have to inspect their plantations every day for open flowers, a labor-intensive task.</span></p> <p><span>The fruit, a seed capsule, if left on the plant, ripens and opens at the end; as it dries, the phenolic compounds crystallize, giving the fruits a diamond-dusted appearance, which the French call givre (hoarfrost). It then releases the distinctive vanilla smell. The fruit contains tiny, black seeds. In dishes prepared with whole natural vanilla, these seeds are recognizable as black specks. Both the pod and the seeds are used in cooking.</span></p> <p><span>Like other orchids' seeds, vanilla seeds will not germinate without the presence of certain mycorrhizal fungi. Instead, growers reproduce the plant by cutting: they remove sections of the vine with six or more leaf nodes, a root opposite each leaf. The two lower leaves are removed, and this area is buried in loose soil at the base of a support. The remaining upper roots cling to the support, and often grow down into the soil. Growth is rapid under good conditions.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Cultivars</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span>Bourbon vanilla</span></strong><span> or Bourbon-Madagascar vanilla, produced from V. planifolia plants introduced from the Americas, is from Indian Ocean islands such as Madagascar, the Comoros, and Réunion, formerly the Île Bourbon. It is also used to describe the distinctive vanilla flavor derived from V. planifolia grown successfully in tropical countries such as India.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Mexican vanilla</span></strong><span>, made from the native V. planifolia,[26] is produced in much less quantity and marketed as the vanilla from the land of its origin. Vanilla sold in tourist markets around Mexico is sometimes not actual vanilla extract, but is mixed with an extract of the tonka bean, which contains the toxin coumarin. Tonka bean extract smells and tastes like vanilla, but coumarin has been shown to cause liver damage in lab animals and has been banned in food in the US by the Food and Drug Administration since 1954.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Tahitian vanilla</span></strong><span> is from French Polynesia, made with V. tahitiensis. Genetic analysis shows this species is possibly a cultivar from a hybrid of V. planifolia and V. odorata. The species was introduced by French Admiral François Alphonse Hamelin to French Polynesia from the Philippines, where it was introduced from Guatemala by the Manila Galleon trade.</span></p> <p><strong><span>West Indian vanilla</span></strong><span> is made from V. pompona grown in the Caribbean and Central and South America.</span></p> <p><span>The term French vanilla is often used to designate particular preparations with a strong vanilla aroma, containing vanilla grains and sometimes also containing eggs (especially egg yolks). The appellation originates from the French style of making vanilla ice cream with a custard base, using vanilla pods, cream, and egg yolks. Inclusion of vanilla varietals from any of the former French dependencies or overseas France may be a part of the flavoring. Alternatively, French vanilla is taken to refer to a vanilla-custard flavor.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Chemistry</span></strong></p> <p><span>Vanilla essence occurs in two forms. Real seedpod extract is a complex mixture of several hundred different compounds, including vanillin, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, furfural, hexanoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, eugenol, methyl cinnamate, and isobutyric acid.[citation needed] Synthetic essence consists of a solution of synthetic vanillin in ethanol. The chemical compound vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is a major contributor to the characteristic flavor and aroma of real vanilla and is the main flavor component of cured vanilla beans.[30] Vanillin was first isolated from vanilla pods by Gobley in 1858. By 1874, it had been obtained from glycosides of pine tree sap, temporarily causing a depression in the natural vanilla industry. Vanillin can be easily synthesized from various raw materials, but the majority of food-grade (&gt; 99% pure) vanillin is made from guaiacol.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Pollination</span></strong></p> <p><span>Flowering normally occurs every spring, and without pollination, the blossom wilts and falls, and no vanilla bean can grow. Each flower must be hand-pollinated within 12 hours of opening. In the wild, very few natural pollinators exist, with most pollination thought to be carried out by the shiny green Euglossa viridissima, some Eulaema spp. and other species of the euglossine or orchid bees, Euglossini, though direct evidence is lacking. Closely related Vanilla species are known to be pollinated by the euglossine bees.[40] The previously suggested pollination by stingless bees of the genus Melipona is thought to be improbable, as they are too small to be effective and have never been observed carrying Vanilla pollen or pollinating other orchids, though they do visit the flowers.[41] These pollinators do not exist outside the orchid's home range, and even within that range, vanilla orchids have only a 1% chance of successful pollination. As a result, all vanilla grown today is pollinated by hand. A small splinter of wood or a grass stem is used to lift the rostellum or move the flap upward, so the overhanging anther can be pressed against the stigma and self-pollinate the vine. Generally, one flower per raceme opens per day, so the raceme may be in flower for over 20 days. A healthy vine should produce about 50 to 100 beans per year, but growers are careful to pollinate only five or six flowers from the 20 on each raceme. The first flowers that open per vine should be pollinated, so the beans are similar in age. These agronomic practices facilitate harvest and increases bean quality. The fruits require five to six weeks to develop, but around six months to mature. Over-pollination results in diseases and inferior bean quality.[35] A vine remains productive between 12 and 14 years.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Harvest</span></strong></p> <p><span>Harvesting vanilla fruits is as labor-intensive as pollinating the blossoms. Immature, dark green pods are not harvested. Pale yellow discoloration that commences at the distal end of the fruits is not a good indication of the maturity of pods. Each fruit ripens at its own time, requiring a daily harvest. "Current methods for determining the maturity of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) beans are unreliable. Yellowing at the blossom end, the current index, occurs before beans accumulate maximum glucovanillin concentrations. Beans left on the vine until they turn brown have higher glucovanillin concentrations but may split and have low quality. Judging bean maturity is difficult as they reach full size soon after pollination. Glucovanillin accumulates from 20 weeks, maximum about 40 weeks after pollination. Mature green beans have 20% dry matter but less than 2% glucovanillin."[46] The accumulation of dry matter and glucovanillin are highly correlated.To ensure the finest flavor from every fruit, each individual pod must be picked by hand just as it begins to split on the end. Overmatured fruits are likely to split, causing a reduction in market value. Its commercial value is fixed based on the length and appearance of the pod.</span></p> <p><span>If the fruit is more than 15 cm (5.9 in) in length, it is categorized as first-quality. The largest fruits greater than 16 cm and up to as much as 21 cm are usually reserved for the gourmet vanilla market, for sale to top chefs and restaurants. If the fruits are between 10 and 15 cm long, pods are under the second-quality category, and fruits less than 10 cm in length are under the third-quality category. Each fruit contains thousands of tiny black vanilla seeds. Vanilla fruit yield depends on the care and management given to the hanging and fruiting vines. Any practice directed to stimulate aerial root production has a direct effect on vine productivity. A five-year-old vine can produce between 1.5 and 3 kg (3.3 and 6.6 lb) pods, and this production can increase up to 6 kg (13 lb) after a few years. The harvested green fruit can be commercialized as such or cured to get a better market price.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Culinary uses</span></strong></p> <p><span>The four main commercial preparations of natural vanilla are:</span></p> <p><span>Whole pod</span></p> <p><span>Powder (ground pods, kept pure or blended with sugar, starch, or other ingredients)</span></p> <p><span>Extract (in alcoholic or occasionally glycerol solution; both pure and imitation forms of vanilla contain at least 35% alcohol)</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla sugar, a packaged mix of sugar and vanilla extract</span></p> <p><span>Vanilla flavoring in food may be achieved by adding vanilla extract or by cooking vanilla pods in the liquid preparation. A stronger aroma may be attained if the pods are split in two, exposing more of a pod's surface area to the liquid. In this case, the pods' seeds are mixed into the preparation. Natural vanilla gives a brown or yellow color to preparations, depending on the concentration. Good-quality vanilla has a strong, aromatic flavor, but food with small amounts of low-quality vanilla or artificial vanilla-like flavorings are far more common, since true vanilla is much more expensive.</span></p> <p><span>Regarded as the world's most popular aroma and flavor, vanilla is a widely used aroma and flavor compound for foods, beverages and cosmetics, as indicated by its popularity as an ice cream flavor.[64] Although vanilla is a prized flavoring agent on its own, it is also used to enhance the flavor of other substances, to which its own flavor is often complementary, such as chocolate, custard, caramel, coffee, and others. Vanilla is a common ingredient in Western sweet baked goods, such as cookies and cakes.</span></p> <p><span>The food industry uses methyl and ethyl vanillin as less-expensive substitutes for real vanilla. Ethyl vanillin is more expensive, but has a stronger note. Cook's Illustrated ran several taste tests pitting vanilla against vanillin in baked goods and other applications, and to the consternation of the magazine editors, tasters could not differentiate the flavor of vanillin from vanilla; however, for the case of vanilla ice cream, natural vanilla won out.[66] A more recent and thorough test by the same group produced a more interesting variety of results; namely, high-quality artificial vanilla flavoring is best for cookies, while high-quality real vanilla is slightly better for cakes and significantly better for unheated or lightly heated foods. The liquid extracted from vanilla pods was once believed to have medical properties, helping with various stomach ailments.</span></p> </body> </html>
MHS 104
Bourbon Vanilla Seeds (Vanilla planifolia)
Giant strawberry seeds

Giant strawberry seeds

Price €2.85 (SKU: V 1 GS)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Giant strawberry seeds</strong></h2> <h2 style="font-size: 2rem;"><strong><span style="color: #ff0000;">Price for Package of 100 (0.06g) seeds.</span></strong></h2> <p>Strawberries, Fragaria ananassa L. Maximus, are quite easy to grow! They are perennial, winter hardy, and will thrive in full sunshine, as long as the soil is fertile and well-drained. Healthy plants will produce an abundance of berries for years! Strawberries are as big as apples! This standard "GIANT" type will provide you with the largest crop! These everbearing Giants will produce throughout the summer for Best desserts and snacks!</p> <p>Strawberries need light to germinate and their seeds shouldn't be covered. But practice has shown that uncovered strawberry seeds dry out very quickly during germination. I, therefore, recommend covering the seed very lightly with sieved seeding soil. After sowing and moistening, you can also place a glass pane on the sowing tray.</p> <p>Seeds need at least 60 days of stratification.</p><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
V 1 GS (0,06G)
Giant strawberry seeds
Exotic Rare Black Strawberry Seeds

Black Strawberry Seeds -...

Price €2.25 (SKU: V 1)
,
5/ 5
<h2>Black Strawberry Seeds - Exotic Rare</h2> <h2><span style="color:#ff0000;">Price for Package of 10 seeds.</span></h2> <p><strong style="color:#ff0000;font-size:18px;"></strong>A lovely Black Strawberry that is fully hardy. Perfect for small spaces or containers, it will produce an abundance of small sweet fruit, with a hint of pineapple.</p> <p>Heavy cropping and easy to grow.</p> <p>Perennial herb densely clustered with straighter branches.15-25cm in height. Cymose anthotaxy with juicy flesh. Require loosing and weeding at intervals on the loose fertile soil with ample organic fertilizers. Favor to warm and need moisture to live through the winter.</p> <div> <div> <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="1"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" width="100%" valign="top"> <h3 align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Instructions</strong></span></h3> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Propagation:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">Seeds</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Pretreat:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">0</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Stratification:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">0</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">all year round</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Depth:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">Needs Light to germinate! Just sprinkle on the surface of the substrate + gently press</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Sowing Mix:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">Coir or sowing mix + sand or perlite</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Germination temperature:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">20-25°C</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Location:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">bright + keep constantly moist not wet</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Germination Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">1 - 8 weeks</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;"><strong>Watering:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><span style="color:#008000;">Water regularly during the growing season</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> </td> <td valign="top"> <p align="center"><br /><span style="color:#008000;"><em>Copyright © 2012 Seeds Gallery - Saatgut Galerie - Galerija semena. </em><em>All Rights Reserved.</em></span></p> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p> </p> </div> </div>
V 1
Exotic Rare Black Strawberry Seeds
Madake, Giant Timber Bamboo Seeds  - 3

Madake, Giant Timber Bamboo...

Price €1.95 (SKU: B 6)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Madake, Giant Timber Bamboo Seeds (Phyllostachys bambusoides)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 5 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>Phyllostachys bambusoides, commonly called madake, giant timber bamboo or Japanese timber bamboo, is a bamboo species in the genus Phyllostachys.</p> <p>Madake is typically known for being the most common type of bamboo used in the making of shakuhachi flutes and is utilized in numerous Japanese, as well as Chinese, arts, and crafts.</p> <p>Phyllostachys bambusoides can reach a height of 15–22 m and a diameter of 10–15 cm. The culms are dark green, quite thick and very straight. The leaves are dark green. New stalks emerge in late spring and grow quite rapidly, up to 1 meter each day. The flowering interval of this species is very long, about 120 years. This strong plant is in Asia one of the preferred bamboos for building and in the manufacture of furniture.</p> <p>This species is native to China, but it is commonly grown worldwide, especially in Japan.</p> </body> </html>
B 6
Madake, Giant Timber Bamboo Seeds  - 3

Carolina Reaper Seeds Red or Yellow Worlds Hottest 2.45 - 1

100 Seeds Carolina Reaper

Price €5.50 (SKU: C 97 (0,47g))
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>100 Seeds Carolina Reaper</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 100 (0,47g) seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><strong>As you can see yourself from our photos, that the seeds are from our own plants (organically grown) and you know what you will get from the seeds you buy from us... </strong></p> <p>The Carolina Reaper, originally named the HP22BNH7, is a cultivar of chili pepper of the Capsicum chinense species. Bred in the Rock Hill, South Carolina greenhouse by Ed Currie, who runs the PuckerButt Pepper Company in Fort Mill, South Carolina, it has been rated as the world's hottest chili pepper by Guinness World Records since August 7, 2013. The original crossbreed was between a ghost pepper (a former world record holder) and a red habanero. The official Guinness World Record heat level is 1,569,300 Scoville Heat Units (SHU), according to tests conducted by Winthrop University in South Carolina.</p> <p>At the second Annual New York City Hot Sauce Expo on 30 March 2014, Ed Currie was presented with his world record by Guinness World Records and an eating competition was held in which the fastest time to consume three Carolina Reapers was determined for a new Guinness World Records at 12.23 seconds by Russel Todd. This record was beaten in September 2014 by Jason McNabb, who finished three peppers in 10.95 seconds.</p> </body> </html>
C 97 (0,47g)
Carolina Reaper Seeds Red or Yellow Worlds Hottest 2.45 - 1
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Giant Sunflower Seeds - Giant Russian Mammoth 1.85 - 1

Giant Sunflower Seeds -...

Price €1.85 (SKU: VE 68)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Giant Sunflower Seeds - Giant Russian Mammoth</strong></h2> <h3><span style="color: #ff0000;" class=""><b style="color: #ff0000;">Price for Package of </b><font color="#ff0000"><b>1g (10), 9g (100)</b></font><b style="color: #ff0000;">&nbsp;seeds.</b></span></h3> <p>This popular and easy to grow Giant Russian Mammoth Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Organic Heirloom Variety.</p> <p>These plants make beautiful flowers that produce tasty, edible seeds. Stalks can grow to 8-12 feet (2.1-3.7 meters) with Giant flowers. Will tolerate poorer quality soils.</p> <p>Sow seed after danger of frost in an area that receives full sun. Sow seed 8 inches apart and about 1 inch deep. Thin seedlings when they are 3 inches tall so that the final spacing is 15 inches apart. They bloom during summer.</p>
VE 68 (1g)
Giant Sunflower Seeds - Giant Russian Mammoth 1.85 - 1

Best seller product
Cassava, Yuca, Macaxeira, Mandioca, Aipim Seeds 3 - 6

Cassava, Yuca Seeds...

Price €4.95 (SKU: P 445)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Cassava, Yuca, Macaxeira, Mandioca, Aipim Seeds (Manihot esculenta)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;" class=""><strong>Price for Package of 3 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><i><b>Manihot esculenta</b></i>,<span>&nbsp;</span>commonly called<span>&nbsp;</span><b>cassava</b><span>&nbsp;</span>(<span class="nowrap"><span class="IPA nopopups noexcerpt">/<span><span title="'k' in 'kind'">k</span><span title="/ə/: 'a' in 'about'">ə</span><span title="/ˈ/: primary stress follows">ˈ</span><span title="'s' in 'sigh'">s</span><span title="/ɑː/: 'a' in 'father'">ɑː</span><span title="'v' in 'vie'">v</span><span title="/ə/: 'a' in 'about'">ə</span></span>/</span></span>),<span>&nbsp;</span><b>manioc</b>,<span>&nbsp;</span><b>yuca</b>,<span>&nbsp;</span><b>macaxeira</b>,<span>&nbsp;</span><b>mandioca,</b><span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span><b>aipim</b>, is a woody<span>&nbsp;</span>shrub<span>&nbsp;</span>native to South America of the<span>&nbsp;</span>spurge<span>&nbsp;</span>family,<span>&nbsp;</span>Euphorbiaceae. Although a perennial plant, cassava is extensively cultivated as an annual<span>&nbsp;</span>crop<span>&nbsp;</span>in<span>&nbsp;</span>tropical<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>subtropical<span>&nbsp;</span>regions for its edible<span>&nbsp;</span>starchy<span>&nbsp;</span>tuberous root, a major source of<span>&nbsp;</span>carbohydrates. Though it is often called<span>&nbsp;</span><i><b>yuca</b></i><span>&nbsp;</span>in Latin American Spanish and in the United States, it is not related to<span>&nbsp;</span>yucca, a shrub in the family<span>&nbsp;</span>Asparagaceae. Cassava is predominantly consumed in boiled form, but substantial quantities are used to extract cassava starch, called<span>&nbsp;</span>tapioca, which is used for food, animal feed, and industrial purposes. The Brazilian Farinha, and the related<span>&nbsp;</span><i>garri</i><span>&nbsp;</span>of West Africa, is an edible coarse flour obtained by grating cassava roots, pressing moisture off the obtained grated pulp, and finally drying it (and roasting in the case of Farinha).</p> <p>Cassava is the third-largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics, after<span>&nbsp;</span>rice<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>maize.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference">[3]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference">[4]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Cassava is a major<span>&nbsp;</span>staple food<span>&nbsp;</span>in the developing world, providing a basic diet for over half a billion people.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference">[5]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils. Nigeria is the world's largest producer of cassava, while Thailand is the largest exporter of cassava starch.</p> <p>Cassava is classified as either sweet or bitter. Like other roots and tubers, both bitter and sweet varieties of cassava contain<span>&nbsp;</span>antinutritional<span>&nbsp;</span>factors and toxins, with the bitter varieties containing much larger amounts.<sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-0" class="reference">[6]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual<span>&nbsp;</span>cyanide<span>&nbsp;</span>to cause acute<span>&nbsp;</span>cyanide intoxication,<sup id="cite_ref-promedmail-4799579_7-0" class="reference">[7]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference">[8]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>goiters, and even<span>&nbsp;</span>ataxia, partial paralysis, or death. The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource (a "food security<span>&nbsp;</span>crop") in times of famine or food insecurity in some places.<sup id="cite_ref-promedmail-4799579_7-1" class="reference">[7]</sup><sup id="cite_ref-fao.org_6-1" class="reference">[6]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Farmers often prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests, animals, and thieves.<sup id="cite_ref-leisa_9-0" class="reference"></sup></p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Description">Description</span></h2> <p>The cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1&nbsp;mm thick, rough and brown on the outside. Commercial<span>&nbsp;</span>cultivars<span>&nbsp;</span>can be 5 to 10&nbsp;cm (2.0 to 3.9&nbsp;in) in diameter at the top, and around 15 to 30&nbsp;cm (5.9 to 11.8&nbsp;in) long. A woody vascular bundle runs along the root's<span>&nbsp;</span>axis. The flesh can be chalk-white or yellowish. Cassava roots are very rich in<span>&nbsp;</span>starch<span>&nbsp;</span>and contain small amounts of calcium (16&nbsp;mg/100 g), phosphorus (27&nbsp;mg/100 g), and vitamin C (20.6&nbsp;mg/100 g).<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference">[10]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>However, they are poor in<span>&nbsp;</span>protein<span>&nbsp;</span>and other<span>&nbsp;</span>nutrients. In contrast, cassava leaves are a good source of protein (rich in lysine), but deficient in the<span>&nbsp;</span>amino acid<span>&nbsp;</span>methionine<span>&nbsp;</span>and possibly<span>&nbsp;</span>tryptophan.<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference">[11]</sup></p> <div class="thumb tmulti tleft"> <div class="thumbinner"> <div class="trow"> <div class="theader">Details of cassava plants</div> </div> <div class="trow"> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/Manihot_esculenta_dsc07325.jpg/135px-Manihot_esculenta_dsc07325.jpg" width="135" height="101"></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Unprocessed roots</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/Cassava1_%283945716612%29.jpg/152px-Cassava1_%283945716612%29.jpg" width="152" height="101"></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Leaf</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Cassava2_%283945624614%29.jpg/152px-Cassava2_%283945624614%29.jpg" width="152" height="101"></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Leaf detail</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Cassava_buds_%284733912948%29.jpg/67px-Cassava_buds_%284733912948%29.jpg" width="67" height="101"></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Picked buds</div> </div> <div class="tsingle"> <div class="thumbimage"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/Manihot_esculenta_MHNT.BOT.2004.0.508.jpg/146px-Manihot_esculenta_MHNT.BOT.2004.0.508.jpg" width="146" height="101"></div> <div class="thumbcaption text-align-center">Seeds</div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span></h2> <div class="thumb tleft"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Albert_Eckhout_-_Mandioca.jpg/220px-Albert_Eckhout_-_Mandioca.jpg" width="220" height="221" class="thumbimage"> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> 17th c. painting by<span>&nbsp;</span>Albert Eckhout<span>&nbsp;</span>in<span>&nbsp;</span>Dutch Brazil</div> </div> </div> <p>Wild populations of<span>&nbsp;</span><i>M. esculenta</i><span>&nbsp;</span>subspecies<span>&nbsp;</span><i>flabellifolia</i>, shown to be the progenitor of domesticated cassava, are centered in west-central Brazil, where it was likely first domesticated no more than 10,000 years<span>&nbsp;</span>BP.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference">[12]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Forms of the modern domesticated species can also be found growing in the wild in the south of Brazil. By 4,600 BC, manioc (cassava) pollen appears in the<span>&nbsp;</span>Gulf of Mexico<span>&nbsp;</span>lowlands, at the<span>&nbsp;</span>San Andrés<span>&nbsp;</span>archaeological site.<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference">[13]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The oldest direct evidence of cassava cultivation comes from a 1,400-year-old<span>&nbsp;</span>Maya<span>&nbsp;</span>site,<span>&nbsp;</span>Joya de Cerén, in<span>&nbsp;</span>El Salvador.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference">[14]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>With its high food potential, it had become a<span>&nbsp;</span>staple food<span>&nbsp;</span>of the native populations of northern South America, southern Mesoamerica, and the Caribbean by the time of European contact in 1492. Cassava was a staple food of<span>&nbsp;</span>pre-Columbian<span>&nbsp;</span>peoples in the Americas and is often portrayed in<span>&nbsp;</span>indigenous art. The<span>&nbsp;</span>Moche<span>&nbsp;</span>people often depicted yuca in their ceramics.<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference">[15]</sup></p> <p>Spaniards in their early occupation of Caribbean islands did not want to eat cassava or maize, which they considered insubstantial, dangerous, and not nutritious. They much preferred foods from Spain, specifically wheat bread, olive oil, red wine, and meat, and considered maize and cassava damaging to Europeans.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference">[16]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The cultivation and consumption of cassava was nonetheless continued in both Portuguese and Spanish America. Mass production of cassava bread became the first Cuban industry established by the Spanish,<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference">[17]</sup>Ships departing to Europe from Cuban ports such as<span>&nbsp;</span>Havana,<span>&nbsp;</span>Santiago,<span>&nbsp;</span>Bayamo, and<span>&nbsp;</span>Baracoa<span>&nbsp;</span>carried goods to Spain, but sailors needed to be provisioned for the voyage. The Spanish also needed to replenish their boats with dried meat, water, fruit, and large amounts of cassava bread.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference">[18]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Sailors complained that it caused them digestive problems.<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference">[19]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Tropical Cuban weather was not suitable for wheat planting and cassava would not go stale as quickly as regular bread.</p> <p>Cassava was introduced to Africa by Portuguese traders from Brazil in the 16th century. Around the same period, it was also introduced to Asia through<span>&nbsp;</span>Columbian Exchange<span>&nbsp;</span>by Portuguese and Spanish traders, planted in their colonies in Goa, Malacca, Eastern Indonesia, Timor and the Philippines.<span>&nbsp;</span>Maize<span>&nbsp;</span>and cassava are now important staple foods, replacing native African crops in places such as Tanzania.<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference">[20]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Cassava has also become an important staple in Asia, extensively cultivated in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam.<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference">[21]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Cassava is sometimes described as the "bread of the tropics"<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference">[22]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>but should not be confused with the tropical and equatorial<span>&nbsp;</span>bread tree<span>&nbsp;</span><i>(Encephalartos)</i>, the<span>&nbsp;</span>breadfruit<span>&nbsp;</span><i>(Artocarpus altilis)</i><span>&nbsp;</span>or the<span>&nbsp;</span>African breadfruit<span>&nbsp;</span><i>(Treculia africana)</i>.</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Production">Production</span></h2> <p>In 2016, global production of cassava root was 277 million<span>&nbsp;</span>tonnes, with<span>&nbsp;</span>Nigeria<span>&nbsp;</span>as the world's largest producer having 21% of the world total (table). Other major growers were<span>&nbsp;</span>Thailand,<span>&nbsp;</span>Brazil, and<span>&nbsp;</span>Indonesia.<sup id="cite_ref-faostat16_23-0" class="reference">[23]</sup></p> <table class="wikitable"> <tbody> <tr> <th colspan="2">Cassava production – 2016</th> </tr> <tr> <th>Country</th> <th><small>Production (millions of<span>&nbsp;</span>tonnes)</small></th> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/79/Flag_of_Nigeria.svg/23px-Flag_of_Nigeria.svg.png" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder">&nbsp;</span>Nigeria</center></td> <td><center>57.1</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Flag_of_Thailand.svg/23px-Flag_of_Thailand.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder">&nbsp;</span>Thailand</center></td> <td><center>31.1</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg/22px-Flag_of_Brazil.svg.png" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder">&nbsp;</span>Brazil</center></td> <td><center>21.1</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Flag_of_Indonesia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Indonesia.svg.png" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder">&nbsp;</span>Indonesia</center></td> <td><center>20.7</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo.svg/20px-Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo.svg.png" width="20" height="15" class="thumbborder">&nbsp;</span>Democratic Republic of the Congo</center></td> <td><center>14.7</center></td> </tr> <tr> <td><center><b>World</b></center></td> <td><center><b>277.1</b></center></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"><center><small>Source:<span>&nbsp;</span>FAOSTAT<span>&nbsp;</span>of the<span>&nbsp;</span>United Nations<sup id="cite_ref-faostat16_23-1" class="reference">[23]</sup></small></center></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Cassava is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, can be successfully grown on marginal soils, and gives reasonable yields where many other crops do not grow well. Cassava is well adapted within latitudes 30° north and south of the equator, at elevations between sea level and 2,000&nbsp;m (6,600&nbsp;ft) above sea level, in equatorial temperatures, with rainfalls from 50&nbsp;mm (2.0&nbsp;in) to 5&nbsp;m (16&nbsp;ft) annually, and to poor soils with a pH ranging from acidic to alkaline. These conditions are common in certain parts of Africa and South America.</p> <p>Cassava is a highly-productive crop when considering food calories produced per unit land area, per unit of time. Significantly higher than other staple crops, cassava can produce food calories at rates exceeding 250,000 kcal/hectare/day, as compared with 176,000 for rice, 110,000 for wheat and 200,000 for maize (corn).</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Economic_importance">Economic importance</span></h2> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also:<span>&nbsp;</span>Tapioca §&nbsp;Production</div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3e/Manihot_esculenta_-_cross_section_2.jpg/220px-Manihot_esculenta_-_cross_section_2.jpg" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage"> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> A cassava tuber in cross-section</div> </div> </div> <p>Cassava,<span>&nbsp;</span>yams<span>&nbsp;</span>(<i>Dioscorea</i><span>&nbsp;</span>spp.), and<span>&nbsp;</span>sweet potatoes<span>&nbsp;</span>(<i>Ipomoea batatas</i>) are important sources of food in the tropics. The cassava plant gives the third-highest yield of<span>&nbsp;</span>carbohydrates<span>&nbsp;</span>per cultivated area among crop plants, after<span>&nbsp;</span>sugarcane<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>sugar beets.<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference">[24]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Cassava plays a particularly important role in agriculture in developing countries, especially in<span>&nbsp;</span>sub-Saharan Africa, because it does well on poor soils and with low rainfall, and because it is a perennial that can be harvested as required. Its wide harvesting window allows it to act as a famine reserve and is invaluable in managing labor schedules. It offers flexibility to resource-poor farmers because it serves as either a subsistence or a cash crop.<sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference">[25]</sup></p> <p>Worldwide, 800 million people depend on cassava as their primary food staple.<sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference">[26]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>No continent depends as much on root and tuber crops in feeding its population as does Africa. In the humid and sub-humid areas of tropical Africa, it is either a primary staple food or a secondary costaple. In<span>&nbsp;</span>Ghana, for example, cassava and yams occupy an important position in the agricultural economy and contribute about 46 percent of the agricultural gross domestic product. Cassava accounts for a daily caloric intake of 30 percent in<span>&nbsp;</span>Ghanaand is grown by nearly every farming family. The importance of cassava to many Africans is epitomised in the<span>&nbsp;</span>Ewe<span>&nbsp;</span>(a language spoken in Ghana,<span>&nbsp;</span>Togo<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>Benin) name for the plant,<span>&nbsp;</span><i>agbeli</i>, meaning "there is life".</p> <p>In<span>&nbsp;</span>Tamil Nadu, India, there are many cassava processing factories alongside<span>&nbsp;</span>National Highway 68<span>&nbsp;</span>between<span>&nbsp;</span>Thalaivasal<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>Attur. Cassava is widely cultivated and eaten as a staple food in<span>&nbsp;</span>Andhra Pradesh<span>&nbsp;</span>and in<span>&nbsp;</span>Kerala. In<span>&nbsp;</span>Assam<span>&nbsp;</span>it is an important source of carbohydrates especially for natives of hilly areas.</p> <p>In the subtropical region of southern China, cassava is the fifth-largest crop in term of production, after<span>&nbsp;</span>rice,<span>&nbsp;</span>sweet potato,<span>&nbsp;</span>sugar cane, and<span>&nbsp;</span>maize. China is also the largest export market for cassava produced in Vietnam and Thailand. Over 60 percent of cassava production in China is concentrated in a single province,<span>&nbsp;</span>Guangxi, averaging over seven million tonnes annually.</p> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Uses">Uses</span></h2> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also:<span>&nbsp;</span>Tapioca §&nbsp;Uses</div> <table class="box-More_citations_needed_section plainlinks metadata ambox ambox-content ambox-Refimprove"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="mbox-image"> <div><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/50px-Question_book-new.svg.png" width="50" height="39"></div> </td> <td class="mbox-text"> <div class="mbox-text-span">This section<span>&nbsp;</span><b>needs additional citations for<span>&nbsp;</span>verification</b>.<span class="hide-when-compact"><span>&nbsp;</span>Please help<span>&nbsp;</span>improve this article<span>&nbsp;</span>by<span>&nbsp;</span>adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.<br><small><span class="plainlinks"><i>Find sources:</i>&nbsp;"Cassava"&nbsp;–&nbsp;news&nbsp;<b>·</b><span>&nbsp;</span>newspapers&nbsp;<b>·</b><span>&nbsp;</span>books&nbsp;<b>·</b><span>&nbsp;</span>scholar&nbsp;<b>·</b><span>&nbsp;</span>JSTOR</span></small></span><span>&nbsp;</span><small class="date-container"><i>(<span class="date">August 2017</span>)</i></small><small class="hide-when-compact"><i><span>&nbsp;</span>(Learn how and when to remove this template message)</i></small></div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Cambodia16_lo_%284039995158%29.jpg/220px-Cambodia16_lo_%284039995158%29.jpg" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage"> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Processing cassava starch into cassava noodles,<span>&nbsp;</span>Kampong Cham</div> </div> </div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Alcoholic_beverages">Alcoholic beverages</span></h3> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article:<span>&nbsp;</span>Alcoholic beverage §&nbsp;Beverages by type</div> <p>Alcoholic beverages<span>&nbsp;</span>made from cassava include<span>&nbsp;</span>cauim<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>tiquira<span>&nbsp;</span>(Brazil),<span>&nbsp;</span>kasiri<span>&nbsp;</span>(Guyana, Suriname), impala (Mozambique), masato (Peruvian<span>&nbsp;</span>Amazonia chicha),<span>&nbsp;</span>parakari<span>&nbsp;</span>or kari (Guyana),<span>&nbsp;</span>nihamanchi<span>&nbsp;</span>(South America) also known as nijimanche (Ecuador and Peru), ö döi (chicha de yuca, Ngäbe-Bugle, Panama), sakurá (Brazil, Suriname), and tarul ko jaarh (Darjeeling, Sikkim, India).</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Culinary">Culinary</span></h3> <div class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article:<span>&nbsp;</span>Cassava-based dishes</div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner"><img alt="" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Cassava_heavy_cake.jpg/220px-Cassava_heavy_cake.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage"> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"></div> Cassava heavy cake</div> </div> </div> <p>Cassava-based dishes<span>&nbsp;</span>are widely consumed wherever the plant is cultivated; some have regional, national, or ethnic importance.<sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference">[27]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>Cassava must be cooked properly to detoxify it before it is eaten.</p> <p>Cassava can be cooked in many ways. The root of the sweet variety has a delicate flavor and can replace potatoes. It is used in<span>&nbsp;</span>cholent<span>&nbsp;</span>in some households.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (December 2018)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>It can be made into a flour that is used in breads, cakes and cookies. In Brazil, detoxified manioc is ground and cooked to a dry, often hard or crunchy meal known as<span>&nbsp;</span><i>farofa</i><span>&nbsp;</span>used as a condiment, toasted in butter, or eaten alone as a side dish.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Nutritional_profile">Nutritional profile</span></h3> <table class="infobox nowrap"><caption>Cassava, raw</caption> <tbody> <tr> <th colspan="2">Nutritional value per 100&nbsp;g (3.5&nbsp;oz)</th> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Energy</th> <td>160&nbsp;kcal (670&nbsp;kJ)</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Carbohydrates</b></div> </th> <td> <div>38.1&nbsp;g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Sugars</th> <td>1.7&nbsp;g</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Dietary fiber</th> <td>1.8&nbsp;g</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Fat</b></div> </th> <td> <div>0.3&nbsp;g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"> <div><b>Protein</b></div> </th> <td> <div>1.4&nbsp;g</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Vitamins</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b><span><abbr title="Percentage of Daily Value"><b>%DV</b></abbr><sup>†</sup></span></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Thiamine<span>&nbsp;</span><span>(B1)</span></th> <td> <div>8%</div> 0.087 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Riboflavin<span>&nbsp;</span><span>(B2)</span></th> <td> <div>4%</div> 0.048 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Niacin<span>&nbsp;</span><span>(B3)</span></th> <td> <div>6%</div> 0.854 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Vitamin B<span>6</span></th> <td> <div>7%</div> 0.088 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Folate<span>&nbsp;</span><span>(B9)</span></th> <td> <div>7%</div> 27 μg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Vitamin C</th> <td> <div>25%</div> 20.6 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Minerals</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b><span><abbr title="Percentage of Daily Value"><b>%DV</b></abbr><sup>†</sup></span></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Calcium</th> <td> <div>2%</div> 16 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Iron</th> <td> <div>2%</div> 0.27 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Magnesium</th> <td> <div>6%</div> 21 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Phosphorus</th> <td> <div>4%</div> 27 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Potassium</th> <td> <div>6%</div> 271 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Sodium</th> <td> <div>1%</div> 14 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Zinc</th> <td> <div>4%</div> 0.34 mg</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row"><b>Other constituents</b></th> <td><b>Quantity</b></td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Water</th> <td>60 g</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"><hr> <div class="wrap">Full Link to USDA Database entry</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"> <div class="plainlist"> <ul> <li>Units</li> <li>μg =<span>&nbsp;</span>micrograms&nbsp;• mg =<span>&nbsp;</span>milligrams</li> <li>IU =<span>&nbsp;</span>International units</li> </ul> </div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" class="wrap"><sup>†</sup>Percentages are roughly approximated using<span>&nbsp;</span>US&nbsp;recommendations<span>&nbsp;</span>for adults.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Raw cassava is 60% water, 38%<span>&nbsp;</span>carbohydrates, 1%<span>&nbsp;</span>protein, and has negligible<span>&nbsp;</span>fat<span>&nbsp;</span>(table).<sup id="cite_ref-fao_28-0" class="reference">[28]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>In a 100 gram amount, raw cassava provides 160<span>&nbsp;</span>calories<span>&nbsp;</span>and contains 25% of the<span>&nbsp;</span>Daily Value<span>&nbsp;</span>(DV) for<span>&nbsp;</span>vitamin C, but otherwise has no<span>&nbsp;</span>micronutrients<span>&nbsp;</span>in significant content (no values above 10% DV; table). Cooked cassava starch has a<span>&nbsp;</span>digestibility<span>&nbsp;</span>of over 75%.<sup id="cite_ref-fao_28-1" class="reference">[28]</sup></p> <p>Cassava, like other foods, also has<span>&nbsp;</span>antinutritional<span>&nbsp;</span>and toxic factors. Of particular concern are the<span>&nbsp;</span>cyanogenic glucosides<span>&nbsp;</span>of cassava (linamarin<span>&nbsp;</span>and<span>&nbsp;</span>lotaustralin). On hydrolysis, these release<span>&nbsp;</span>hydrocyanic acid (HCN).<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2017)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>The presence of cyanide in cassava is of concern for human and for animal consumption. The concentration of these antinutritional and unsafe glycosides varies considerably between varieties and also with climatic and cultural conditions. Selection of cassava species to be grown, therefore, is quite important. Once harvested, bitter cassava must be treated and prepared properly prior to human or animal consumption, while sweet cassava can be used after simply boiling.</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Comparison_with_other_major_staple_foods">Comparison with other major staple foods</span></h3> <p>A<span>&nbsp;</span>comparative table<span>&nbsp;</span>shows that<span>&nbsp;</span>cassava is a good energy source. In its prepared forms in which its toxic or unpleasant components have been reduced to acceptable levels, it contains an extremely high proportion of starch. Compared to most staples however, cassava accordingly is a poorer dietary source of protein and most other essential nutrients. Though an important staple, its main value is as a component of a balanced diet.</p> <p>Comparisons between the nutrient content of cassava and other major<span>&nbsp;</span>staple foods<span>&nbsp;</span>when raw,<span>&nbsp;</span>as shown in the table, must be interpreted with caution because most staples are not edible in such forms and many are indigestible, even dangerously poisonous or otherwise harmful.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2017)">citation needed</span></i>]</sup><span>&nbsp;</span>For consumption, each must be prepared and cooked as appropriate. Suitably cooked or otherwise prepared, the nutritional and antinutritional contents of each of these staples is widely different from that of raw form and depends on the methods of preparation such as soaking, fermentation, sprouting, boiling, or baking.<strong><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassava" target="_blank" title="Source WIKIPEDIA Cassava" rel="noreferrer noopener"></a></strong></p><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
P 445
Cassava, Yuca, Macaxeira, Mandioca, Aipim Seeds 3 - 6

Variety from Japan
Yubari King Melon Seeds The most expensive fruit on the World 7.45 - 1

Yubari King Melon Seeds

Price €4.95 (SKU: V 2)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>Yubari King Melon Seeds The most expensive fruit on the World</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 5, 10, 50 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>TOKYO A remarkably sweet canteloupe auctioned in Japan fetched a record $12,000, making it one of the most expensive canteloupes ever sold in the country.</p> <p>In a society where melons are a luxury item commonly given as gifts the jaw-dropping auction last month shocked everyone! At that auction, a pair of "Yubari" cantaloupe melons sold for a record $23,500. Wikipedia Yubari</p> <p>A pair of cantaloupes from the bankrupt city of Yubari, Hokkaido, fetched a whopping 2 million yen at the first auction of the season at the Sapporo central wholesale market, the Japan Agricultural Cooperative's Yubari unit said. The price paid by Marui Imai Inc., a Sapporo-based department store, for the upmarket produce surpassed the previous record of 800,000 yen for two cantaloupes, JA Yubari said. "Perhaps the city's designation as a financially rehabilitating entity ironically helped generate an advertising effect," said a spokesperson for the former coal town, which went bankrupt last year. "This will encourage the city a lot."</p> <p>The two melons were put on display at Marui Imai's flagship outlet priced at 1 million yen apiece. Yoshikazu Hoshino, 59, a purchasing officer at the department store, said the cantaloupes were more for publicity than profit. "We were bullish in the bidding because we're celebrating our 135th anniversary this year. We wanted as many customers as possible to see them," he said. One of the million-yen fruits has already been sold, the store said. Other shoppers were stunned by the price.</p> <p>"It's not a price I can afford," said Ryoko Hino, a 79-year-old shopper.</p> <p>So the Yubari King costs generally from 100 to 1000 € / piece.</p> <p>How to Cultivate Yubari King Melon</p> <p>Side Selection</p> <p>Try to plant in a location that enjoys full sun and remember to water often. Keep in mind when planting that Yubari King is thought of as hardy, so this plant will survive close to or on freezing temperatures.</p> <p>Soil</p> <p>The soil the melons are grown in is volcanic ash. It's not what's in the volcanic soil, but how the soil behaves. It lets growers there easily control the temperature of the soil, and the ash lets water quickly drain through, allowing for the top to remain dry, which promotes the size of the melons. Yubari King needs a potting mix soil with a ph of 6.1 to 7.5 (weakly acidic soil to weakly alkaline soil). You just buy a bag of compost and add it to your soil to feed your plants. It is not only better for them, it is also cheaper.</p> <p>Seeding:</p> <p>Try to aim for a seed spacing of at least 1.89 feet (58.0 cm) and sow at a depth of around 0.5 inches (1.27 cm). Soil temperature should be kept higher than 21°C / 70°F to ensure good germination. By our calculations, you should look at sowing Yubari King about 14 days before your last frost date.</p> <p>Ensure that temperatures are mild and all chance of frost has passed before planting out, as Yubari King is a hardy plant.</p> <p>Planting</p> <p>Melon is planted in February. The first ones are ready to harvest 105 days after planting. The growing season ends in early September. Cutaway any diseased or pest damaged leaves first. This will enable the plant to put all of its energy into making a great Melon instead of making more leaves. Melons are an annual, not a perennial. They can grow more than 1 harvest but the first is always the best but if you have an heirloom and need the extra seed then let more fruit set after your first harvest. DO NOT let fruit set until AFTER your first harvest so all of the plant's energy (sugars) go into the Melon(s) on the vine.</p> <p>At long last, to see flowers appearing on the vines, which means melons are on their way! It seems like it takes forever but really it only has been a little over a month or so.</p> <p>Watering and Fertilizer You have covered this in the past but things change when the melons start to grow. You should water them every other day if your soil is well-drained. Keep an eye on the top of the soil and water when the top is dry to a depth of about ½ inch. There should never be a fear of overwatering if your soil drains well and containers have holes for excess water to leave from. Remember, very dry soil sheds water like a Ducks back. It will take time for the water to soak into the soil and you will have a lot of run-offs until it rehydrates. Never water with cold water since it will shock the plant a little and may slow growth or development of fruit. You may need to water every other day with 1 gal of water for every 4 cubic feet of growing medium but you might decide that you want to waterless. Your local weather will also play a role.</p> <p>If you started with a soil mix of compost, you should not need to fertilize your plants. You can do, however, like to add ½ tsp of Super Thrive to every 2 gallons of water. This will help them resist pests and develop much stronger. After the fruit gets to the size of a grapefruit You can use only water until harvest.</p> <p>Pollinate</p> <p>Melons will not appear out of anywhere. There needs to be a male and female flower for the Melon to form. The fruit will grow from the female flower. Male flowers are the first to appear on the plant. If you have other Melons growing in your yard then you might consider covering the Ichiba Kouji with a mosquito net to keep bees from pollinating your other melons, especially if they are an heirloom. When the female flowers appear, take a male flower and place it inside the female flower or use a small dust brush and swab the inside of the male flower and then swab the female flower to pollinate. You can also let bees do this for you if you wish. Only 2 Melons (at most) should be grown on the vine at a time. Each plant should yield 4 or more Melons if you let them but they will be smaller and lower quality. “I must sacrifice the others to make the best one possible.” - Japanese Melon Grower The Japanese master growers hand pollinate three flowers and let them get to about the size of a baseball, then select the best one and let only that one grow. The others can be chopped up and added to the compost pile.</p> <p>When Melons burst!</p> <p>The inside of the melon is growing so fast that the outside can’t keep up so a crack forms. At this point, the plant's sugars flow out to cover the crack and heal the melon. This is supposed to happen, in fact, if it doesn’t your doing something wrong. This is what forms the reticulation or netting. The finer the reticulation is, the juicier the inside is.</p> <p>“If the reticulation is great, the inside is great too.” – Japanese Melon Judge</p> <p>If you don’t make good netting, then you don’t make a good melon. This is where art makes an entrance. It is something that you’re going to have to experiment with to get the melon just the way you like them. If you just set it on the ground, then the melon will not form a perfect circle and the netting may be affected, not to mention bugs getting into them. If you put them on a trellis then the juices may not be evenly distributed or may become misshapen or even caught inside the trellis if you’re not careful. This is why you can use them to hang the melon so that it would not be disturbed.</p> <p>Harvesting</p> <p>After the cracking is over with and the melon is healed it is time for the next technique. Several times until you’re ready to harvest, you need to put on some cotton work gloves and rub firmly all around the melon. You should do this twice a week. For example Monday and Thursday. The reason for doing this is to make the Melon sweeter.</p> <p>“This is called Tama Fuki. It stimulates the melon and adds sweetness.” – Japanese Melon Grower</p> <p>Melons are hard to tell when they are ripe. They stay green and on the vine. So how do you know when they are ready? </p> <p>    1. The stem is “green and strong” (dry)</p> <p>     2. The bottom of the Melon is “flexible” (slightly soft)</p> <p>     3. It should feel heavier than it looks.</p> <p>     4. You should smell the Melon aroma when in close proximity.</p> <p>Pest and Diseases:</p> <p>Quality</p> <p>To most Americans, your melon will taste just like a regular melon. A really good melon but unless they know what they have in their hands then they will most likely overlook the quality. Only when they bite into a regular store-bought melon will they realize what they once held. The quality of your melon can be seen without cutting it open. If you look at a store-bought melon, you will see that the “netting” or reticulation is very fine or small. A great melon will have more pronounced or thicker lines in the reticulation. This quality level depends mostly on the watering schedule that is set. Personally we found that watering every other day to work best in my area but that may change depending on your climate. Remember that melons come from a desert environment. We wish you luck in your melon growing adventures!</p> </body> </html>
V 2 5-S
Yubari King Melon Seeds The most expensive fruit on the World 7.45 - 1
Giant Blackberry Seeds (Rubus fruticosus) 1.85 - 3

Giant Blackberry Seeds...

Price €1.85 (SKU: V 126)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <div id="idTab1" class="rte"> <h2><strong>Giant Blackberry Seeds (Rubus fruticosus)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 10 or 20 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><strong>This variety produces extremely large fruits weighing 10 grams per fruit.</strong></p> <p>Triple Crown Blackberry Seeds . The healthful benefits are many , rich in vitamin C , vitamin K , B vitamin , Omega-3 , Manganese .  Antioxidant strength at top of more than 1000 antioxidant foods consumed in the U.S.</p> <p><strong>Wikipedia:</strong></p> <p>The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by many species in the Rubus genus in the Rosaceae family, hybrids among these species within the Rubus subgenus, and hybrids between the Rubus and Idaeobatus subgenera. What distinguishes the blackberry from its raspberry relatives is whether or not the torus (receptacle or stem) 'picks-with' (i.e. stays with) the fruit. When picking a blackberry fruit, the torus does stay with the fruit. With a raspberry, the torus remains on the plant, leaving a hollow core in the raspberry fruit. The term 'bramble', a word meaning any impenetrable scrub, has traditionally been applied specifically to the blackberry or its products,[1] though in the United States it applies to all members of the Rubus genus. In the western US, the term caneberry is used to refer to blackberries and raspberries as a group rather than the term bramble.</p> <p>The usually black fruit is not a berry in the botanical sense of the word. Botanically it is termed an aggregate fruit, composed of small drupelets. It is a widespread and well-known group of over 375 species, many of which are closely related apomictic microspecies native throughout Europe, northwestern Africa, temperate western and central Asia and North and South America.</p> <p><strong>Growth and anatomical description</strong></p> <p>Blackberries are perennial plants which typically bear biennial stems ("canes") from the perennial root system.</p> <p>In its first year, a new stem, the primocane, grows vigorously to its full length of 3–6 m (in some cases, up to 9 m), arching or trailing along the ground and bearing large palmately compound leaves with five or seven leaflets; it does not produce any flowers. In its second year, the cane becomes a floricane and the stem does not grow longer, but the lateral buds break to produce flowering laterals (which have smaller leaves with three or five leaflets).[3] First- and second-year shoots usually have numerous short-curved, very sharp prickles that are often erroneously called thorns. These prickles can tear through denim with ease and make the plant very difficult to navigate around. Prickle-free cultivars have been developed. Recently the University of Arkansas has developed primocane fruiting blackberries that grow and flower on first-year growth much as the primocane-fruiting (also called fall bearing or everbearing) red raspberries do.</p> <p>Unmanaged mature plants form a tangle of dense arching stems, the branches rooting from the node tip on many species when they reach the ground. Vigorous and growing rapidly in woods, scrub, hillsides, and hedgerows, blackberry shrubs tolerate poor soils, readily colonizing wasteland, ditches, and vacant lots.</p> <p>The flowers are produced in late spring and early summer on short racemes on the tips of the flowering laterals.[3] Each flower is about 2–3 cm in diameter with five white or pale pink petals.[3]</p> <p>The drupelets only develop around ovules that are fertilized by the male gamete from a pollen grain. The most likely cause of undeveloped ovules is inadequate pollinator visits.[5] Even a small change in conditions, such as a rainy day or a day too hot for bees to work after early morning, can reduce the number of bee visits to the flower, thus reducing the quality of the fruit. Incomplete drupelet development can also be a symptom of exhausted reserves in the plant's roots or infection with a virus such as Raspberry bushy dwarf virus.</p> <p>In botanical terminology, the fruit is not a berry but an aggregate fruit of numerous drupelets.</p> <p><strong>Ecology</strong></p> <p>Blackberry leaves are food for certain caterpillars; some grazing mammals, especially deer, are also very fond of the leaves. Caterpillars of the concealer moth Alabonia geoffrella have been found feeding inside dead blackberry shoots. When mature, the berries are eaten and their seeds dispersed by several mammals, such as the red fox and the Eurasian badger, as well as by small birds.</p> <p>Blackberries grow wild throughout all parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland. They are an important element in the ecology of those countries. Harvesting the berries is a popular pastime in these countries. However, it is also considered an invasive weed, sending down its strong suckering roots amongst garden hedges and shrubs. In some parts of the world, such as in Australia, Chile, New Zealand, and the Pacific Northwest of North America, some blackberry species, particularly Rubus armeniacus (syn. R. procerus, 'Himalaya') and Rubus laciniatus ('Evergreen'), are naturalised and considered an invasive species and a serious weed.</p> <p>The blackberry tends to be red during its unripe ("green") phase, leading to an old expression that "blackberries are red when they're green".</p> <p>In various parts of the United States, wild blackberries are sometimes called "Black-caps", a term more commonly used for black raspberries, Rubus occidentalis.</p> <p>As there is forensic evidence from the Iron Age Haraldskær Woman that she consumed blackberries some 2500 years ago, it is reasonable to conclude that blackberries have been eaten by humans over thousands of years.</p> <p><strong><em>Uses</em></strong></p> <p><strong>Food</strong></p> <p>The soft fruit is popular for use in desserts, jams, seedless jelly, and sometimes wine. It is often mixed with apples for pies and crumbles. Blackberries are also used to produce candy.</p> <p>Good nectar producers, blackberry shrubs bearing flowers yield a medium to dark, fruity honey.</p> <p><strong>Phytochemical research</strong></p> <p>Blackberries contain numerous phytochemicals including polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, salicylic acid, ellagic acid, and fiber.[7][8] Anthocyanins in blackberries are responsible for their rich dark color.</p> <p>Phytochemical components of blackberries, salicylic acid and ellagic acid have been associated in preliminary research with toxicity to cancer cells,[9][10] including breast cancer cells.</p> <p>Blackberries rank highly among fruits for in vitro antioxidant strength, particularly because of their dense content of polyphenolic compounds, such as ellagic acid, tannins, ellagitannins, quercetin, gallic acid, anthocyanins, and cyanidins.[12][13] One report placed blackberry at the top of more than 1000 antioxidant foods consumed in the United States.</p> <p><strong>Nutrients</strong></p> <p>Blackberries are notable for their high nutritional contents of dietary fiber, vitamin C, vitamin K, and the essential mineral manganese.</p> <p>Blackberries have both soluble and insoluble fiber.[15] One cup of blackberries (144 g) has an average of 7.6 g of fibre and contains half the daily recommended dose of vitamin C.[8] Dietary fiber is important in maintaining a healthy digestive system, as it supports regular bowel movements.</p> <p><strong>Nutrient content of seeds</strong></p> <p>Blackberries contain numerous large seeds that are not always preferred by consumers. The seeds contain oil rich in omega-3 (alpha-linolenic acid) and -6 fats (linoleic acid) as well as protein, dietary fiber, carotenoids, ellagitannins and ellagic acid.</p> <p><strong><em>Cultivation</em></strong></p> <p><strong>Commercial cultivation</strong></p> <p>Worldwide, Mexico is the leading producer of blackberries, with nearly the entire crop being produced for export into the off-season fresh markets in North America and Europe. The Mexican market is almost entirely from the cultivar 'Tupy' (often spelled 'Tupi', but the EMBRAPA program in Brazil from which it was released prefers the 'Tupy' spelling.). In the US, Oregon is the leading commercial blackberry producer, producing 42.6 million pounds on 6,180 acres (25.0 km2), in 1995[17] and 56.1 million pounds on 7,000 acres (28 km2) in 2009.</p> <p>Numerous cultivars have been selected for commercial and amateur cultivation in Europe[2] and the United States.[19] Since the many species form hybrids easily, there are numerous cultivars with more than one species in their ancestry.</p> <p>'Marion' (marketed as "marionberry") is an important cultivar that was selected from seedlings from a cross between 'Chehalem' and 'Olallie' (commonly called "olallieberry") berries.[20] 'Olallie' in turn is a cross between loganberry and youngberry. 'Marion', 'Chehalem' and 'Olallie' are just three of many trailing blackberry cultivars developed by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) blackberry breeding program at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon.</p> <p>The most recent cultivars released from this program are the prickle-free cultivars 'Black Diamond', 'Black Pearl', and 'Nightfall' as well as the very early-ripening 'Obsidian' and 'Metolius'. 'Black Diamond' is now the leading cultivar being planted in the Pacific Northwest. Some of the other cultivars from this program are 'Newberry', 'Waldo', 'Siskiyou', 'Black Butte', 'Kotata', 'Pacific', and 'Cascade'.</p> <p>Trailing blackberries are vigorous and crown forming, require a trellis for support, and are less cold hardy than the erect or semi-erect blackberries. In addition to the United States's Pacific Northwest, these types do well in similar climates such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Chile, and the Mediterranean countries.</p> <p>Semi-erect, prickle-free blackberries were first developed at the John Innes Centre in Norwich, UK, and subsequently by the USDA-ARS in Beltsville, Maryland. These are crown forming and very vigorous and need a trellis for support. Cultivars include 'Black Satin' 'Chester Thornless', 'Dirksen Thornless', 'Hull Thornless', 'Loch Ness', 'Loch Tay', 'Merton Thornless', 'Smoothstem', and 'Triple Crown'. Recently, the cultivar 'Cacanska Bestrna' (also called 'Cacak Thornless') has been developed in Serbia and has been planted on many thousands of hectares there.</p> <p>The University of Arkansas has developed cultivars of erect blackberries. These types are less vigorous than the semi-erect types and produce new canes from root initials (therefore they spread underground like raspberries). There are prickly and prickle-free cultivars from this program, including 'Navaho', 'Ouachita', 'Cherokee', 'Apache', 'Arapaho', and 'Kiowa'. They are also responsible for developing the primocane fruiting blackberries such as 'Prime-Jan' and 'Prime-Jim'.</p> <p>In raspberries, these types are called primocane fruiting, fall fruiting, or everbearing. 'Prime-Jim' and 'Prime-Jan' were released in 2004 by the University of Arkansas and are the first cultivars of primocane fruiting blackberry.[22] They grow much like the other erect cultivars described above, however the canes that emerge in the spring, will flower in mid-summer and fruit in late summer or fall. The fall crop has its highest quality when it ripens in cool mild climate such as in California or the Pacific Northwest.</p> <p>'Illini Hardy' a semi-erect prickly cultivar introduced by the University of Illinois is cane hardy in zone 5, where traditionally blackberry production has been problematic, since canes often failed to survive the winter.</p> <p>Blackberry production in Mexico has expanded enormously in the past decade. While once based on the cultivar 'Brazos', an old erect blackberry cultivar developed in Texas in 1959, the Mexican industry is now dominated by the Brazilian 'Tupy' released in the 1990s. 'Tupy' has the erect blackberry 'Comanche', and a "wild Uruguayan blackberry" as parents.[23] Since there are no native blackberries in Uruguay, the suspicion is that the widely grown 'Boysenberry' is the male parent. In order to produce these blackberries in regions of Mexico where there is no winter chilling to stimulate flower bud development, chemical defoliation and application of growth regulators are used to bring the plants into bloom.</p> <p><strong>Diseases and pests</strong></p> <p>As a result of blackberries belonging to the same genus as raspberries,[24] they share the same diseases including anthracnose which can cause the berry to have uneven ripening and sap flow may also be slowed.[25][26] They also share the same remedies including the Bordeaux mixture,[27] a combination of lime, water and Copper(II) sulfate.[28] The rows between blackberry plants must be free of weeds, blackberry suckers and grasses which may lead to pests or diseases.[29] Fruit growers are selective when planting blackberry bushes as wild blackberries may be infected[29] and gardeners are recommended to purchase only certified disease-free plants.</p> <p>The spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii is a serious pest of blackberries.[31] Unlike its vinegar fly relatives which are primarily attracted to rotting or fermented fruit, D. suzukii attacks fresh, ripe fruit by laying eggs under the soft skin. The larvae hatch and grow in the fruit, destroying the fruit's commercial value.</p> <p>Another pest is Amphorophora rubi, known as the Blackberry Aphid, which not only eats blackberries but raspberries as well.</p> <p> Byturus tomentosus (Raspberry beetle), Lampronia corticella (Raspberry Moth) and Anthonomus rubi (Strawberry blossom weevil) are also known to infest blackberries.</p> <p><strong>Folklore</strong></p> <p>Folklore in the United Kingdom is told that blackberries should not be picked after Old Michaelmas Day (11 October) as the devil has claimed them. There is some value behind this legend as wetter and cooler weather often allows the fruit to become infected by various molds such as Botryotinia which give the fruit an unpleasant look and may be toxic.</p> </div> </body> </html>
V 126
Giant Blackberry Seeds (Rubus fruticosus) 1.85 - 3
German Extra Hardy Garlic cloves 2.95 - 3

German Extra Hardy Garlic...

Price €2.95 (SKU: P 416 GEH)
,
5/ 5
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> </head> <body> <h2><strong>German Extra Hardy Garlic cloves</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for 10 Garlic cloves</strong></span></h2> <p>German Extra Hardy, is also known as German White, Northern White and German Stiffneck is a large, beautiful and well-formed porcelain garlic. These are all the same garlic but grown in different places under different names. Its flavor is very strong and robust and sticks around for a long time.</p> <p>The average weight of garlic cloves 5-6 g.</p> <p>From a grower's perspective, it is a tall dark green plant and is a very good survivor, usually grows healthy and appears to be somewhat resistant to many of the diseases that can affect garlic. It originally came from Germany but grows well in all but the most southerly states, where it is marginal.</p> <p>Being a Porcelain, German Extra Hardy stores a long time at cool room temp for around 9-10 months or longer.</p> </body> </html>
P 416 GEH
German Extra Hardy Garlic cloves 2.95 - 3

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